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both in exhortation, discipline, and example, that of exciting their congregations to the practice of almsgiving is not amongst the least Christian virtues that is valuable. In the Church, and in the porch of St. Peter in the East in Oxford, there were placed, by the advice of the present Bishop of Salisbury, when he was Vicar there, no less than seven alms-boxes, of a curious antique shape, with appropriate inscriptions, in which we understand twenty or thirty pounds have sometimes been deposited. That this example, set by this eminent prelate and his successor, the Rev. W. R. Hamilton, has been followed in several other parishes in other dioceses, we could testify from our personal knowledge.”—From the Bristol Journal.

CO-OPERATION OF THE POOR IN WORKS OF CHARITY.

From Chancellor Dealtry's Charge, in Hants, 1838. « The opinion sometimes expressed that it is a hardship upon the poor man to ask for his pecuniary co-operation in these works of mercy, has not been borne out by experience. On the contrary, it has been found, that wherever there exists true Christian principle, even in the poorest cottage, there is also a cheerful readiness to give; it has been proved that the habit of saving even one penny a-week for a religious object, instead of bringing injury to the poor, has led many to habits of frugality and order, and conduced the permanent improvement of their condition; and when to these facts we add the comfort and satisfaction of mind, which even the most indigent can derive from participating in works of Christian benevolence, it may reasonably be asked, whether they have not a right to expect that we should associate them with us, even in the most extensive operations of Christian charity ? Why are they to be excluded from these labours of love, because they can give but little? Why may they not have the benefit, and know that they have it, of those intercessions which ascend to heaven, from the devout colonist, and the converted heathen, in grateful return for blessings beyond all earthly estimate of value ?

CONCLUDING REMARKS. "In advocating the Replacing the Chest for the Poor in all Churches, it will be secn that I am not endeavouring to originate anything new, but simply to revive an ancient, godly, and charitable custom. And I see no reason, why individual clergymen may not immediately commence the plan in their own parishes, in obedience to the directions of the 84th Canon. And as it appears to be the prevailing wish of almost all classes of the community that the burden of the poor-rates should be lessened; what better substitute can be found for it, than this scriptural, ancient, and long tried method of collecting weekly at the church porch the charity of benevolent Christians, and placing it at the disposal of the official officers of the church to be disposed of by them for the benefit of the poor and deserving members of the church? The worshippers of God would then be seen as in the days of old, going up to the house of God to present their prayers and their alms. (Acts x. 4.) These sacred offerings would be felt to be made directly to the Lord, and the offerers without considering their deeds of charity deserving of praise or reward, might comfort themselves and one another with these words :

When the Son of Man shall come in his glory, and all the holy angels with him, then shall he sit on the throne of his glory: and before him shall be gathered all nations; and he

came unto me.

shall separate them one from another, as a shepherd divideth his sheep from the goats. And he shall set the sheep on his right hand, but the goats on the left. Then shall the King say unto them on his right hanıl, Come, ye blessed of my Father, inherit the kingdom prepared for you from the foundation of the world: for I was an hungred, and ye gave me meat; I was thirsty, and ye gave me drink; I was a stranger, and ye took me in; naked, and ye clothed me; I was sick, and ye visited me; I was in prison, and ye

Then shall the righteous answer him, saying, Lord, when saw we thee an hungred, and fed thee? or thirsty, and gave thee drink? When saw we thee a stranger, and took thee in ? or naked, and clothed thee? Or when saw we thee sick, or in prison, and came unto thee ? And the King shall answer and say unto them, Verily, I say unto you, Inasmuch as ye have done it unto one of the least of these my brethren, ye have done it unto me.' (Matt. xxv. 31–40.) On such passages as this the pious mind might rest, whilst the right hand cast in the sacred offering into the treasury of the Lord. Then, likewise should the poor be instructed to regard the Church's bounty, as a gift coming directly from the Lord, for which their gratitude and thanksgiving was due immediately to him, and that it was incumbent on them to show forth their thankfulness and their praise, not only with their lips, but in their lives.' And when there is a proper measure of gratitude felt towards the heavenly Benefactor, there will be no want of it toward those, whom God has appointed his ministers on earth for dispensing his bounty,

“Should the Church adopt on an extensive scale this system of charity, it would probably be found requisite to direct the more immediate attention of the Deacons of the Church to their more peculiar work of ministering to the temporal necessities of the sick, poor, and impotent people of the parish.' Such a church officer, faithfully labouring in such an important work, would be likely to have a very beneficial moral influence amongst the poor, and bring them to a regular and devout attendance on the ministry of the Church, which would be the greatest blessing to themselves and the country.

