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U. Kingd.

but it's as much as my life's worth to show where he saw an immense Griffin sitting on them to any but the lady I marry. In fact, his tail, and smoking a huge pipe. they only have an effect on the fair sex, as

PILGRIMS OF THE Rhine. you may see by myself, whose poor person

(To be continued in our next.) they utterly fail to improve; they are, therefore, intended for a marriage present, and his majesty, the Lion, thus generously THE COLONIES OF GREAT BRITAIN. atoned to me for relinquishing the tenderness of his queen. One must confess that “Britannia needs no bulwarks, no towers along there was a great deal of delicacy in the

the steep, gift. But you'll be sure not to mention it.'

Her march is on the mountain wave, her home

is on the deep." "'A Magpie gossip, indeed! quoth the old blab. “ The Fox then wished the Magpie good Empire of Britain may be thus seen.

The small domestic and vast transmarine night, and retired to a hole to sleep off the fatigues of the day, before he presented himself to the beautiful young Cat.

Divisions.

Area in

British “ The next morning, heaven knows how,

Square Miles.

Subjects. it was all over the place, that Reynard the Fox had been banished from the court for England

50,520 13,086,675 the favour shown him by her majesty, and Wales

7,409 803,000 that the Lion had bribed his departure with Scotland

29,605 2,365,930 three hairs that would make any lady, whom Ireland

26,798 7,839,469 the Fox married, young and beautiful for Bengal

306,012 72,000,000 ever.

Madras

141,323 14,700,000 “ The Cat was the first to learn the news, Bombay

64,938 7,000,000 and she became all curiosity to see so in- Ceylon

27,000 1,200,000 teresting a stranger, possessed of 'qualifica- Penang, &c.

1,317 136,000 tions' which, in the language of the day, New Holland 1,000,000 100,000 'would render any animal happy! She was V.Dieman's Land 24,000 48,720 not long without obtaining her wish. As Mauritius

1,000 104,479 she was taking a walk in the wood the Fox Cape Good Hope 120,000 136,375 contrived to encounter her. You may be Western Africa 1,080 34,923 sure that he made her his best bow; and he Canada (Lower) 205,863 562,980 flattered the poor maid with so courtly an Canada (Upper) 95,125 250,000 air that she saw nothing surprising in the New Brunswick 26,704 94,392 love of the Lioness.

Nova Scotia

14,031 139,000 “ Meanwhile let us see what became of Cape Breton

3,125 30,000 his rival, the Dog.

P. Edward's Isle 2,159 32,000 “Ah, the poor creature! said Nymphalin; Newfoundland

35,923 80,000 it is easy to guess that he need not be buried Hudson Bay Set. 525,000

2,000 alive to lose all chance of marrying the Jamaica

6,400 359,000 heiress.

Trinidad

2,400 44,163 “Wait till the end, answered Fayzenheim. Barbadoes

166

102,277 When the Dog found that he was thus en- Grenada

109 28,732 trapped, he gave himself up for lost. In vain Antigua

94 35,678 he kicked with his hind-legs against the Montserrat

47

7,406 stone, he only succeeded in bruising his Dominica

275

20,038 paws, and at length he was forced to lie St. Vincent's

131

27,734 dawn, with his tongue out of his mouth, Nevis

20

12,159 and quite exhausted. However,' said he, St. Kitt's

68

23,922 after he had taken breath, “it won't do to St. Lucia

225

18,351 be starved here, without doing my best to Tobago

44

13,952 escape; and if I can't get out one way, let Tortola, &c.

120

10,642 me see if there is not a hole at the other Bahamas

312

16,836 end;" thus saying, his courage, which stood Bermudas

36

8,920 him in lieu of cunning, returned, and he Demerara, &c. 70,000 80,124 proceeded on the same straightforward way Berbice

25,000 22,965 in which he always conducted himself. At Honduras

10,000

4,839 first the path was exceedingly narrow, and Malta, &c.

122

128,960 he hurt his sides very much against the Gibraltar

3

17,024 rough stones that projected from the earth. Jersey, &c.

