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Robert Boyle were cited as leading authors of the seventeenth ceotury: the writings of the former are full of keen observations ; the claims of the latter to originality were not great, but the benefits which his patronage conferred upon science were numerous and lasting. He brought Hooke into notice, and put him in the road to eminence. After a rapid glance at the discovery of the air-pump and barometer, Mr. Brande noticed the foundation of learned societies. The Academy del Cimento was established in - 3651 by the Duke of Tuscany; the Royal Society in 1662; and the Royal Academy of Sciences in 1666. Charles the Second, though not quite indifferent to the welfare of science, conferred but empty honours on the Royal Society ; but Louis the fourteenth was more generous to the Parisian establishment. This liberality is not only highly honourable to his memory, but in the eyes of the ingenious part of mankind has been regarded as no insignificant atonement for the multitudinous errors of his reigt. Happily for the scientific character of Britain, said the Professor, the genius, talents, and exertions of less exalted individuals base ever counterbalanced such advantages; and thus protected, the growth of science has been as vigorous, and perhaps more healthy than in the sunshine of royal favour.-The Lecture concladed with an eulogium on the chemical merits of Newton; with experimental illustrations of his views; and a recapitulation of the prominent events of the period. When alchemy was at its acme, during the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries, many useful members of society were entrapped by its golden prospects. Among them was that admirable artist, Mazzuoli of Parma, better known under the name of Parmegiano : sickness and beggary were the reward of him and his associates.-The zeal and activity in scientific par. suits, which has since marked its progress in Europe, became

manifest early in the seventeenth century, and the causes which · Mr. Brande unfolded, contributed to the splendor which it began

to acquire, about the end of that important æra, in the general history of the world - Mr. Brande's second Lecture embraced an account of the state of chemistry at the opening of the eighteenth century, in which the theories of combustion invented by Beccher, Stahl, Rey, and Mayow, were principally dwelt upon, and experimentally illustrated. The system of Beccher, as enlarged and embellished by bis pupil Stahl, supposes inflammable bodies to contain a peculiar volatile principle called phlogiston; flame is produced by the escape of this principle. Rey in 1630, and Mayow in 1674, objected to the conclusions upon which the phlogistic system was reared; for bodies in general, they observed, became heavier by combustion. Tin, lead, and other metals, burn when heated to redness; and the residuum, or result of combustion, is heavier than the metal they set out with. Combustion, therefore, said they, consists not in ine separation of pblogiston, but in the fixation of air; and substances refuse to burn wben air is excluded.--Mr. Brande illustrated these positions by many of the original and curious experiments detailed in Mayow's treatise on the nitro-uric spirit. In speaking of Rey's publication, the Professor observed that its present scarcity was enigmatical, it having been reprinted at Paris in 1777 ; but it contained many doctrines to which the new French theorists have laid claim, as he should prove in detailing the history of the antiphlogistic theory, when the neglected merits of Rey and Mayow would again call for attention. Having paid a just tribute of praise to the labours of Hales and Boerhaave, the founders of pneumatic chemistry, Mr. Brande gave an account of the invention of the thermometer, an instrument which tended materially to the progress of that difficult and refined branch of chemistry, relating to the nature and properties of heat. Santorio was the first who constructed the air ihermometer, which was much improved by Van Helmont. The Florentine Academicians used smaller tubes filled with spirits of wine; the instrument was perfected by the dexterous ingenuity of Fahrenheit, á bankrupt merchant of Vantzic. - The Lecture concluded with some observations upon the anomalous expansion of water under the 42d degree of Fabrenheit's scale, and its import. ance in retarding congelation.--" Chemistry," said Mr. Brande, * was tardy in its progress, until the period at which he had now arrived in its history; in the dross of the alchemical furnaces many scattered treasures were discovered, of which the value was greatly enhanced by arrangement and systematic combination : the science thus acquired a prosperous aspect it was applied to the arts, and to them it gave an unexpected and vigorous impulse; it was directed to the investigation of nature, and there it displayed pew beauties it found

• Tongues in trees, books in the running brooks,

Sermons in stones, and good in every thing." The Society of Apothecaries, of London, having completed several new arrangements in their Laboratories, in u bich steam is employed for the purposes of evaporation, distillation, &c. thuse professional gentlemen who are desirous of viewing the improvements are informed, that they will be open for their inspeciion on the second Tuesday in April, May, and June, between the hours of two and three o'clock in the afternoon.

