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follow; and it would resemble a snow-ball, the endeavour to find this desired end I send which, when once set in motion, continues for the perusal of your committee the folafterwards increasing, and is quickly rolled lowing apophthegms (perhaps they may be up into any size one pleases. I address this called axioms) in political economy, in the first communication to Cambridgeshire, be- hope that they may be considered worthy a cause, though it is not a large, it is yet a place in your valuable magazine; they were very important agricultural county; and be written and published some years ago by a cause, further, it is the seat of the principal friend to the human race, now deceased, but University of the three Kingdoms, two cir. I believe they are very little known to the cumstances which, when conjoined, entitle public. it, in my opinion, to take the lead of all other 1st. That all wealth is produced by hucounties on the present occasion.

man labour, and that when the productive It remains for the members of the Cam- classes are unable to supply a sufficiency of bridgeshire Association to weigh the purport the necessaries and comforts of life, equal of such an address as mine, which suggests to the demands that are made on their inthat the only possible way for the nation dustry, the resources of the nation may be to obtain relief from its embarrassments is to said to be exhausted ; but that no nation, centralize the whole agricultural and pro- that has within itself an excess of every ducing power of the community in a single thing that is desirable, and the means of point. Should its leading members approve producing more than the population can of the design, I need not urge upon them consume, can be considered necessarily in the propriety of calling a public meeting, and an impoverished condition. of doing all that lies in their power to make 2d. That the production of the necessathe matter known. The more public it is ries and comforts of life have no necessary made the better :-it is only by public de connexion with the acquisition of gold and monstrations, and by the most open conduct, silver; and that mankind might enjoy all that the agricultural body can hope to suc- the advantages which attend the possession ceed against the dark and insidious opera- of such artificial wealth, although no such tions of the nation's many foes, in either thing were in existence. saving itself, or the rights of native in- 3d. That the expenditure of the late war, dustry in general, from destruction. which is generally supposed to be so exI am, Sir, your most obedient Servant, tremely injurious to the nation, was altogeJAMES B. BERNARD. ther an expenditure of labour and materials,

and not of money; and that if it were possi

ble to recall into existence the said expendiTO THE EDITOR OF THE AGRICUL- ture, it would be found to consist of a col

TURAL AND INDUSTRIAL MAGA- lection of articles and materials of which we ZINE.

have at present a superabundance. SIR,—It seems that political economy has 4th. That nothing can be consumed be. become a most entangled skein, and from fore it be produced, and that the idea of A the supposed conflicting interests of agri- NATION anticipating its resources, while it culture, commerce, manufactures and capi- incurs no obligation to other nations, is extal, appears likely to continue so, and al- tremely absurd, and that this absurd idea though we have many, both learned and has originated in the notion that money, and unlearned, who are endeavouring to unravel not labour, is the source of wealth. it, none have yet discovered the right end 5th. That the only real use of commerce to commence with; the consequence is, that is to bring in something that is requisite to the more they pull at these wrong ends the supply the wants of the people, and that the more entangled it becomes. To assist in inconveniences which the people may suffer from the want of foreign articles, are the means of subsistence, we find these sufferonly necessary evils which can attend a want ing privations, while at the same time the of commerce; and the idea of commerce most distant parts of the globe are ransacked being necessary, as an outlet for our manu- to find an outlet for these very articles of factures, is extremely absurd.

which they are in want. 6th. That the want of markets as a place The interest of the landed proprietor, the to sell is not necessarily a calamity to a na- mechanic, the labourer, and those who dtion, and the only evils which a nation ne- rect the exertions of the two latter, are the cessarily suffers for want of markets, are same; yet each looks on the others as his those which it experiences in the capacity enemies; it is the animosity which ignorance of purchasers, either from these foreign has implanted in them which has presented markets being ill supplied, or from a na- them forming a junction for furnishing a tional want of sufficient means to purchase store from which all their wants might be the necessaries which the nation is in want liberally supplied. Could such a junction of.

