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ing over any statement or argument which Our agricultural readers may not all be carried with it an impression that the pro- aware of what the Commencement at Camductive interests or working classes were bridge is. It is of no consequence to enter into better off than they really are ; for nothing its origin. It will be sufficient to say, that it is can more operate against their obtaining an annual scene of festivity there, where the that relief which we are confident they re- first nobility and gentry of the land assemquire. We thought it the openest, honestest, ble; certainly a most opportune occasion and the best way, to take the bull by the for the purpose of disseminating opinions of horns, which we think we have done. And any kind extensively. This meeting was we feel that we may hold out to our readers fuller than usual, on account of its being a hope that the next article will put a ter. the first since the election of the Marquis mination to T's existence.
Camden as the Chancellor of the University.
The importance of the meeting may be agriculture.
judged of by the names, which we copy “Speed the Plough.”
from a newspaper, of some of the parties
who attended : Our readers will remember the able letter H.R. H. the Duke of Cumberland, H.R.H. of Mr. Bernard in our last number. He Prince George of Cambridge, His Excellency had not miscalculated, it appears, the energy Prince Pozzo di Borgo, His Grace the Archof the Cambridgeshire farmers; they have bishop of Canterbury, Most Noble Marquis not lost a moment in turning it to account. Camden (Chancellor of the University), Their first step was to republish the letter, Duke of Northumberland (High Steward). with the following comments :
Dukes-Grafton, Wellington. * Cambridge, July 6th, 1835.
Marquises — Londonderry, Bute, Down"The members of the Cambridgeshire shire, Douro, Exeter, Northampton. and Isle of Ely Farmers' Association, most Earls—Hardwicke, Burlington, Brownlow, heartily approving of the political senti- Amherst, Devon, Radnor, Brecknock, Aberments of Mr. Bernard, as they are explained deen, De Grey, De la Warr, Kerry, Bathurst, in the following letter addressed by him to Compton. the Editor of the Agricultural and Industrial Viscounts - Alford, Melgund, Duncan, Magazine, conceive that they cannot render Castlereagh, Sidney, Mahon, Holmesdale, a greater service to their country, at the Cantalupe, Canterbury. present moment, than by giving to that let- Bishops — London, Exeter, Bath and ter every possible publicity, whilst so many Wells, Llandaff, Carlisle, Lincoln, and Gloupersons are assembled from different parts cester. of the kingdom to witness the festivities of Lords--Fitzmaurice, Barrington, Teignthe Commencement at Cambridge. They mouth, Bayning, Lyndhurst, J. Stuart, C. have, therefore, ordered 2,000 copies to be Hamilton, C. Hervey, Abinger, De Lisle, printed for general circulation throughout A. Fitzclarence, Henniker, Farnborough, the county; and have agreed that the same Elenho, Haddo, Lyttleton, Nezmi Bey, deputation from their body which escorted Achmet Effendi. the Duke of Wellington into Cambridge Duchess—Northumberland. shall wait upon his Grace again for the ex- Ladies—Downshire; Amberst, Hardwicke, press purpose of presenting one to him, and De la Warr, Holmesdale, Mahon, De Lisle, asking for his powerful assistance in support Kerrison, Farnborough, M. Hill, G. Hill, of Mr. Bernard, and the other gentlemen Graham, Legge, S. Amherst, C. Neville who are associated with him, in an endea- Grenville, Hardinge, Lyttleton, G. Pratt, A. vour to preserve agriculture and the indus- Cust, Wodehouse, Harwood. trious classes from ruin."
Honourables-Wellesley, Hood, C. Linch,
P. Linch, Cust, Maj. Henniker, Law, Towns- mission, will direct our Secretary to read
is a copy : Sirs - Maj. Gen. E. Kerrison, H. Har- "To his Grace the Duke of Wellington. dinge, E. Sugden, C. Wetherell, J. Graham, We, a deputation from the Members of P. Malcolm, C. Clarke, R. Graham, G. Wat- the Cambridgeshire and Isle of Ely Farmers' son, J. Wyatville, S. Glynne, R. Inglis, 'F. Association, and others who had the gratifiMortlock.