65,836 But by degrees the way became broader, and Man

220

36,000 he now went on with considerable ease to himself, till he arrived in a large cavern, Total

2,824,040 121,829,501 mixed with salt and saltpetre. The KanTo the most remote as well as to the dyans of Ceylon preserve their venison in nearest sections of the vast Empire thus earthen pots of honey, and after being thus depicted, it is our intention to direct public kept two or three years its flavour would attention, being convinced that the Colonies delight the daintiest palate. of England were raised up for her by Pro- In tropical climes the fresh juice of the vidence, for the purpose of promoting and cane is the most efficient remedy for various extending civilization and Christianity to diseases, while its healing virtues are felt the remotest ends of the earth.

What then has raised England, a small island

COMMERCE. in the Atlantic to the lofty station she now holds ? The industry, skill and moral in- ArticlE-SUGAR.—To extend the comtegrity of her sons scattered over the earth, merce of England, especially in regard to such forining Colonies in every clime and on articles as she cannot produce herself is one every shore from the Arctic to the Ant- of the main objects of this work. There is arctic Circle, from the Equator to the Poles, no article deserving of more attention either embracing an area of upwards of two million in a commercial, financial or social point of and a half square miles, (or 1,620,000,000 view than sugar, which while it yields upacres) with a population of more than one wards of £4,000,000. annually in revenue hundred million mouths, yielding an annual to the state, gives employment to a great revenue of nearly £30,000,000 sterling! amount of shipping, and a large extent of

When we contemplate this wondrous Em- capital. Of its advantages in a social point pire on which the solar orb never sets, truly of view it may be observed that not only do may be it said that the transmarine domi- the inhabitants of every part of the globe denions of this insular Kingdom offer to the light in sugar, when obtainable, but all aniagriculturist measureless fields, for pasture mated beings; the beasts of the field—the and tillage ;-to the manufacturer an in- fowls of the air, insects, reptiles, and even calculable extension of the home market for fish have an exquisite enjoyment in the conthe disposal of his wares;—to the merchant sumption of sweets, and a distaste to the and mariner, vast marts for profitable traffic contrary; in fact sugar is the alimentary in every product with which nature has ingredient of every vegetable substance enbounteously enriched the earth ;—to the cumbered with greater or less proportion of capitalist an almost interminable site for bulky innutricious matter. A small quantity the profitable investment of his funds ;- of sugar will sustain life, and enable the and to the industrious, skilful, and intelli- animal frame to undergo corporeal and mental gent emigrant, an area of upwards of two fatigue better than any other substance. million square miles, where every species of During crop time in the West Indies the mental ingenuity and manual labour may negroes, although then hard worked, become be developed and nurtured into action, with fat, healthy, and cheerful, and the horses, advantage to the whole family of man. mules, cattle, &c. on the estate partaking of England has no need to manufacture beet- the refuse of the sugar-house, renew their root sugar (as France)-her West and East plumpness and strength. In Cochin-China, India possession yield an inexhaustible pro- not only are the horses, buffaloes, elephants, fusion of the cane ;-grain (whether wheat, &c. all fattened with sugar, but the body barley, oats, maize or rice) every where guard of the King are allowed a sum of abounds ;-her Asiatic, American, Australa- money daily with which they must buy sian and African possessions contain bound- sugar-canes, and eat a certain quantity thereof less supplies of timber, corn, coal, iron, in order to preserve their good looks and copper, gold, hemp, wax, tar, tallow, &c.;- embonpoint; there are about 500 of these the finest wools are grown in her South household troops, and their handsome apAsian regions;-cotton, opium, silk, coffee, pearance does honour to their food and to cocoa, tobacco, saltpetre, spices, spirits, their royal master. Indeed, in Cochin-China, wines and fruits, are procurable of every rice and sugar is the ordinary breakfast of variety and to any extent in the East and people of all ages and stations; and the in the West, in the North and in the South people not only preserve all their fruits in of the Empire ;-on the icy coast of La- sugar, but even the greater part of their brador as well as at the opposite pole, her leguminous vegetables, gourds, cucumbers, adventurous hunters and fishers pursue their radishes, artichokes, the grain of the lotus, gigantic game almost within sight of their and the thick fleshy leaves of the aloe. protecting flag ;-and on every soil and under Mutton killed in Leadenhall market, preevery habitable clime, Britons desirous of served in a cask of sugar, has been eaten in change, or who cannot find occupation at India after a six month's voyage, as fresh as home, may be found implanting or extend the day it was placed on the shambles. In ing the language, laws and liberties of their the curing of meat a portion of sugar is Father land.