“Finally, if the Church is to be regarded as filling by Divine appointment, the parental office in reference to the poor, it is scarcely to be understood, how she ever so far forgot her parental affection and duty, as to consent to devolve this most interesting and important part of her work upon persons over whom she had no immediate control. The neglect of such a duty is quite sufficient to account for the Divine judgments which have been poured out on the Church for many years; nor have we any reasonable ground to expect that those judgments will be removed and a blessing vouchsafed, until the Church shall confess her sin, and return to the plain path of duty, by taking care of the deserving poor.

“May the Lord hear my prayer, and grant that the Church may become the rich man's almoner to the poor, blessing rich and poor, and uniting their hearts together in the fear of God."-From a “Second Letter to the Bishops and Parochial Clergy in behalf of the Deserving Poor," published by the Editor in the year 1839.

It is the intention of the Editor that the Second Number of the Advocate shall appear (D.v.) on the 1st of August. All communications connected with this publication are requested to be addressed, “To the Editor of the Deacon's Advocate, Norfolk House, Shirley, Southampton.”

TUCKER, PRINTER, SOUTHAMPTON.

ILLU

THE

ADVOCATE FOR THE RESTORATION OF THE ORDER

OF DEACON

ÍN THE CHURCH OF ENGLAND,

AND REPLACING THE CHEST FOR THE POOR IN ALL CHURCHES.

No. II.

AUGUST, 1817.

PRICE 6d.

DR. ADAM CLARKE ON THE OFFICE OF DEACON.

" Your Minister, or Deacon. “I know no other word which could at once convey the meaning of the original, and make a proper distinction between it and the Greek word translated servant, in verse 27. The office of a Deacon, in the primitive Church, was to serve in the agape, or love feasts; to distribute the bread and wine to the communicants; to proclaim different parts and tunes of worship in the Churches; and to take care of the widows, orphans, prisoners, and sick, who were provided for out of the revenues of the Church. Thus we find it was the lowest ecclesiastical office. Deacons were first appointed by the Apostles, Acts vi. 1-6: they had the care of the poor, and preached occasionally.”—From the Commentary on St. Matthew, xx. 26.

Ministry of the word," or, The Deaconship of the word." “The continual proclamation of the Gospel of their Lord; and, to make this effectual to the souls of the hearers, they must continue in prayer : a minister who does not pray much, studies in vain.

“ The office of Deacon came to the Christian from the Jewish Church. Every synagogue bad at least three Deacons, which were called parnasim, from parnes, to feed, nourish, support, govern. The parnus, or Deacon, was a sort of judge in the synagogue; and, in each, doctrine and wisdom were required, that they might be able to discern and give riyht judgment in things both sacred and civil. The chazan, and shamash, were also a sort o? Deacons. The first was the priest's deputy; and the last was, in some cases, the deputy of this deputy, or the sub-deacon.

“By referring to the Greek New Testament, it will be found that the Apostles are called Deacons—2 Cor. vi. 4; Eph. iii. 7; Col. i. 23: see also 2 Cor. xi. 15. Christ himself, the shepherd and bishop of souls, (in the Greek) is called the Deacon of the circumcision, Rom. xv. 8. As the word implies to minister or serve, it was variously applied, and pointed out all those who were employed in helping the bodies or souls of men, whether Apostles, Bishops, or those whom we call Dencons. Some remark that there were two orders of Deacons ::1. Deacons of the Table, whose business it was to take care of the alms collected in the church, and distribute them among the poor, widows, &c. 2. Deacons of the WORD, whose business it was to preach, and variously instruct the people. It scems that after the persecution raised against the apostolic church, in consequence of which they became dispersed, the deaconship of tables ceased, as did also the community of good;; and Philip, who was one of these Deacons, who at first served tables, betook himself entirely to preaching the word: see Acts viii. 4, &c. In the primitive church it is sufficiently evident that the Deacons gave the bread and wine in the Eucharist to the believers in the church, and carried it to those who were absent. They also preached, and in some cases adininistered baptism. But it appears they did the two last by the special authority of the Bishop. Deacons were ordained by thc Bishops by imposition of hands.

