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together; in 1815 things came down a little, inviting sound of cheap bread, no corn laws. and he sold about £5000. worth ; in 1817, and low prices. Their tone is entirely 1818, 1819, he sold rather better than £ 6000. changed. They now look on the agriculworth; in 1820 about £5000. worth; in tural interest as their great purse; if the 1821 about £4000. worth; in 1822 and purse be full, they know they will come in 1823 about £3000. worth, and a little more for a share of it; if it is empty, they have than half of it paid for at Christmas. He learnt from sad experience they have no is a person of property, and in the habit of other purse to go to. Alas, they wanted giving credit - In 1824 be sold about £4000. no King's speech to tell them they had worth; in 1825 about £5000. worth, and found the bottom of the great agricultural had his bills paid up; nearly as it used to be money-box. before the depreciation. Since then his There is indeed an astonishing coincidence average has been about £3000. worth; and of opinion at this moment on the subject of because he had such heavy debts in his low prices—the sellers of the country, the book, on all his payments he gives a dis- sellers of labour, as well as the sellers of the count of five per cent; till within this last produce of labour, have learnt the salutary three months. Those that were taken on lesson, that their powers to buy depend on credit, he counted at about six months, and their powers to sell. And they are conhe allowed five per cent discount for cash vinced that if they cannot themselves sell, payments, and still he cannot get paid up it is useless other things being cheap for so well as he did at one part of his time. them to buy, when they have no returns
Do you know that shop-keeper well ?— wherewith to buy them. Yes; I see him nearly once a week.
We now despair less of our country: when It is scarcely necessary to state that du- all are agreed as to the cause of a disaster, ring 1823, 4 and 5, as well as 1817, 18, we may rely on a united effort to secure its prices were higher, because of a more ex- removal. The shop-keepers are mainly the tended circulating medium.
electoral body of towns: two Sessions of Let any impartial man go to the provin- the Reformed Parliament have shewn an cial towns throughout the country, and ask indisposition to do any thing effectual to rethe tradesmen whether their books will not lieve distress. We shall see if the present tell a similar tale to this related by Mr. conviction of the shop-keepers of the country Merry. We have enquired of many, and will not (without reference to Whig or with the same result. The chief trade of Tory) operate on their choice of members London is retail, but London owing to the to be sent to the next Parliament. We are fashion of resorting to it by country families, mistaken if their opinions on distress won't and by being the seat of the legislature, will be the main test applied to every cannecessarily feel distress the last; and yet didate.
y to what do we owe the remission of the house tax? To nothing else under Heaven than the distressed state of the shop-keepers
THE COTTON MANUFACTURE. of London. The taxation or low prices operating on members of the legislature and country families resorting to London, caused The rapid extension and increase of this them to spend less in London shops; the very important branch of our national inLondon shop-keepers then found that it dustry, is, perhaps, without parallel in the was their customers who had paid their taxa- history of manufactures, and more especially tion. They clamoured and besieged the within the last eighteen years; a period in Chancellor of the Exchequer until he could which bankruptcy, ruin, and distress have stand out no longer. It was high time for been greater, and the consequent complaints them to clamour, if their tale was true, that more general, than had been ever known in all the great thoroughfares from Regent- before. These disasters, moreover, befel street to St. Paul's, every third house had those engaged in this apparently prosperous been a bankrupt within the last twenty years. business. Every observer unacquainted with
They clamoured against the house tax; the facts of the case must have been struck but was it the house tax in particular they with surprise and astonishment at the conobjected to ? No; it was because at a fixed flicting opinions maintained on this subject. time the tax gatherer came round and they Statements of distress, with facts to prove could not evade him. Indirect taxation it, have been reiterated by the productive they could evade by denying themselves the class employed in this manufacture, on the indulgence of the articles on which it was one side; while " the thrice-told” tale of charged: but they could not pay hard cash prosperity has issued from another quarter out, where hard cash never came in. (here to be nameless), drawn solemnly from
The shop-keepers all over the country, figures, which shew an amazing increase in (except a few of them who saw further) till the exports of cotton manufactures. It will about three years ago, were seduced by the be our endeavour to point out the manner in
which this subject is treated by these par-' and aid of machinery or otherwise, should ties.
