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£. 8. d. for making Hats or Bonmixed with Cotton or
nets, viz. with Wool, wholly or in
of Bast, Chip, Cane, or part made up, not other
Horse-hair, the t. 1 0 0 wise charged with Duty,
the tb. 0 17 0 per cent. 400 0 Pomatum,
30 0 0 Mats of Bast, the 100 1 3 9 Pots of Stone,
per cent. 30 0 Matting,
per cent. 20 0 0 Sausages or Puddings, the lb. 0 0 4 Mattresses, per cent. 20 0 0 Scaleboards,
3 8 2 Mill Boards,
the cwt. 3 8 2 Ships to be broken up, with Music Instruments, per cent. 20 0 0
their Tackle, Apparel and Oil, Seed Oil, not otherwise
Furniture (except Sails),
per cent. 50 00
entitled to be registered maceti Oil, and Head
as such, not having been Matter, viz.
built in the United King. - the produce of Fish or
15 00 Creatures living in the
Manufactures of Silk, or of Silk
mixed with any other
material, the produce of and imported direct from
Europe, viz. the Fishery, or from any
Silk or Satin, plain, the tb. 0110 British Possession, in a
or, and at the option British Ship, the ton 0 1 0
of the Officers of the . -- the produce of Fish or
25 0 0 Creatures living in the
Silk or Satin, figured or
the tb. 0 15 0 the ton 26 12 0 ... or, and at the option Oil, not particularly enu
of the Officers of the merated or described, nor
per cent. 30 0 0 otherwise charged with
Gauze, plain, the tb. 0 17 0 Duty,
per cent. 50 00 . - or, and at the option Paper, Brown Paper made of old
of the Officers of the Rope or Cordage only,
per cent. 30 0 0 the tb. 0 0 3 Gauze, striped, figured, or printed, painted, or stained
the tb. 170 Paper, or Paper Hang
..- or, and at the option ings, or Flock Paper, the
of the Officers of the Square Yard 0 1 0 Customs,
per cent. 30 0 0 Paper of any other sort, *
Crape, plain, the tb. 0 16 0 the lb. 0 0 9 ...or, and at the option Parchment, the doz. sheets 0 10 0
of the Officers of the Pasteboards, the cwt. · 3 8 2
30 0 0 Pencils,
per cent. 30 0 0 Crape, figured, the lb. 0 18 0 of Slate,
per cent. 20 0 0 --- or, and at the option Pens, per cent. 30 0 0
of the Officers of the Perfumery, not otherwise
per cent. 300 0 charged,
20 0 0 Velvet, plain, the tb. 1 2 0 Pewter, Manufactures of, not
...or, and at the option otherwise enumerated or
of the Officers of the described,
20 0 0
per cent. 30 0 0 Plate of Gold, the oz. Troy
3 16 9 Velvet, figured, the to. 1 7 6 of Silver gilt, the oz. Troy 0 6 4 ... or, and at the option ... part gilt, the oz. Troy 0 6 0
of the Officers of the - - ungilt,
the oz. Troy 0 4 6 Customs, per cent. 30 0 0 Platting or other Manufactures
Ribbons, embossed or fito be used in or proper
gured with Velvet, the tb. 0 17 0
- or, and at the option of the Officers of the
Customs, per cent. 30 0 0 * Equivalent to a protecting Duty of at least 50
... and further, if mixed per cent.
with Gold, Silver, or other
per cent. per cent. per cent.
per cent. per cent. per cent.
£. $. d.
£. s. d. Metal, in addition to the
ing the produce of any
British Possession in
America, sweetened or
mixed with any Article,
Strength thereof cannot
the lb. 1 4 0 be exactly ascertained by
such Hydrometer, the called Tulle, the Square
gallon 1 0 0 Yard 0 1 4 Starch,
the cwt. 9 10 0 Manufactures of Silk, or of
Steel, or any Manufactures of
Steel, not otherwise enu-
merated or described, and imported from Bri
20 0 0 tish Possessions within
50 0 0 the limits of the East
Stone, Rag Stones,
20 0 0 India Company's Charter,
Slates, not otherwise enuper cent.