cation of escorting your Grace into CamDeans of Ely, Lincoln, and Peterborough. bridge on Monday, now seek the permission
Chief Justice Tindal, Baron Parke, Justice to offer to your Grace our hearty congratuPatteson. Besides hundreds of commoners lations on your Grace's arrival in this town and many Members of Parliament. -to say how proud we feel in seeing your
The following is the account of the pro- Grace here—and to express our most sincere ceedings which took place in reference to hope that your Grace's life may be prolongMr. Bernard's letter, and of the deputation ed many years to excite the admiration and which waited on the Duke of Wellington, gratitude of every Englishman. extracted from the Cambridge Chronicle :- 'Whilst we thus avail ourselves of the op
portunity afforded us of paying our unani“ADDRESS TO THE DUKE OF WELLINGTON.
mous respects to your Grace, we hope “An anxiety having been expressed by a that we may be permitted to allude for a considerable number of the farmers of this moment to our condition as Farmers : the county to present an address to the Duke of whole of our rent, tithes, and taxes are Wellington, a deputation waited upon him now paid out of our fast diminishing capifor the purpose on Wednesday. The pro- tals, instead of out of the profits which such cession, which left the Red Lion inn about capitals and our own industry ought to reeleven o'clock, had a very imposing appear- turn: the Government takes no notice of ance, it extending the whole length of the our petitions, and unless the Conservative Great Court at Trinity College, at the lodge Aristocracy of the kingdom, of which we of which they were received by his Grace. look upon your Grace as the leader, espouse
“Mr. Thurnall, the President of the Cam- our cause, we shall be irretrievably ruined. bridgeshire and Isle of Ely Farmers' Asso- With a view to explain our situation, we ciation, addressed the Duke to the following humbly take the liberty to present to your effect :- My Lord Duke,—The Farmers of Grace a copy of a letter from Mr. Bernard, Cambridgeshire have felt it impossible to al- of King's College, addressed to the Editor of low your Grace to enter their county town, the Agricultural Magazine, which appears without expressing the gratification they to us of the utmost importance: that letter, feel at seeing your Grace, for that purpose we firmly believe, clearly shows the true it is that we now wait upon you. In the cause of the distress in which we are in address which has been prepared to present volved. to your Grace upon this occasion, we have · We do not now venture to ask your been unable to avoid alluding to our dis. Grace's opinion of that letter : we wish you tressed condition as farmers ; it is indeed to enjoy the festivities of the University deplorable ; but we are assured that in your undisturbed so long as you remain amongst Grace we have a friend who can feel for our us, but we do entertain a hope that, when situation, and would willingly relieve it. I your Grace shall have returned to London, will not detain your Grace with any further Mr. Bernard's letter will have the honour of observations, but, with your Grace's per- your Grace's perusal, and that we may have the satisfaction of finding that its views as 140 of the most considerable occupiers in to the cause of our suffering, meet your the county. Grace's approbation.
“The reception which the deputation met "We cannot conclude this short address with was a most gratifying one ;-the frank, without again expressing our fervent hope cordial and sincere tone in which the Duke for the prolonged life and continued happi- addressed them, is spoken of in the highest ness of your Grace.
terms by every individual who was present “ To which, as nearly as we could catch, on the occasion. his Grace replied:
“ It being understood that Mr. Bernard 'Gentlemen-When on my entrance into was in Cambridge, it was resolved to invite the town, I was so unexpectedly met by a him to meet a party of the deputation to numerous body of the farmers and yeomanry dine at the Red Lion. That gentleman ac. of the county, I was much gratified indeed cepted the invitation, and about 70 assemby the display of friendly disposition towards bled to meet him; Mr. Thurnall in the chair. myself, but this additional manifestation of The afternoon passed off altogether in the your good wishes does indeed surprise and most satisfactory manner.” gratify me. With regard to the distress This letter of Mr. Bernard's to the Editor existing among those concerned in agricul- of this Magazine, alluded to in the address ture, and prevalent indeed amongst others to the Duke, it will be recollected, traced of similar professions in his Majesty's domi- the present and long-continued distress of nions, I sincerely deplore it. The interest the country, and of the farmers in partiof agriculture, however, is that upon which cular, to Mr. Peel's currency bill of 1819. not the happiness of this country, but that It shewed how that bill was passed, as it of every other mainly depends; and you were, in the dark; how little sensible the may rely, that if Mr. Bernard's letter al- country was of the effects it was about to luded to in your address, and to which I will produce; how dogged our rulers had been pay every attention, suggests anything, or in resisting all enquiry into its effects; and anything occurs to myself which I think will how impossible it was to relieve the distress promote its prosperity, be assured it will be without going to the cause of it, which was undertaken to the utmost of my ability. this currency bill. Mr. Bernard is perfectly Gentlemen, I again repeat to you the sense right here: farmers may whimper and whine I have of the cordial good feeling manifested as long as they please about Guernsey, Jer. towards me by your escorting me into Cam- sey, and Irish importations about the malt bridge, and not the less so for the address tax, and so forth : but if they really expect which you have now presented to me, and to be relieved; if they really wish even to for which I offer you my very sincere ac- appear to desire to be emancipated from knowledgments.