not be abused; and so surely as we take Mr. Fielden, the member for Oldham, in improperly from those who labour, and give a letter to Mr. Fitton, one of his constituents, it to those who do not labour, so surely will published about a year ago, inserts four a day of retribution and vengeance overtake tables, shewing the downward progress of the oppressors." A little farther on, in the the cotton manufacture, well worthy the same letter, Mr. Fielden proceeds, “I shall attention of all who feel interested in ac- be told, Sir, that this reasoning makes out quiring information on this subject. We a strong case for the repeal of the Corn shall give Mr. Fielden's own words, imme- Bill. I admit it; but such repeal ought to diately following his tables in the letter. be preceded by a large reduction of taxes : He says, "These tables present a history of and if the landed interest will not cause the works of those engaged in the cotton such reduction of taxes to be made, they trade for the eighteen years ending 1832; must have the Corn Bill wrested from them, and I have no hesitation in saying, that his- and take the consequences. The taxes press tory presents no parallel to a like increase so severely on those engaged in agriculture, of production, or to a like increase in the that, notwithstanding they get the little taking away from the producers, for the use clothing they can purchase so much cheaper, of those who do not produce. Industry is all the evidence taken on the subject tends deprived of its just reward; and, in the to shew that they are in a condition which midst of unexampled plenty, those who la- it is frightful to contemplate. They give at bour and toil, and that more effectually than least three quarters of wheat for the same any other people, are not allowed to have amount of taxes that could be paid with what is necessary to supply their wants. two quarters during the war; and this, with The fear of want increases, the hope of re- corn at the present price, I do not believe ward is blighted, and laudable individual they can do so much longer. selfishness is disappointed amongst those “But how do the taxes affect the manuwho toil, in more than the ratio of increase facturer with his increase of production ? of production; in fact, the harder they la- This is shewn in table No. 1, column 12, in bour—the more they produce, the less they which you will see that all living upon have.
fixed-money incomes, have experienced a " Whether we look to the products of progressive increase, in the command a given manual labour, as instanced in the case of sum of money has afforded them over mathe hand-loom weaver, or of manual labour, nufactured articles since 1815; that £3. at aided by the most improved machinery em- that period would only buy three pieces and ployed in the cotton trade, we find that, for one third, whereas, in 1832, the same sum a nearly three-fold quantity produced in would purchase ten pieces and two thirds, 1832, the manufacturers and their work- an increase of 220 per cent. drained out of people had a much less command over the the labour of the manufacturer.” first necessary of life than they had in 1815, The evidence of many respectable witfor little more than one third of the quantity. nesses before the Committee of ManufacTruly it may be said, we labour for that tures, Shipping, and Commerce, as future which is not bread, and spend our strength numbers will afford us the opportunity of for nought; while those who tax us and shewing, fully corroborates the statement of live on fixed money incomes, get an addi- decline given by Mr. Fielden. No sooner, tional increase of the fruits of our labour, however, was Parliament assembled in 1834, more than correspondent with the increase than the country was treated with a very of our production, and for which we receive different version of the state of manufacno equivalent whatever. And can this tures, in the speech from the throne, and in course of proceeding last? No, it cannot. the speech of Mr. Morrison, the member The manufacturers cannot go on in this for Ipswich, who seconded the Address. course much further, however disposed they Agricultural distress was deplored, and with might be to do so. Seventy parts out of too great reason, for two thirds of the farone hundred, constituting the whole for la- mers are insolvent; but manufactures were bour, expences, and profit, have departed declared to be in a state of progressive imbetween 1815 and 1832, both years inclu- provement. Mr. Morrison, to confirm this sive, and many parts more will be found to opinion, gratified his hearers with a flourishhave fled in 1833; and there is no possibility ing announcement of the increase of exports, of preventing the mass engaged in this bu- as instanced in cotton manufactures; the siness from being involved in one common cry of the prosperity of our manufacturing ruin, unless they retrace their steps. They interests was echoed by the press, and even are contending against nature. Providence our courts of law were made available to designed that the gifts she has bestowed on render as public as possible the pleasing and man for increasing his supply of the neces- joyous news. These two speeches made a saries and comforts of life, by the invention strong impression on the manufacturers out of doors, who declared that, in the year just in 1833, I found it to be 8 d. per lb. Then closed, a great many proprietors of cotton I reckoned thus :factories had only employed their hands three or four days a week during at least Cotton in 1833, 296,076,640 lbs. at 844. 10,640,254
Cotton in 1832, 262,221,780 lbs. at oid. 7,374,987 one fourth part of the year; that many failures had occurred, and that a continuance Paid more for the raw (foreign) mate
rial in 1833 of such prosperity would ruin many more.