be now formed, and it is the interest of all 7th. That a country cannot have an "ex- these parties that it should be formed, meanz cessive population,” and at the same time might be easily devised that all might be necessarily suffer inconvenience from the fully supplied with every thing they could want of an outlet for an over-supply of the want or desire, without the aid of gold, s]necessaries, comforts and luxuries of life ; ver, or money-dealing; that such a store and that all classes are indebted for all their could be amply supplied to satisfy the wants bodily comforts, not to the possession of a of two or three times the present population circulating medium, or an abundance of gold is evident, for during the war, when waste and silver, but to the landed proprietors, the and extravagance were at their greatest mechanics and the labourers, aided by those height, and we were supplying nearly the who direct the exertions of the two latter, whole world, industry and ingenuity, aided and exchange the produce of their labour by the arts and sciences, were able to keep for that of other countries.

up the supply, and even to make it occi. These apophthegms, Sir, may appearstrange sionally exceed the demand. to many of your readers, but I believe them Shall the mechanic and the labourer tben, nevertheless to be true, and allow me to the producers of all, in a time of profound add nearly in the words of the author of peace, be starved, or driven from his native them, that “the present state of the country land ? Forbid it Heaven! forbid it common exhibits a complete anomaly.” It is appa. sense!! Let but the land-holders and the rently over supplied with all the necessaries, labour-holders unite for their mutual benefit comforts and luxuries of life, it is indebted and protection, and the money-holder and for this over-supply, of all that is useful or the fund-holder, with their imaginary pro. beneficial, to the three classes of the commu- perty, will soon be induced to unite with nity mentioned in the seventh apophthegm, them for the benefit of all. yet in the midst of this over-supply the

Yours, &c. wants of those who furnish it are meagrely

JAMES BRABY. supplied. In many districts much produc- Chalk Farm Lane, Hampstead Road, tive land lies in a great measure neglected,

June 14th, 1835. while the proprietor derives comparatively little advantage from it. Throughout the

It is requested that Subscriptions be whole country we find the most useful me- the Bank of M. Attwood, Esq. M. P. then to “ A LONG PULL, AND A STRONG PULL, AND A PULL ALL-TOGETHER,"

not paid to unknoun individuals ; if not into chanics supplied in the most penurious and some Member of the Society. precarious manner with the necessaries and Communications to be sent to the Secretary, comforts of life; while well disposed and

post paid. robust labourers are often in the want of the

PRINTED BY W. NICOL, 51, PALL MALL.

FOR BETTER PRICES, BETTER PROFITS, AND BETTER WAGES.

“Alas, my dear Sir, I am dying every day of than in the fourteen years from 1815 to 1829 the most favourable symptoms."-Pope.

by 14,959,841 lbs.! We shewed that in 1810 A CONTINUATION OF THE ANSWER 114,565 cwts. more sugar was consumed

TO T. WHO IS FOR “A LONG PULL, than in 1832, notwithstanding all the inAND A STRONG PULL, OF A FEW

crease of population ! We shewed that TOGETHER,” FOR WORSE PRICES, 24,363,882 gallons MORE of wine was conWORSE PROFITS, AND WORSE

sumed in the twenty years, from 1790 to WAGES.