their difficulties, they must follow the ex“ The deputation consisted of Mr. Wm. ample of these honest Cambridgeshire far. Thurnall, Messrs. H. and C. Giblin, P. Grain, mers; they must be up and doing; this is J. Teverson, R. Rodwell, G. H. Harris, P. no time for sluggishness and apathy. Let Howard, R. Emsom, - Lawrence (Ely), every county follow the example of CamMessrs. King, King, (Camois Hall), G. bridgeshire. We all now know the bottom Bullen, W. Beaumont, J. Witt, Messrs. Col. of our distress, that is, the cause of it; and lyer, S. Jonas, J. Fyson, Messrs. Webb, H. with a long pull, and a strong pull, and a Claydon, E. Gardner, Messrs. Kent, Messrs. pull altogether, let us shew our determinaMaris, T. Newman, W. S. Wiles, Messrs. tion to have that cause removed, or, at least, Holben, T. Banyard, W. Hurrell, J. and T. enquired into. Lyles, E. Frost, W. Linton, W. Hall, w. Whitechurch, &c. &c. &c., altogether about
LETTER OF AN OPERATIVE.
medicinable eye Corrects the ill aspects of planets evil
then frights-FIRES—and horrors TO THE EDITOR.
Divert and crack, rend and deracinate Sir, I have devoted three letters, princi- The unity and married calm of states pally to unfold and illustrate the important Quite from their fixture. fact, that the agricultural and manufactur- If we view the conduct and measures ing interests exist in proportions incompa- adopted and pursued by the leading charactible with the well being of society. It is ters in the two great interests of this counnow several years since I arrived at this con- try, we shall find a striking parallelism of clusion. It was from our overgrown manu- design, but a widely different result; for factures, as indicated by stagnations in trade, these respective interests have something glutted markets, &c. which led me to infer contrary and antagonising in their immeconversely that agriculture must be in a diate economy, and of course the parties state of decay, or at least greatly wanting in subject to mutual jealousies, and even recrirelative improvement. The first document, minations ; few seeing the general law which however, which I happened to see, bearing binds altogether; and fewer still, perhaps, out the above conclusion, was a letter which being willing to submit to that law, when it appeared in the Leeds Mercury of Jan. 29, acts as a barrier to their own schemes of 1831, signed "A Farmer;" stating "that it aggrandizement. Indeed the artifical elevawas universally acknowledged that agricul- tion of prices in England have placed every ture was on the decline.” Evidence to this class in a novel situation ; scarcely any one effect is now so abundant that he “who knowing what course to take ; some without runs may read,” some of which I shall in- compass—or with needles unmagnetized, cidentally notice in this communication, are “lost in shallows and uncertainties ;" Strict method, perhaps, would have pointed while others profiting even by such a state of out the propriety of here following up what things, have opened to them a straightforI consider to be the real cause of the above ward course to opulence. But of all classes derangement, as I treated in my last of the the land-owners seem to be the most beof the proximate cause : but I wish to make wildered. They are directed by a political a practical digression, because I may be in economy which has “knotted and gendererror on that point; or may not be able to ed” in the hot beds of manufacturing towns;' render my views of it more than problema- imagining that what is deemed expedient in tical; besides, if fully proved, it may be dif- the one interest, under a forced and unnaficult to get all parties willing that the real tural system, is the same in the other, which cause should be removed, and if we cannot always ought to be a corrective of the evil. do what we ought, we ought to do what we Look at their servile policy. The landlord, in can. In the workings of a complex system order to keep up his rents, throws together it is curious to trace both the phenomena the small farms and makes large farms : and the attempted solutions. The various the millocrat seeks to destroy the little mamotions and motives, thwart and intervolved nufacturer, and erect factories. The land-the contrariety of means and ends—this lord drives away the population, and clears interest predominant and then the other-- his estates of the cottages :--the cotton and now all in utmost harmony" working well,” woollen Lords surround their factories with anon in “opposition trine and quartile” cottages for their work-people, thus adding with aspects evil-this body exorbitating, rents to profits; both have one end in view. then that acquiring an undue momentum By and bye the millocrats strive to superand velocity, disturbing forces being thus sede manual labour by machinery; but in introduced ; and if no master-mind be at stead of the owners of the soil being ready hand to over-rule ; if no