20 0 0 merated or described, Millinery of Silk, or of
66 10 0 which the greater part of
Slates in Frames, the doz. 0 3 0 the materials is of Silk,
30 0 viz. Thread,
0 0 --- Turbans or Caps, each 0 15 0 Tiles,
50 0 Hats or Bonnets, each 1 5
the cwt. 2 10 0 · Dresses,
each 2 10 0 Tobacco, viz. or, and at the op
unmanufactured, the tb. 03 0 tion of the Officers of
manufactured, or Segars, the Customs, per cent. 40 00
the tb. 0 9 0 Manufactures of Silk, or of
30 0 0 Silk and any other mate.
20 0 0 rial, not particularly enu
Turnery, not otherwise enumemerated, otherwise
rated or described, per charged with Duty, per
cent. 30 0 0 cent. 30 0 0 Twine,
the cwt. 111 0 Articles of Manufacture of
Varnish, not otherwise enume-
rated or described, per
cent. 30 0 0 in part made up, not par
the ton 73 12 9 ticularly enumerated, or
Vinegar or Acetous Acid, the ton 18 18 0 otherwise charged with
the tbh. 0 1 3 per cent. 30 0 0 Washing Balls,
the tb. 0 1 8 Soap, viz.
Watches of Gold, Silver, or other
25 0 0 soft, the cwt. 3 11 3 Wax, Sealing Wax,
30 0 0 the produce of and im.
the ton 95 0 0 ported from any British
taken and caught by the
Crew of a British Ship,
and imported direct from
the Fishery, or from any
British Possession, in a
30 0 0
British Ship, the ton 1 0 0 Spirits, Cordials, or Strong
the tb. 0 1 0 Waters respectively (not
Wire, Gilt or Plated, per cent.
0 British Possesssion in
Wood, Anchor Stocks, the piece
Handspikes, viz. mixed with any Article,
. - under 7 feet in Length, so that the Degree of
the 120 2 0 0 Strength thereof cannot
- 7 feet in Length or upbe exactly ascertained by
the 120 4 0 0 the Hydrometer, the
Masts, Yards, or Bowsprits, gallon 1 10 0
viz. Spirits, Cordials, or Strong
6 inches in Diameter Waters respectively, be
and under 8 inches, each 0 8 0
£. 3. d. to London, and put the money into the ...8 inches in Diameter
Bank for the benefit of my family; and as and under 12 inches, each 1 2 0 ...12 inches in Diameter
coaches were not so common as they are or upwards, the Load con
now, I rode my pack horse all the way up, taining 50 Cubic Feet 2 15 0 Oars, the 120 14 19
and put my money in the saddle-bags; and .. of the Growth of any
when I arrived, I took the Guineas to the British Possession in
Bank, but to my great surprise and sorrow, America, and imported
they were all refused to be changed; being directly from thence, the
120 0 19 0 too light, owing to their rubbing each other Spokes for Wheels, viz.
in the bags on the journey: however, a ... not exceeding 2 feet in
gentleman I saw there, told me to take Length, the 1000 3 7 4 --- exceeding 2 feet in
them to a shop in Leadenhall-street, the Length, the 1000 6 14 8 corner of St. Mary Axe, where I could get ...of all Sorts, of the
the value for them, and I should not lose by Growth of any British Possession in America,
them : : accordingly I went, and he weigh'd and imported directly
them, and gave me an account as under, from thence, the 1000 06 4 and the money all in Bank Notes :-300 Wainscot Logs, viz. ... 8 inches Square or up
Light Guineas, weight 80 oz. at 110s. per oz. wards, the Load contain
£440. I told him what I wanted to do ing 50 Cubic Feet 2 15 O with the money, and he directed me to a Woollens, viz. Manufactures of Wool, not
man they call'd a Stock Broker, who went being Goat's Wool, or of
with me to the Bank, and gave me a Ticket Wool mixed with Cotton,
for £800. 3 per cent. Cons. at 55 per cent. not particularly enumerated or described, nor
£440. and charged me I think, 10s. or 128. otherwise charged with
for his trouble; now Sir you must know, Duty, per cent. 15 O O my eldest daughter Mary was just going to Articles of Manufactures of
be married, and I know my other two girls Wool (not being Goat's Wool) or of Wool mixed
will do so too if they can get husbands, so with Cotton, wholly or in
I thought I would go to London again, and part made up, not other
fetch home the money from the Bank, so I wise charged with Duty,
20 0 0 comed up by the coach this time, and went
to take the money out, and they gave me TO THE EDITOR OF THE AGRICULTU. another ticket with particulars, as follows: RAL AND INDUSTRIAL MAGAZINE. Sold for Jno. Plowright £800, 3 per cent.