1809, than in the twenty years from 1810 to By this time we should imagine T. must 1829! Here is prosperity! This shews the have had a surfeit of his coffee and sugar, increased individual capacity to consume ! and tea and tobacco, and wine and spirits, Then again, we shewed that with respect unless the latter have tended to assist his to coffee and spirits, an alteration in the digestion, and to comfort him in his disap- duties had taken place quite sufficient to pointment. Let us only bear in mind the account for the increased consumption in defeat he threatened us with, and then we these articles; of which change in the dumay judge of his disconsolate condition ! ties no mention was made by T. any more "Between 1821 and 1833 population had than in the other cases. We proved that increased 17 per cent. ; whilst the increase the increased consumption was consequent in the consumption of the six articles which on the change, because the change was imcontribute to the comforts or luxuries of all mediately followed by the improved conclasses had been 75 per cent.” This was sumption. Lastly, with respect to tea, we his statement. Of the question how much quoted Mr. Matthias Attwood's triumphant silk, cotton, and wool was worked up for reply to Mr. Poulett Thompson, when the the home market (as distinguished from the latter attempted to shew how the consumpforeign) some uncertainty existed; but of tion of tea had increased in 1833. Mr. P. the consumption of the above six articles, Thompson, as T. has done, took into the ac“no such uncertainty existed.” T. staked count the consumption of Great Britain and his reputation for accuracy on these six arti- Ireland together for the period he wished to cles, and the increase of their consumption; appear the highest as to capacity of consumpand on the inference to be drawn that the tion ; and he actually omitted Ireland altopopulation had more power to consume gether, for the period he wished to appear them now, and were consequently better off the lowest as to its power to consume; althan before.

though it made about 4,000,000 lbs. differIt is scarcely necessary for us to recall the ence in the account ! attention of our readers to the history we We have thus shewn that T., with every gave in our last Number of the effect of the disposition to delude the public in this matchange in the duties in these articles at va- ter, has signally failed in doing so; and we rious periods. If the circumstance of duties have also, I trust, accounted to our readers was not to be considered, then, although po- for the jealousy we entertain of any men, be pulation had so much increased meanwhile, they philosophers by taste, or philosophers we showed that more tobacco was consumed by trade, (i. e. occupying high official stain the fourteen years, from 1800 to 1814, tions, and carrying on their experiments at

No. 19.

the expense of the best interests of the an article would really be a fair test of the country) ; be they one or the other, of the comparative condition of the people at two jealousy we entertain of their making co. periods. We stated that it would be dift. lumns of figures the test of the national cult to meet with such an article: however prosperity, from which such entirely errone- we have found one, the duty on which has ous conclusions may be drawn,-rather than only lately been changed, so that by taking a the actual condition of the productive in- long antecedent period, and one just preterests as it is exhibited by ocular demon- ceding the change of duty, our purpose will stration, and the most faithful testimony of be sufficiently answered. the parties concerned. These tables of Soap is the article we have selected, and figures are of the nature of Mr. Babbage's it cannot be denied that it is an article of calculating machine; if they are right in the commonest use, and therefore an upei. the beginning they are right in the end: but ceptionable criterion. We had imagined philosophers who are so apt to overlook or- that the duty was reduced on soap in 1828, dinary matters, neglect to take into their so that we chose 1827 as one of the years of profound consideration half the elements of comparison, and obtained the returns for it the calculation. They may be perfectly We subsequently found that the duty was correct in their conclusion upon that half- changed either in 1830, or later ; 1827, bow. but that half is not the question. The ever, is a year to which no objection can be whole case is what we wish to be considered; made ; for the argument of T. is that we are the case, the whole case, and nothing but progressively becoming more able to con the case. And this is exactly what the phi- sume; ours is the exact contrary argument. losophers and the ministers in their train We take the two years, 1810—1827. There wont allow of, and for this very palpable was no change in the duties in the interval reason: they know that such is the temper between these two periods ; so that if we of a British public, that the moment it knows find the consumption of soap in proportion it has been so unjustly treated, not to say to the increase of population greater in treacherously robbed, that moment it will 1827 than in 1810, then we shall be willing not only demand, but command redress. to admit that, at least in this article, and if

We said before that T. was of the 'Non in this probably in others, there exists a mi recordo' school. He and his friends, the proof of improvement in the condition of philosophers, forget the most important fea- the people : but what is the fact ? ture of the case, because it happens to be convenient to them to forget it. But we 1810 - 1,363,553 will see whether we cannot rouse the pro- 1827 - 1,078,961 ductive interests of Britain to a sense of their own injuries, and to a determination to as

