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lation of Ireland; whether Great Britain, in the management of land in Ireland, he could reference to the condition of her lower only anticipate an increase of poverty and orders, shall or shall not progressively be- misery; and that such change cannot take come what Ireland is at the present mo- place, unless something is done to remove ment."
the people." That no Government system of emigration To these incontrovertible statements Mr. will be resorted to is clear, and unless the Malthus added (what every person will adcondition of the Irish be raised above their mit), that “if the people increase, and conpresent state, the English must certainly tinue in their present state, there can be sink to the level of their neighbours; a pro- little prospect of any greater degree of trancess, indeed, which is now in execution. quillity and security in Ireland,”—and indeed The Committee, after the foregoing passage, the burnings, machine-breaking, and threatgive in their report an abstract of the testi- ening letters in this country, prove that a mony of Mr. Malthus, who had been exa- frightful state of disorganization is now promined before them, and whose evidence, gressing throughout England, and which the although elicited in reference to emigration, establishment of Poor Laws in Ireland will is strikingly conclusive on the subject to materially tend to counteract, by raising the which the work refers :
rate of wages in Great Britain. “Mr. Malthus was asked, whether he bad " It is vain (says the Emigration Report taken into consideration what may be the of 1827) to hope for any permanent and effect of the continued increase of the popu- extensive advantage from any system of lation of Ireland, upon the condition of the emigration, which does not previously apply labouring classes of England ? He stated, to Ireland, whose population, unless some that, in his opinion, the effect will be most other outlet be open to them, must shortly fatal to the happiness of the labouring classes fill up every vacuum created in England or in England, because there will be a constant in Scotland, and reduce the labouring classes and increasing emigration from Ireland to to an uniform system of degradation and England, which will tend to lower the wages misery !" of labour in England, and to prevent the The evidence of Mr. J. G. Strickland begood effects arising from the superior pru- fore the Select Committee of the House of dence of the labouring classes in this coun- Commons, in July 1828, proved, that "the try. He stated, that he had understood that number of persons coming from Ireland to in the western parts of England and Scot- England to obtain work, has annually in. land, in the manufacturing districts, parti- creased immensely in the course of the last cularly in Manchester and Glasgow, the nine years.” Mr. T. L. Pain of Cork, proved wages of labour have been lowered essen- that “ the Mendicity Institution of Cork tially by the coming over of the Irish la- apportioned a part of their funds for the bourers ; which opinion, your Committee purpose of sending the redundant poor labeg to observe, is confirmed by the evidence bourers to England ;"—that " agreements that has been given by witnesses resident in were made with the owners of steam-boats those districts. Mr. Malthus is of opinion, to take the pauper labourers over to Eng. that this emigration will tend materially to land at reduced prices, and in small gangs of alter the habits of the labouring class in forty at a time, that their numbers might England—to force them into the habitual not excite suspicion." consumption of a sort of food inferior to
This was considered the cheapest mode of that to which they are now accustomed, disposing of the paupers, and it is extensively namely, potatoes : and the danger of the use carried on to the present moment. of the lowest quality of food is, that it leaves
The manifest injustice of such conduct no resource in a period of scarcity; whereas towards England is thus stated by the in the case of a population habitually living Select Committee of 1828, appointed to on wheat, there is always the resource of investigate the subject of Irish and Scotch potatoes to compensate for the failure of an vagrants :—“ The house will probably adaverage crop. He is also of opinion that it mit that there appears but little equity will necessarily throw a great number of the English labourers upon the poor rates, inasmuch as, if there be a redundancy of labour • It is remarkable that this evil is of so long in any English parish, the presence of Irish standing without any effort to prevent it
. Rymer's labourers universally seeking for employ- of beggars in England in 1629 was cansed by the
Fædera, xix. p. 72, states, that the great increase ment would prevent such English labour swarms of vagabonds who immediately flocked over from being absorbed. He stated that he was to England on the disbanding of King Charles's satisfied no permanent improvement would army in Ireland. To remedy the evil, a proclama
tion was issued, commanding them to return to take place in the case of the English poor, if Ireland, and ordering them to be conveyed from a portion of them were removed by emigra- constable to constable to one or other of the fol. tion, as long as this influx of Irish labourers lowing sea-ports :-Bristol, Chester, Liverpool, Milcontinued without a check. Mr. Malthus begging afterwards in England, they were to be
ford, Workiugton, &c.; and if they were found stated, that unless a change took place in punished as rogues and vagabonds.