Cons. at £90, £720., SIR,
Near Pontefract. which I got all in sovereigns; I thought FARMER GUBBINS a near neighbour of there must be some mistake, they could not mine having showed me a Book about the be all gold, so I took them to the place Landed Interest, Money Matters and the where I formerly sold the light guineas, and like; I take the liberty of writing you a sure enough there was the same chap beLetter, to request the favour of your in-hind the counter, and I asked him all about forming me how it come about that I have them, and he assured me they were all as been such a lucky chap without knowing good gold as the guineas, and for my 300 why.
guineas that weighed 80 oz. I had now got You must first know, that in the year 720 sovereigns, which weighed above 184 1815, when farming was much better than oz. I could not help calling out in pure it is now; I had saved up above Three Hun- York,—"I ne'er see'd the loike ere sin I wor dred Guineas, all in Gold, and as I had three wick !”—I asked him how it all came about, children, all girls, I thought I would go up but he requested me not to trouble my
head about what I could not understand; or other machines shall stand upon a fair but I very much wish to know who they are and equal footing with hand-looms and that give twenty-four sovereigns a-year for other implements. these last twenty years, and return back, Your Petitioners cannot conceive how when required, 720 gold sovereigns for 300 such a PRINCIPLE as this can be denied, guineas lent in 1815.
without affirming as the opposite principle I am your Humble Servant, that wealth (or capital) is invested with a
JNO. PLOWRIGHT. RIGHT to oppress and to “ clear off” the inIlth May, 1835.
dustrious poor ; and that, when any man
has money enough to bring his ingenuity or To the Honourable the Commons of the science to a practical issue, he is entitled to
United Kingdom in this present Parlia- a certain monopoly of trade, profits, and all ment Assembled.
other good things, although the absolute
destruction of his industrious neighbours The Petition of the Hand-Loom Em- should be the consequence. ployers and Weavers of Bradford and
Your Petitioners are aware of the various the vicinity adopted at a Public
means which have been recommended, for Meeting held at Bradford, Yorkshire, restraining those evil effects of capital inon Monday, April 6th, 1835, (by Per- 'vested in machinery, of which we complain, mission of the Magistrates,) in Front and your Petitioners would here declare, of the Court House, and attended by that, it is the wholesome regulation, and not at least Three Thousand Persons,
the destruction of machinery at which they Most humbly sheweth,
aim, but the most simple and beneficial of That your Petitioners hail with satisfac- those REMEDIES, as your Petitioners believe, tion the reappointment of a Select Commit- would be to limit generally the working tee of the House of Commons, to investigate hours of machinery employed in manufactures. the deplorable condition of the hand-loom This plan would also be attended with
other advantages, religious, moral and soThat your Petitioners attribute the great cial, especially to the rising generation, by and increasing depression of this branch of affording proper TIME for wholesome and trade to several causes, the principal of useful learning, and for the acquisition of a which is, the competition occasioned by ca- due knowledge of those domestic duties, so pital invested in improved and continually essential to the female. And your Petitionimproving machinery, particularly power. ers believe, that by this redemption of time, looms ; the great object in all such improve- for such and similar purposes, (which in a ments being to adapt the machinery to the Christian Country we have a right to expect), youngest class of workers.