£284,592 decrease in 1827 comsert their own rights—at least if the protec- pared with 1810, notwithstanding 30 per tion of their own property and their own in- cent. increase of the population in the industry be a right.

terval. T. has had his own choice in the selection There is another article of the commonest of all the articles he has brought forward as use, leather, which gives about a similar instances of improved prosperity; and still result. he has failed in them all. We said, in a DUTY ON HIDES AND SKINS. former part of this answer, that we would, 1810 - 295,501 if possible, ascertain what had been the in- 1827 - 307,570 crease in the consumption of some article of first necessity or convenience, which had

£12,019 increase in 1827 comundergone no reduction of duty: for such pared with 1810: £12,019 increase in the

DUTY PAID ON SOAP.

duty! notwithstanding the reduction of They evince a determination to state facts duty, in 1822, of 50 per cent., and increase without the circumstances connected with of the population of 30 per cent.! them, with the sole view of having an in

These two articles of soap and leather ference drawn from them which not even a were, of course, purposely avoided by T., born idiot could draw from them, if all the because they did not answer his object; he circumstances of the case were cited. In knew that they would afford proofs alone of fact, T.'s tables and his arguments, to be misery and destitution, which it was not his complete, should have concluded with the interest to have proved. He omitted these great increase of French ornamental baskets articles ; but we must in candour say also, in this country during the war. This would that he omitted others which would have have have been his table to prove French served his purpose; at least they were just prosperity at that period. It would have on a par with his own mode of treating the been quite unnecessary, according to T.'s subject, and are as accurate tests of the pros- mode of arguing a subject, to have mentioned perity of a country. That is to say, they the trifling circumstance that they were made are facts stated without any reference to by French prisoners who were detained in the causes from whence they spring. We this country, and who exercised their ingenuity will put down the causes on one side, as the in this way as a means of employment, and answer to what might be supposed T.'s of obtaining additional comforts. This infacts on the other as proofs of prosperity: stance would have been in no degree more

absurd than the cases brought forward by FACTS PROVING PROSPERITY.

CAUSES.

T. to prove prosperity; neglecting, as he Greater consump

Duty reduced 13s.

has done, every circumstance connected with tion of salt.

them. per bushel.

We here leave T. and his tables, Greater consump

Decreased ability which we boldly submit have been fairly tion of potatoes.

to consume wheat. turned upon him, and proceed to the conIncrease of depo- Impossibility of clusion of his letter. We ought to apolosits in the Bank of finding a profit in gize to our readers for the great length to England. production.

which this answer has gone. We fear Increased number Increase of crime, and magnitude of the invariable conse that the same everlasting heading to the prisons.

quence of increased leading article will have wearied even some

want and distress. of our best friends; but, on reflection, we Greater number of Danger of incen- still continue to think that, if T.'s letter be insurances on farm- diarism, from the fall ing stock and pro- in wages and disem- from the high source we suspected it to perty.

ployment of agricul- have come (and we have stronger grounds tural labourers.

than before for believing our first conjecture Extension of the The necessity for to be right), it was as well to answer, seriaone acre system in the landlord, if he Ireland ; i.e. plough- wishes to maintain tim and in detail, every particle of a principle ing out old grass his rent, to grant the or a fact which admitted of dispute. We land.

advantage of a virgin before stated that an assertion took up very soil to the tenant.

little room ; whilst the answer to it might The improvement in roads, because there necessarily occupy volumes. It is because was nothing else for workmen to do who almost every thing stated by T. did admit of were thrown on the parish; and the growth of dispute that we have trespassed so long on gin-drinking, independent of the fall in duty, our readers ; each separate sentence conon account of its being the quickest (however tained a text on which to write. We were temporary) relief from distress, T. has alluded quite sure that those really friendly to us to; and we have in this way observed upon and our cause, which is the cause of sufferthem. But the others are all of a kind. ing industry, would not thank us for slur

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