From which deduct Mr. Morrison's An answer to Mr. Morrison, by a corres- boasted surplus
2,261,294 pondent in the Manchester and Salford Advertiser of the 15th February, 1834, is so Amount screwed out of the cotton
trade extra in 1833
£1,003,973 pertinent for exposing the fallacy of relying on an increase of exports as indicating a Besides having had to work this abundant state of prosperity among the producing supply of the raw material, according to Mr. classes in this manufacture, that we shall Morrison, 33,854,860 lbs. Aye, aye, I find close our remarks on this subject, in this where the surplus is gone; I see I have had number, by inserting the letter.
'neighbours' fare. The foreigner and the
speculator have pocketed it. PROSPERITY OF THE COTTON TRADE.
“Now I do really think we have neither To the Editor of the Advertiser. more of the raw material, nor of cotton A COTTON SPINNER V. MORRISON.
goods and yarn, in the kingdom at the end
of 1833, than we had at the end of 1832. I “Sir,—Having, according to custom, taken believe the whole production of 1833 has stock on 31st of December last, and thereby been absorbed either by a legitimate deseen how badly the trade of cotton spinning mand, or by the system of consignment and had paid in 1833, you may judge of my sur- advance; consequently all has been brought prise when I read Mr. Morrison's prosperity into the account. speech, on seconding the Address to his Ma- "My countrymen (I mean in this disjesty in the House of Commons. I became trict)—this puff has probably been put forth quite dissatisfied with my success in busi- to cheat you out of a reduction in taxation, ness, thinking I had not had 'neighbour's or a change in the Corn Laws; but the fare.' With this impression I sat down to most charitable construction that can be take stock for the trade generally, vastly put upon it is, sheer ignorance of the thing wondering where this excess of £2,261,294 they are speaking about. had gone to. As I have neither statistics “The trade in cotton spinning (if not in nor official documents to refer to, I will take manufacturing also) was at its climax in the thing up as Mr. Morrison has laid it 1822, 1823, and 1824; not as regards quandown. He says, the quantity of cotton en- tity, but as regards all the objects for which tered for home consumption
trade is carried on, namely wages anul profit.
Ibs. Since that period it has been woefully on In 1833 was
296,076,640 the wane; and I do not remember a time The same in 1832
262,221,780 when there was so small a sum of money
for making one pound weight of cotton into Increase 33,854,860
one pound of thirty hanks water twist, as in
January, 1834. “He then tells us that the declared value
" It was said by a former Chancellor of of cotton goods and yarn exported
the Exchequer, ‘Lancashire will uphold the In 1833 was
£19,659,672 revenue.' Let not my Lord Althorp lay The same in 1832
this flattering unction to his soul; for with
out an improvement in the value of trade, Excess in 1833 £2,261,294 Lancashire will fail him. Human ingenuity
and human industry have been exerted to “Yes, sure enough, here is the excess ; the utmost pitch, and still we find ourselves and, to persons unacquainted with the true unable to bear up under it. state of the case, would seem matter of con- “I am no politician, no regenerator ; I gratulation; but, from my own experience propose no remedy, but merely state that in the business, I was sure there was some- these things are so. My object in addressing thing wrong ;' that neither the cotton spin- this to you is, to prevent persons unacner, nor the manufacturer, nor the workman quainted with the cotton trade from running had got it. In order to ferret it out, I sat away with the idea that we are in a prosdown and looked over my Liverpool cotton perous condition, and so cry, 'Peace, peace,' brokers' circulars of the prices of good fair when there is no peace. upland cotton in 1832 and 1833. Taking the
“A COTTON SPINNER. price at thirty-six different periods (nearly
Ω. every week) in 1832, I found the average to “Manchester, September 11th, 1834." be 6d. per Ib.; doing the like forty times
A FABLE. The actual state of our sister isle will, of
THE WOOING OF MASTER FOX. course, engage our most attentive consi. Once upon a time " there was no partideration; its wants shall be made known; cular enmity between the various species of its fine resources developed; its condition brutes; the dog and the hare chatted very improved; this we shall be enabled to effect agreeably together, and all the world knows by our local knowledge of the counties of that the wolf, unacquainted with mutton, Ireland ; of which, for the present, we offer had a particular affection for the lamb. In the following view, and invite correspon- these happy days, two most respectable cats, dence from each province.
of very old family, had an only daughter;
never was kitten more amiable, or more seArea
ducing; as she grew up she manifested so in Counties.