when applied to ulcers and sores. Sir John A. Pringle says, the plague was never known of England and Wales, while in 1832, with

to visit any country where sugar composes the Chancellor of the Exchequer would a material part of the diet of the inhabitants. be extended from £4,000,000 sterling to Drs. Rush, Cullen, and other eminent phy- £14,000,000 sterling, as thus shewn :sicians, are of opinion that the frequency of malignant fevers of all kinds is lessened by West India Colonies, Sugar cwt. 4,000,000

Supply. Rev. the use of sugar; in disorders of the breast Tax at 20s. (now 24s.) per cwt. 4,000,000 it forms an excellent demulcient, as also in Mauritius..

600,000

600,000 weaknesses and acrid defluxions in other Tax at 208. (now 24s.)...

East Ipdia possessions........ 5,000,000 parts of the body. The celebrated Dr. Tax 20s. (now.328.)...

5,000,000 Franklin found great relief from the sicken- China, Siam, Brazil, Cuba, &c... 2,400,000 ing pain of the stone, by drinking half-a- Tax at 468. (now 63s.)......

4,800,000 pint of syrup of coarse brown sugar before

Totals..., cwt. 12,000,000 14,400,000 bed time, which he declared gave as much, if not more relief, than a dose of opium.

By means of the change proposed mariThat dreadful malady, once so prevalent on time commerce would be benefitted by the shipboard, scurvey—has been completely employment of half a million tons of 'addiand instantaneously stopped, by putting the tional shipping; Colonial trade would be afflicted on a sugar diet. The diseases ari- benefitted, and domestic manufactures find a sing from worms, to which children are sub- market among those whose inability to take ject, are prevented by the use of sugar, the our goods arises not from disinclination but love of which seems implanted by nature in from our mischievous policy of refusing to them; as to the unfounded assertion of its take from others (and our own fellow subinjuring the teeth, let those who make it jects) what they are ready to give in exvisit the sugar plantations and look at the change for the produce of our looms, smithies negroes and their children, whose teeth are and potteries. The advantage to every indaily employed in the mastication of sugar, terest of adopting the altered system, or and they will be convinced of the absurdity rather the removal of (comparatively) recent of the statement. The most savage and restrictions, and an absurd and baneful movicious horses have been tamed with sugar, nopoly will be more fully developed on and the most ferocious animals domesticated another occasion,-for the present we have by means of feeding them with an article given our readers materials for thinking. which our baneful fiscal restrictions and

Mercator. erroneous commercial policy have checked the use of in England where millions pine,

AGRICULTURAL DISTRESS. sicken, and perish for want of nutriment.