Statement respecting the City Hospitals, read before the Lord Mayor and Aldermen, at the Anniversary Meeting on Easter Monday last, held at Christ Church, Newgate Street.

Christ's HOSPITAL. Children put forth Apprentices

169 Children bound last year

6 Children now under the care of the Hospital at Hertford

1053 and London. To be admitted on presentation

130

1351

ST. BARTHOLOMEW'S HOSPITAL. Patients admitted, cured and discharged last year Buried last year

9236

288 9:24

}

ST. THOMAS'S HOSPITAL. Cured and discharged last year-In-Patients

2769 Out Patients

6323 Remaining under cure- -In-Patients

411 Out Patients

316

9819 BRIDEWELL HOSPITAL. Vagrants committed by the Lord Mayor and Sitting

210 Aldermen Paupers sent to their Parishes

558 Apprentices now in the Hospital, brought up to divers?

S5 Trades

833 BETU LEM HOSPITAL. Distracted Men and Women, remaining

143 Cured and discharged

109 Buried

8 Now under Cure

119

379 The man who was wounded in the thigh by a knife cutting the femoral artery (Journal for February) is recovered without any secondary hæmorrhage or other untoward occurrence.

A new Work has been just published, entitled “ A Sketch of the Anatomy and Physiology of the Brain and Nervous System of Drs. Gall and Spurzheim, considered as comprebending a complete System of Zoonomy. With Observations on its Tendency to the Improvement of Education, of Punishment, and of the Treatment of Insanity. Re-printed from the Pamphleteer, with Additions. By Thomas Foster, F. L. S.”

Mr. GRAINGER, Surgeon of Birmingham, has a work in the press, on a new mode of opening the bladder in certain obstructions of the urethra and prostate gland ; and on a simple method of removing the tonsils from the throat; and other tumours from the accessible cavities of the body, &c. &c. It will be published early next month.

Sir JAMES FELLOWES intends publishing shortly some Reports on the Pestilential Fever of Spain; being the result of his observ. ations and inquiries into the origin and progress of that disorder in Andalusia in 1800, during a residence of five years in that country; and a particular detailed account will be given of the fatal Epidemic at Gibraltar in 1804, and of the two last at Cadiz in 1810 and 1813.

Dr. MERRIMAN will re-commence his Course of Lectures on Midwitery and the Diseases ot Woinen and Children, on Monday April the 10th, at the Middlesex Hospital.

DIED. - At Manchester, aged 51, John Ferriar, M. D. une of the Phy-icians to the General Infirmary of that town. Dr. F. was well known in the world of letters by his professional publi. cations, and also for being the first who detected the source from

which Sterne borrowed many of the ideas dispersed through his eccentric performances. His principal work, entitled, “ Medical Histories and Reflections," originally appeared in detached volumes; the first of which was published in 1792, the second in 1795, and the third in 1798. A second edition was given to the world in 1810, and a fourth volume was added in 1813. In 1799 Dr. F. published a small pamphlet “ On the Medical Properties of the Digitalis Purpurea, or Foxglove," 12mo. The last of the Doctor's literary performances was “ An Essay towards a Theory of Apparitions,” published in 1813.

METEOROLOGICAL REGISTER for JANUARY, 1814,

Kept at Harwich, in Essex.
By JOHN BAILEY, Surgeon, &c.