“ In the Church of England (the purest and nearest to the apostolical model in doctrine and discipline of all national churches) a Deacon receives ordination by the imposition of the hands of the Bishop, in consequence of which he can preach (if licensed by the Bishop,) assist in the sacrament of the Lord's supper, and in general perform any sacred office, except consecrating the elements, and

pronouncing the absolution.” Froin the Commentary on Acts vi. 4.

The Rev. Thomas Hartwell lIorne, in his “Introduction to the Critical Study and Knowledge of the Holy Scriptures," thus writes of Dr. Adam Clarke's Commentary : “The literary world in general, and Biblical students in particular, are greatly indebted to Dr. Clarke for the light he has thrown on many very difficult passages.”

AN ORDINATION SERMON BY TIIE LORD BISIIOP OF

BARBADOES.

DEACONS AND PRIESTS : THE CHURCH'S NEED OF BOTU.

“For they that have used the office of a dracon well, purchase to thmselves a good degrec, and great boldness in the faith which is in Christ Jesus."-1 Tix. iii. 13.

"Os several occasions similar to the present, I have thoug ht it right, instead of delivering a formal address in private to the caudida.es for holy crders,

which, from the smallness of their numbers, would often be incongruous, to charge myself with the duty of the public sermon or exhortation, prescribed by the Church as preliminary to ordination.

"1. The next subject that presents itself for consideration, is the office of a deacon, as curilicry and preparctory to the priesthood; and as on the present Crrasion we contemplate an ordination to each of the two offices, it cannot be otherwise than appropriate to consider them in their relation to each other. I trust, too, that the subject will prove interesting both to us of the ministry, and to our brethren of the people; but more especially I would bespenk the serious attention of the candidates about to be ordained : and, by the grace of Gud, may what I say be rendered profitable to thein, and to us all!

“The offices of priest and deacon, though distinct, are parts of the same divinely-ordained ininistry,' of which so much is said in the New Testament. Their ohject is one, even the edifying of the body of Christ;' and the functions by which they proserute this object are, in a manner, comnion to both, though not in the same order and degree; the one office being directive, the other subordinate"; the one having the pastoral care of souls, the other bearing an auxiliary part in this solemn work. The priest is commissioned to preach the word of God, and to minister the holy sacraments, together with the discipline of Christ, in the congregation to which he is lawfully appointed; whilst to the office of a deacon it apperiaineth to cssist the priest in Divine service, and especially when he minister to the holy communion, and to help them in the distribution thereof;' and in the absence of the priest, to baptize infants.'

" As regards public instruction in the word of God, the deacon is not to 'preach, unless he be' expressly .adınitted thereto by the bishop; but, by virtue of his ordination, he may read holy Scriptures and Homilies in the Church, and instruct the youth in the Catechisin. Another part of his duty is, to search for the sick, poor, and iinpotent people of the parish; to intimate their estates, names, and places where they dwell, into the curate,' (hat is, to the priest charged with the cure of souls,) 'that by his exhortations they may be relieved with the alms of the parishioners and others.'

* Thus, in every part of his office, we find the deacon commissioned to bear, not a separate and indlependent part, yet to bear a part, one subordinate and auxiliary, in all the duties of the parish-priest cr pastor: assisting him in Divine service and the administration of the holy sacraments, in the religious instruction of the lock, as well as in the care of the sick, poor, and impoten: : the presbyter having, in each of these ministrations, the chiet charge and direction.

** II. It cannot, however, be denied that, so far as relates to the distinction between the deacon and the priest, we seem fractically to have swerved in some degree from the Apostolic rule ; not so much from intention or choice, as from necessity, or at the worst, through occasional neglect. In our ordi. nations, indred, ihe distinction is still maintained in all its fulness; and it is observed also in the administration of the Lord's Supper; but in other respects, there is scarcely any difference ever made, especially by the laity, bei ween the one office and the other. A deacen, particularly it

' lie be of a forward temper, and what is commonly called eloquent, is quite as much held in feverence as a priest, even though the latter should be as much his superior in wisdom and piety.as in eccl:siastical order: wwilst by the clergy theinselves too much countenance is, sometimes, given to this errır, parily by the deacons, in assuming to themselves more than lelongs to their office, and speaking in the language of pastors’ rather than ot pastoral · helps ;' partly by the priest,

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