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TABLE 11.-TEMPORARY IDLENESS OF MEMBERS OF LABOR ORGANIZATIONS, BY INDUSTRIES.

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TABLE 12.-PERCENTAGE OF UNEMPLOYED MEMBERS OF LABOR UNIONS IN THE PRINCIPAL

CITIES.

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277)

CAUSE.
1901. 1902. 1903. 1904. 1905. 1901. 1902 1903. 1904. 1905.

A. End of March.
Lack of work...... 30,988 23,667 23,997 34,685 28,759 73.4 64.5 57.2 33.3 52.4
Lack of material...

534 1,213 1,343 0.71

1.3 1.2 8,168 {

2.4

22.2 The weather. 6,545 8,550 36,600 16,005 15.5

20.4 35.2

29.1 Labor disputes.. 866 1,051 4,470 25,723 4,814 2.1 2.8

10.7 24.7 8.8 Disability..

2,461 2,446 3,344 3,898 2,942 5.8 6.7 8.0 3.8 5.4 Other causes..

575 1,281 905 1,573 794 1.3 3.5 2.1 1.5 1.4 Reason not stated. 532 97

141

303 259 1.2 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.5 Total........

42,244 36,710 41,941 103,995 54,916 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0

B. End of September. Lack of work...... 11,259 10,430 18,528 21,718 11,525 60.5 56.8 53.9 58.0 62.5 Lack of material... 1,349

852 952 655

7.21

2.5 2.5 3.6 2,309 {

12.61 The weather..... 418

677 968 739 2.2

2.0 2.6 4.0 Labor disputes.. 2,973 2,301 10,153 10,593 2,403 16.0 12.5 29.5 28.4 13.0 Disability... 1,851 2,279 1,993 1,873 2,577 9.9 12.4

5.8 5.0 14.0 Other causes. . 682 981 2.010 1,140

438

3.7 5.3 5.8 3.1 2.4 Reason not stated.

85
81
157 136

93

0.5 0.4 0.5 0.4 0.5 Total........ 18,617 18,381 34,370 37,380 18,430 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 TABLE 14.-CAUSES OF IDLENESS IN 1905 by INDUSTRIES.

Other
Lack Lack

Labor

or unof

of The dis- Disa- specified GROUPS OF TRADES.

work. stock, weather. putes. bility. reasons. Total.

A. End of March. 1. Building, stone working, etc. 12,679 1,120 8,220 3,210 803 375 26,407 2. Transportation....

1,415

7,055 81 436 253 9, 240 3. Clothing and textiles..

5,225 25

3 425

225 152 6,055 4. Metals, machinery, etc.

2,283 33 104

270

344 82 3,116 5. Printing, binding, etc.

1,525

41 434 78 2,078 6. Wood working, etc.

1,441
7
679 140

2,280 7. Food and liquors.

924
3

32 77 19 1,055 8. Theaters and music.

770

22 23

815 9 Tobacco....

601
88 437

221 28

1,375 0. Restaurants, retail trade.. 539

62 23 624 11. Public employment.

425

122

7 554 12, Stationary enginemen.

372.

3

15

7 397 13. Miscellaneous...

560
67 183
54 40 16

920

13

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II.

WAGES AND EARNINGS.

Table IV of the Appendix sets forth at some length the rates of wages in the various organized trades. In some trades the rate provided in the union scale is a standard rate and may be so recognized in formal agreements* between associations of employers and the unions, as is the case, for example, in all of the skilled building trades in New York and other cities. Where the union is able to secure such recognition for its scale, its rates are almost universally accepted throughout the locality. In other cases the union scale is accepted by a sufficient number of individual employers to make it the standard, while in still other instances the union scale may have been adopted by only a minority of the employers and yet stand as a fair expression of the “current,” “ going” or prevailing rate of wages. Some industries are still unorganized, even in the large cities. This is especially true in the case of industries partially carried on by female operatives. But so far as men's wages in trades requiring a moderate degree of skill are concerned, the unions' statistics of wage rates embrace the larger number of industries in manufacturing and transportation, with some representation in commerce and trade.

On the assumption that no significant changes were made in rates of wages, it is clear that the year 1905 would witness a general increase in the annual earnings of workingmen in consequence of the increased amount of employment which they enjoyed. As a matter of fact, such changes in wage rates as were made in 1905 were almost entirely advances. Thus, Table X of the Appendix containing the changes reported by trade unions, shows that 34,766, or about one-tenth of their members, obtained higher wages last year while only 286 had their wages reduced either by reduction of the hours of work or other cir. cumstance. A summary of the changes is given on the next page.

The increases noted above average only 30 cents a day for the 35,000 wage earners who received them; distributed among all organized wage workers, the advance would be less than 3 cents a day. But daily earnings are often increased without any change in the rate of wages; such being the case when workmen put in extra hours at a special overtime rate. Piece rates are often

*A number of these trade agreements are printed in the current report of the Bureau of Mediation and Arbitration, and where the wage scale amounts to a long list of prices on piece work it must be looked for in the agreement rather than in the table of rates.

TABLE 15.-SUMMARY TABLE OF CHANGES IN RATES OF WAGES

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