The impolicy of the past system has been In 1749, the population of England and a heavy tax on importation,* and the grant- Wales was within a fraction of six millions ing to the West India Colonies (to the ex. and a half; the poor rate was £689,971. clusion of the East India Colonies) a virtual in 1832, the population was nearly fourteen monopoly of the home market; the result millions,—the poor rate £8,622,920. Thus, has been a diminished consumption, and while the population had little more than the average annual use of sugar per head doubled, the poor rate had much more than throughout the United Kingdom, of not a tenfold ratio of increase. Let us take a more than 5 oz. per week or 18 lbs. a year nearer period, and illustrate the sad change to each individual, which is an allowance by a different method. In 1812, the amount barely adequate for a new born infant. of taxation was nearly 65 millions—the Now when we consider that the workhouse amount in quarters of wheat at the then allowance is from 10 to 12 oz. a week, and average of 1258. 5d., was 10,351,560 quarthat the meanest household servant has 16 oz. ters.-In 1832, the taxation was about 40 a week or 52 lbs. a year; we see how greatly millions or, at the present average of 548., our commerce would be benefitted by a about 14,814,000 quarters of wheat. In change in the present erroneous system :- 1812, the poor rate for England and Wales, i. e. by diminishing the taxation on impor. was £6,656,105.--or, at the average price tation and extending the market of supply- of 125s. 5d. 1,061,438 quarters of wheat. thus the consumption of sugar would be in 1832, the poor rate was £8,622,920. increased from less than 4,000,000 cwts. to the amount, at 54s. per quarter, being 12,000,000 cwts. (giving 16 oz. a week for 5,196,574 quarters of wheat. Thus, in 1812, each individual). While the revenue of 60 million of taxes could be paid with about

ten million quarters of wheat to pay one 1792 to 1796,558. ld. 158. per Cwt., i.e. 274 pr.Ct. third less taxes !-So, also, with the poor 1797 .. 1798, 678.3d. 178. 6d.

rate, in 1812, little more than a million 1799.. 1800, 648. 2 d. 188. 2d.

quarters of wheat would pay all the poor rates 1801.. 1802, 528. 7. 208. 1803 .. 1823, 468. 4d. 278.

Price.

Tax.

26 ...... 28

38

584. 1924 .. 1826, 338. 5d. 278.

804.. an increase in the poor rates of one fourth, 1829 Dec. 238, 3 d. 278.

it would take upwards of three million

..110

3

Wheat Taxation in

England.
Rye

Peas

Oatmeal
per Qr. per Qr. per Qr. per Boll. per Qr. per Qr. per Qr.

Oats
Beans
Barley

EFFECT OF TAXATION IN ENHANCING THE PRICE OF FOOD.
LONDON YEARLY AVERAGE PRICES OF GRAIN IN 1792, 1797, 1811, 1830,

1832 AND 1833.

73 430,000,000 32 8 30 8 42 11 15,000,000

66 5 50,000,000

d. s. d.
41 10 47 10 27 11 48 6 51 6 49 11 94 668,000,000
33 7 35 4 20 5 0 0 37 0 34 7 58 8 48,000,000

0 0 32 0 32 6 52 046,000,000

8. d. d. s. d. s. 26 931 717 10 33 0 26 0 30 0 18 0

d.

(quarters or more than one half) to defray them. In other words, the increased burden of the poor rate, and the increased burden of taxation since 1812, amounts to nearly 18 millions sterling,—which, with the increased local expenditure, amounts to 20 millions,-being the direct burden which this country has to bear, over and above the burden of 1812. When we remember how much of this must fall upon the agricul. tural classes, can we wonder at the great depreciation of that most noble but declining interest ? One example of the present state of things has met our eye while penning these remarks. An intelligent writer mentions that “ The poor rate for the county of Norfolk for 1832, was £352,132., which is more than half the sum paid by England and Wales 84 years since, and Norfolk now contains but 390,000 souls, and is but the 27th part of England aud Wales !! The city of Norwich contains but 60,000 people, and £60,000. sterling are annually disbursed to the poor within its walls !!”-While such things are, well may the poor laws be complained of. But to our illustration :-In 1812, there were 6,675 commitments for crimethere were twenty thousand in 1832 ! -The results, then of these facts are that while population (from 1749 to 1832) has been barely doubled, pauperism has had a twelvefold increase,--that the burden of pauperism has trebled within the last twenty years,--that taxation has been nominally reduced, but virtually increased, to the amount of 4,456,254 quarters wheat in value, at