Houses. Mouths. many charms, that she in a little while besq.
came noted as the greatest beauty in the miles. 1832 1832
neighbourhood; need I to you, dearest
Nymphalin, describe her perfections. SufDublin ..... 281 42570 379739 fice it to say that her skin was of the most Wicklow 788 18605 122301
delicate tortoise-shell, that her paws were Wexford 868 30011 182991
smoother than velvet, that her whiskers Carlow.. 346 13906 81649
were twelve inches long at the least, and that Kildare. 599 17432 111141
her eyes had a gentleness altogether astoKilkenny 760 30864 193432
nishing in a cat. But if the young beauty Longford.. 345 19377 112391
had suitors in plenty during the lives of Louth
220 22090 125546 Monsieur and Madame, you may suppose King's County 714 24370 148984
the number was not diminished, when, at Queen's Co... 581 23067 145843
the age of two years and a half, she was left Westmeath .. 586 25411 166883
an orphan, and sole heiress to all the hereEastmeath.... 829 28665 190309
ditary property. In fine, she was the richest
marriage in the whole country. Without Total ...... 6927 296369 1961109 troubling you, dearest Queen, with the ad
ventures of the rest of her lovers, with their Antrim.... 760
suit, and their rejection, I come at once to Armagh 332 39736 220653
the two rivals most sanguine of success ;Cavan 600 38982 228040
the Dog and the Fox.
"Now the Dog was a handsome, honest, Donegal 1493 49804 300694
straightforward, affectionate fellow ; ' For Londonderry . 630 39980 222416
my part,' said he, “I don't wonder at my Tyrone.... 931 54586 304247
cousin's refusing Bruin the bear, and GauntMonaghan.... 463 37381 195532
grim the wolf; to be sure they give themFermanagh 530 35856 147555
selves great airs, and call themselves 'noble,'
but what then ? Bruin is always in the Total....... 6421 412023 2353928 sulks, and Gauntgrim always in a passion;
a cat of any sensibility would lead a miserable Cork
2135 125318 857576 life with them: as for me, I am very good Kerry 1659 43095 263280
tempered when I'm not put out; and I have no Clare. 1141 40541
263262 fault except that of being angry if disturbed Limerick..... 678 43084 200080
at my meals. I am young and good-looking, Tipperary 1304 63796
406977 fond of play and amusement, and altogether Waterford.... | 480 24704 172519
as agreeable a husband as a cat could find in
a summer's day. If she marries me, well Total....... 7387 341438. 2163694 and good; she may have her property set
tled on herself—if not, I shall bear her no Galway. 2500 77367 429211
and I hope I shan't be too much in Leitrim.... 647
love to forget that there are other cats in Mayo.... 2001 56801 367961
the world.' Roscommon... 877 41788 246601
“With that the Dog threw his tail over Sligo..... 638 30704 171508
his back, and set off to his mistress with a
gay face on the matter. Total....... 16667 237919 1360738
"Now the Fox heard the Dog talking thus
to himself—for the Fox was always peeping Grand Total 27402 1287749 7839469 about in holes and corners, and he burst out It will be seen from the foregoing, how a-laughing when the Dog was out of sight. densely peopled Ireland is ; the total average ‘Ho, ho, my fine fellow,' said he, ‘not being 286 to the square mile, which is equal so fast, if you please; you've got the Fox to that of China, with its 368,000,000 mouths. 'for a rival, let me tell you.'