vice and immorality would generally deThat your Petitioners conceive, that it is crease ; drunkenness, often resulting from only just to require, that it shall be laid exhaustion, would diminish, and happiness, down by the Legislature as a PRINCIPLE, with Christian virtues, would be diffused. that the productions of power-loom shall con- Such restriction in regard to time would tribute towards the national or public expences also bring the supply of manufactured goods in an equal ratio with the productions of the more nearly equal to the profitable demand, hand-loom, (the same principle being applied would prevent that ruinous diminution both in all similar cases), and also, that in this, of profits and wages, which always attends as in all other cases, the capital or the inge- a glutted market, would increase buyers and nuity of one portion of the community shall consumers in the home market by employing not be allowed to deprive any other portion of more hands at better and more steady wages, profitable employment, but that power-looms and would cause that portion of our goods
which is exported to foreign markets to be PRESENT ARRANGEMENT OF TAXATION bears sold or exchanged for full value, and not very unequally upon the productive classes ; often at half value or less, as the published so that (as is proved by more than one witevidence before the hand-loom weaver's ness before the aforesaid Committee) a lacommittee of last Session clearly proves to bouring man is liable to pay nearly half his have been the case.
income in taxes, directly or indirectly. At Your Petitioners cannot see what anxiety the same time, large masses of capital, the we ought to have about FOREIGN TRADE, natural tendency of which is to accumulate, unless it can be shown to be profitable to are never touched by the finger of the taxthe nation. But if the home trade has to gather. Your Petitioners presume to sugpay the losses of foreign trade, the miseries gest, that if the taxes were taken off the of the working classes must increase as a back of industry and laid upon property and ruinous foreign trade extends. If we must income above a certain amount, it would relose in this race of “ foreign competition,” move a burden from those who cannot and we had better never run at all.
ought not to sustain it, to a degree which But if the restraint upon the time of now depresses their energies both of body working, which would check over produce and mind. Your Petitioners also venture tion in yarn, and in the first processes, as to suggest, that a very considerable reducwell as in weaving, should prove not suf- tion might be made in the amount of taxaficiently effective, your Petitioners would tion without detriment to the public service respectfully urge upon the Legislature to or injustice to the public creditor, who has follow up the principle laid down, of fair and now a greater command over the producequal competition, by the impost of some tions of our industry by more than 100 per such direct tax upon the power-loom or cent. than he had when the last public loan machine, or its productions, as shall be most was contracted, and who is therefore receiveffectual for the purpose.
ing more than his debt. Or if your HonourYour Petitioners also perceive by the evi- able House prefer it to be stated in other dence aforesaid, that large quantities of terms, it may be said, that we, the labouring YARN, both cotton and worsted, are con- classes, are receiving only one half of what stantly EXPORTED to be manufactured by we ought to have, if duly paid (according to the continental weavers, who can both work the rate of the public creditor) for our labour, and live for much less than the hand-loom and that we are filched of so much of our weavers of this country; now, unless it can equitable share of the national wealth, which be proved that an adequate national advan- is mainly created by the labour of our hands. tage is derived from such export of yarn, it Your Petitioners have also to complain of seems to your Petitioners very unjust, that a great disparity of wages often existing in in order to enrich a few individuals, whose one and the same neighbourhood, and for capital is employed in spinning and first the same sort of work both as to quality process machines, nearly a million of hand- and execution. These variations naturally loom weavers should be distressed by such lead to general reductions, and render an an unequal competition with the foreign arbitrary and uncalled for depression of weaver, who not only weaves our British wages easy to any considerable employer yarn, but sends his web when woven to de- who from avarice or humour may resolve to preciate the British market.
effect it. Your Petitioners humbly urge that the Until a more healthy state of trade can be foreigner ought not thus to be preferred to established, your Petitioners beg to suggest the industrious subjects of this realm. that some BOARD OF TRADE OR OTHER AU.
Your Petitioners would also humbly re- THORITATIVE COURT for the regulation of present to your Honourable House, that the wages should be formed. But in thus ven