and prepared to welcome back this surplus
population, they indeed view it as a “nuis- now seem rather queer for a landlord to ance,” and promote emigration schemes ! adopt, when the principle of consanguinity The millocrat, we see, lays out his profits, as is nearly destroyed, and capital almost annithey accumulate, in rental property; but hilated ! Such is the vortex into which peothe land-owner spends his rent in the me- ple are driven who abandon rectitude and tropolis or on the continent, instead of lay. justice! As in the physical, so in the moing out a good portion thereof in the re- ral world, the equilibrium may be destroyed, production of rent, it is flung in the lap of but reaction is inevitable : yes, of all exthe subaristocracy, redoubling their wealth pedients the land-owners could have adopted and power at the expense of the land-own- the worst is the “engrossing of large farms,” er, who thus burns his candle at both ends ; and the consequent expulsion of the pea-“dying daily of the most favourable sant from the soil. These almost solitudes, symptoms.” There are two grand errors in with which they have surrounded themthis conduct of the land owners, and seve- selves may seem to promise security—like ral minor ones ; first, it will be ultimate the ostrich who thrusts her head into the ruin, and that at no distant period ; second, thicket and imagines she is safe; it will not that it is accelerative of that result, whereas be so. If the population be not in the prudence would have suggested a counter- country, it must be in the town—if it be active process, even though that catastrophe not agricultural it will be manufacturing, seemed inevitable itself. It will be ultimate and the excess of the one will not be thrown ruin :—for as labour is the source of wealth, back gratuitously into the lap of the other: so is population the source of labour, and -heard you not that cry—“No corn laws ?” there is no imaginable succedaneum ; a pro- In truth, it is in the proper distribution of cess of depopulation will and must neces- the people that gives the "unity and marsarily end in poverty. The increase and ried calm of states," or if either predomidistribution of the population of England nate, the lesser evil is, when the agricultuand Wales, during the last century, is thus ral interest is in the ascendant, not by high exhibited :-Agricultural counties have in- rents and dear corn, but by seeking to "live creased 84 per cent. Manufacturing coun- closer and cultivate better.” I had intendties, 295 do. Metropolitan, 147 do. which ed to have introduced and commented upon must be regarded as of a manufacturing a quotation from the then forthcoming complexion ; and be it remembered that Westminster Review, which I saw in the whatever is thus specifically bad, is natural. True Sun of March 27, 1835, headed "Turn ly aggravated by the condition of Ireland. of the Tables ;” but this letter is perhaps Again ; had the landlords used their rents already over long, so I conclude at present : in the reproduction of rent, by meeting the only I would observe, that though I have demands of a growing population, they no very strong predilections for a land ariswould have placed the 'governor upon the tocracy, yet I do not wish to see them ousted manufacturing interest—not by corn laws', from their possessions, by an order of millobut by a just policy. Food and raiment- crats who grind the faces of the poor, who agricultural and manufacturing produce effect everlasting reductions of wages, and would have maintained a closer equivalency who amass princely fortunes by overworking -competition would not have grown so little children, even so as to denominate intense—workmen not such absolute slaves their system a system of infanticide ! Not I -poor rates not, as they are said to be, gap- indeed. Much, however, depends upon ing to "swallow up the estates"—less toil themselves. would have been exacted, and enjoyment
J. H. more universal. This course indeed may