“ The Fox, as you very well know, is a his, an old Magpie that lived in a tree, and beast that can never do any thing without a was well acquainted with all the news of the manæuvre; and as, from his cunning, he place. “For,' thought Reynard, 'I may as was generally very lucky in any thing he well know the weak side of my mistress that undertook, he did not doubt for a moment is to be, and get round it at once.' that he should put the Dog's nose out of “The Magpie received the Fox with great joint. Reynard was aware that in love one cordiality, and inquired what brought him should always, if possible, be the first in the so great a distance from home. field, and he therefore resolved to get the "Upon my word,' said the Fox, 'nothing start of the Dog and arrive before him at the so much as the pleasure of seeing your ladyCat's residence. But this was no easy matter; ship, and hearing those agreeable anecdotes for though Reynard could run faster than you tell with so charming a grace; but, to the Dog for a little way, he was no match let you into the secret-be sure it don't go for him in a journey of some distance. farther'. However,' said Reynard, 'those good na- “On the word of a Magpie, interrupted tured creatures are never very wise; and I the bird. think I know already what will make him “ 'Pardon me for doubting you,' contibait on his way.'
nued the Fox; I should have recollected “With that, the Fox trotted pretty fast that a Pie was a proverb for discretion; but, by a short cut in the woods, and getting as I was saying, you know her majesty the before the Dog, laid himself down by a hole Lioness.' in the earth and began to howl most pi- “'Surely,' said the Magpie bridling. teously.
"'Well; she was pleased to fall in—that “ The Dog, hearing the noise, was very is to say-to-to-take a caprice to your much alarmed; 'See now,' said he, if the humble servant, and the Lion grew so jeapoor Fox has not got himself into some lous that I thought it prudent to decamp; a scrape. Those cunning creatures are always jealous Lion is no joke, let me assure your in mischief; thank heaven, it never comes ladyship. But mum's the word.' into my head to be cunning. And the “So great a piece of news delighted the good-natured animal ran off as hard as he Magpie. She could not but repay it in could to see what was the matter with the kind, by all the news in her budget. She Fox.
told the Fox all the scandal about Bruin and “'Oh dear!' cried Reynard; 'what shall Gauntgrim, and she then fell to work on I do, what shall I do! my poor little sister the poor young Cat. She did not spare her has gotten into this hole, and I can't get her foibles, you may be quite sure. The Fox out-she'll certainly be smothered.' And listened with great attention, and he learnt the Fox burst out a-howling more piteously enough to convince him, that however the than before.
Magpie exaggerated, the Cat was very sus“‘But my dear Reynard,' quoth the Dog ceptible to flattery, and had a great deal of very simply, 'why don't you go in after your imagination. sister ?'
“When the Magpie had finished, she said, “Ah, you may well ask that, said the ‘But it must be very unfortunate for you to Fox; but, in trying to get in, don't you be banished from so magnificent a court as perceive that I have sprained my back, and that of the Lion.' can't stir; oh dear! what shall I do if my 'As to that,' answered the Fox, 'I conpoor little sister gets smothered.'
soled myself for my exile, with a present “ 'Pray don't vex yourself,' said the Dog; his majesty made me on parting, as a reward * I'll get her out in an instant;' and with for my anxiety for his honour and domestic that he forced himself with great difficulty tranquillity; namely, three hairs from the into the hole.
fifth leg of the Amoronthologosphorus. Only “Now no sooner did the Fox see that the think of that, Ma’am.' Dog was fairly in, than he rolled a great “'The what ?' cried the Pie, cocking down stone to the mouth of the hole, and fitted it her left ear. so tight, that the Dog not being able to turn “ • The Amoronthologosphorus.' round and scratch against it with his fore- “ 'La!' said the Magpie, “and what is paws, was made a close prisoner.
that very long word, my dear Reynard ?' “ Ha, ha,' cried Reynard laughing out- “'The Amoronthologosphorus is a beast side; 'amuse yourself with my poor little that lives on the other side of the river sister, while I go and make your compli- Cylinx; it has five legs, and on the fifth leg ments to Mademoiselle the Cat.'
there are three hairs, and whoever has those “ With that Reynard set off at an easy three hairs, can be young and beautiful for pace, never troubling his head what became ever.' of the poor Dog. When he arrived in the " 'Bless me: I wish you would let me neighbourhood of the beautiful Cat's man- see them,' said the Pie, holding out her claw. sion, he resolved to pay a visit to a friend of “"Would that I could oblige you, Małam,