Atmospherical
Moon's Pressure. Temp. Wind. Remarks, General Statement:
Agc. Morn. Ev.

of Diseases. 1 30 1 30 2 35 NE Fine and clear C 2 3 3 35

NE ditto 3 3 1 31 NE ditto 4 1 30

34 NE ditto 5 30

34 N Snow Pertussis 6

35 N Dull
7 29 9 29 5 31 N

Fine Variola
8 45 7 35 NE ditto
9 9
8 29 NE Foggy

Varicella
10 8 71 40 W Rain, dull
11

6 37 NW G. of wind w.snow
12 8 30 32 NE ditto
13 30 29 73 29 W

sleety
14 29 7 9 35 NW

ditto 15 30 1 30 2 33 E

Dull 16 2 1 33 NE ditto 17 1 1 37 NE

ditto 18 30 30 32 NE

Snow
19 29 9 29 8 28 NE

ditto
20
71 29 E

ditto
21 73
71 31 E

ditto
22
8 29 N

ditto
23

27 NW

Dull
24
61 28 S

ditto O 25

30 N

Snow 26 4 2 24

SE

ditto 27 28 91 28 9 30

SE

Slcet & Snow 28 29

29 { 36 W Fine and clear 29 2 3 37 W

Dull 30 3 3 36 E

Fine 31 3 34 37 SE Foggy The list of atmospheric disease is this month a short one. Exemption from wet at this season of the year may be considered as the cause of this unusual healthiness.

[graphic]

MereØROLOGICAL Register for FEBRUARY, 1815.

Kept at Harrich, in Esser.
By JOHN BAILEY, Surgeon, &c.

Atmospherical
Moon's Pressure. Temp. Wind. Remarks. General Statemect
Age. Morn. Ev.

of Disease. 1 29 31 29 4 38 SE Sleety & Foggy 2 5 5 39 SE Fine and clear Pertussis 3 6 5 39 SE Rainy & dull 6 43 W Dull

Raucedo 5 8 9 43 SW Fine 6 71 6 40 SE Rainy & dull Tonsilitis 7 6 6 40 SE Cloudy 8 7 5) 39. SW Rain with Fog Ophthalmis 9

6 6 41 W Fine
10 63

6} 40 SE Rain, cloudy, & w.
11 5 3 42 SE dicto
12 41 42 43 SW Rain
13 5 5, 45 W ditto
14 53 5 43

Fine
15 6!
64 43

Foggy
16 5 9 43 V Rain with Fog
17 5 30 43

Showery
18 9 29 9 43 W Fine
19 30

7) 45

W Showery 20 29 6) 30 48 W Gale of wind 21 730

W Much Rain 22 30

1 49 W Cloudy 0 23 1 1 46

Fine 24 29 9 30

W

ditto 25 30

49 W Cloudy & windy 26

49 W Rain and windy 27 3

40 W Fine 28 4

41 SE ditto

$ 46

SW

46

Pulmonary disorders are the chief complaints of this month, and these do not pofsess their usual violence; the equable temperature of the air, and the steadiseis of its denfity, account in a great measure for their mildness. It has seldom been necessary to resort to blood-letting. DI. Huxham used to say, that when the mer. cury stood high in the baroscope, bleeding was always necessary, even in vivial aí. sections of the cheft. Subtracting somewhat from the theory of his day, when the Lancet had a wide range as a remediable agent in the cure of disease, this observation will be found a correct one ; for the pressure of the air shewn by the rising of the barometer,' accompanied by drying winds, for the most part induce, in the ari. mal frame, that state of ailmont denominated inflammatory. On the frontiers of this kingdom, this fact is more Atriking than in midland counties, because of the exposed nature of the situation in the first place, and of the hardy and toilsome avoca. tions of the lower classes of the community in the fecond.' Rheumatism of the acute kind, and inflammatory affections of the chest, are the most common disordere amongst mariners ; (I mean those who fail in coafting vessels) and the latter of these are more general when the mercury in the barometer stands steadily above thing

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