Hand-loom Weavers. - In our next we the present low prices, to £12,031,835. expect to be able to give some of the Evisterling,—that the increased burden of pau. Petitions of the Hand-loom Weavers for

dence of the Committee which sat upon the perism, valued in wheat, is 3,132,236 quarters, or in coin £5,751,037. sterling and local boards of trade. At present it is not that within the short space of twenty years,

entirely printed. We purport from time crime has had more than a threefold in- to time to extract such parts of the Evidence

as are best worthy of attention. It is un

derstood to be throughout remarkable for In Scotland there are 13,000,000 acres its clearness and intelligence, and no part of land-uncultivated.

more so, than that given by the operative England-waste

10,000,000 weavers. Ireland—ditto

3,500,000

Reports of Committees.- Pains will be 13,500,000 taken in ensuing Numbers, to furnish ample

extracts from the Evidence before Com. Banker's Notes—and Joint Stock Bank's mittees of the two Houses of ParliamentNotes in Circulation, from December 1833 which are of the most general interest to to March 1834.

the public. Among the most important of Private Banks

£8,733,400 late, perhaps are those which sat on the Joint Stock Banks :

1,458,427 distress of Agriculture and Trade in the

Session of 1833; on the petitions of the £10,191,827 hand-loom weavers in 1834, and on bank

ing in 1832. Silk and Glove Trades.-Our attention will be specially directed to these important branches of domestic industry, and we in

An article on Shipping in our next. vite communications on the subject from those more immediately interested therein. PRINTED BY W. NICOL, 51, PALL MALL.

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1792
1797
1811
1830
1832
1833
(May)

crease.

An Association has been formed, seen.

But it is a prevailing opinion having purely for its object, Relief that it is too late to go back. from that long continued Distress It is too late to go the whole way which has affected (with scarcely any back; but it is not too late to go a exception) every species of labour, part of the way back; and now, and of capital vested in real pro- perhaps, a quarter of the way, or perty.

less, might do. If, however, we In a great commercial country, should go this quarter of the way temporary alternations of prosperity back ;-although we shall relieve and adversity are to be expected ; about 20,000,000 of the population, but an alternation of twenty years' we shall offend some grand prinadversity is such an anomaly in the ciple of political economy. And the history of commerce, that it is worth country, some appear to think, ought wbile not only to ascertain, but to to be the second consideration only proclaim, to all whom it mav con- in a case like this. cern, the causes of it. Without a Others, without any disrespect to knowledge of the causes, it is vain the principles of political economy to think of removing the effects. when they are prudently adapted to

Nothing could have proved the existing circumstances, venture to futility of such an attempt, more differ from this opinion; and to than the reduction after reduction think, when the principles of poliof taxation since the peace, appa- tical economy, and the interests of rently without avail. The industry the people clash-that the people of this country is in a worse condi- should have the preference; and that, tion tban in 1814, when we were in such a case, such principles are nominally paying £40,000,000 more much more profitable in the breach taxation than at present. It is be- than in the observance. The procause the taxation of the war was prietors of the Agricultural Magaonly nominal in its amount, while zine are of the latter opinion. dow it is real. One bushel of wheat, But it is not the altered currency one yard of cloth, and one day's alone of which there is cause to labour would have paid somewhere complain. The following, among about double the taxation, debts and other causes, will be found to have engagements, that they will pay aggravated the distress : the recinow. The one was a paper taxa. procity system, so called ; unequal tion, the other is a gold one. The taxation; withholding the necessary one was a high amount out of high protection from vested capital, and means, the other is a high amount labour ; incautious and unseasonout of low means.

able regulations in commercial matThis state of things has been ters. These subjects, therefore, will brought about, mainly, by the likewise command and receive must changes in the currency. Scarcely anxious consideration. any one denies the evils that have It was said by a witness before been occasioned by these changes; the Agricultural Committee of 1833, for no one denies that the prices of alluding to the ruin which was going things depend on the quantity of on: that “ half the forest had been currency circulating in the country: felled, and that we must patiently and it is agreed that these violent 'await the felling of the other half.” changes would not have been made Let those who are content with this, if their consequences had been fore. submit to it. Let others who are

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