in calling upon the depressed population “ Shake a paw on it," quoth the grim of England to afford to the natives of smoker; and the Dog shook paws. the two other parts of the empire that reiief “And now," said the Griffin, “I will to which they would not be entitled in Ire- tell you what you are to do-look here; land or in Scotland ; and at a time when and, moving his tail, he showed the Dog a there is a want of employment among the great heap of gold and silver, in a hole in poor of our own country, there would seem the ground, that he had covered with the to be no great reason for holding cut such folds of his tail; and, also, what the Dog an additional encouragement to the emigra- thought more valuable, a great heap of tion of the Irish labourer. The evils likely bones of very tempting appearance. to result to the labouring classes of England “Now," said the Griffin, “ during the from the increasing irruption of the pauper day, I can take very good care of these mypopulation of Ireland have been already so self; but at night it is very necessary that often and so truly pointed out by others, I should go to sleep; so when I sleep, you particularly by the Emigration Committee must watch over them instead of me." of 1827, that this Committee think it not “ Very well,” said the Dog; “ as to the necessary to revert to that part of the sub- gold and silver I have no objection; but I ject; but they cannot help expressing their would much rather you would lock up the decided conviction, that if the present system bones, for I'm often hungry of a night" is to continue unchecked, the effects of its " Hold your tongue,” said the Griffin. operation will inevitably be to throw upon But, sir," said the Dog, after a short England, and that at no distant period, the silence,“ surely nobody ever comes into so expense of maintaining the paupers of both retired a situation. Who are the thieves, if countries !” *
I may make bold to ask?” Mr. Malthus admitted before the Emigra- “ Know," answered the Griffin, “ that tion Committee of 1827, that the procedure there are a great many serpents in this by which an Irishman after three years resi, neighbourhood, and they are always trying dence in Scotland is entitled to parochial to steal my treasure; and, if they catch me relief in the same degree as if he had been a napping, they, not contented with theft, Scotchman, is an inducement for the Irish would do their best to sting me to death. So to migrate to Scotland, “which (says Mr. that I am almost worn out for want of sleep." M.) is certainly an evil, as he could obtain “Ah!” quoth the Dog, who was fond no settlement in his own country.”
of a good night's rest, “I don't envy you (To be continued.)
your treasure, sir,”
At night, the Griffin, who had a great
deal of penetration, and saw that he might A FABLE.
depend on the Dog, laid down to sleep in
another corner of the cave; and the Dog, (Continued from our last.)
shaking himself well, so as to be quite
awake, took watch over the treasure. His "I am not a Griffin of many words,” mouth watered exceedingly at the bones, and answered the master of the cavern," and I he could not help smelling them now and then ; give you your choice-be my servant, or be but he said to himself,—“ A bargain's a my breakfast; it is just the same to me. I
bargain, and since I have promised to serve give you time to decide till I have smoked the Griffin, I must serve him as an honest out my pipe."
Dog ought to serve.” The poor Dog did not take so long to
In the middle of the night, he saw a consider. “ It is true,” thought he, that
great snake creeping in by the side of the it is a great misfortune to live in a cave cave, but the Dog set up so loud a bark, with a Griffin of so unpleasant a coun- that the Griffin awoke, and the snake crept tenance; but, probably, if I serve him well away as fast as he could. Then the Griffin and faithfully, he'll take pity on me some was very much pleased, and he gave the day, and let me go back to earth, and prove Dog one of the bones to amuse himself to my cousin what a rogue the Fox is; and with; and every night the Dog watched the as to the rest, though I would sell my life treasure, and acquitted himself so well, that as dear as I could, it is impossible to fight not a snake, at last, dared to make its apa Griffin with a mouth of so monstrous a pearance ;-so the Griffin enjoyed an excelsize;" _in short, he decided to stay with lent night's rest. the Griffin.
The Dog now found himself much more The evidence of Mr. Powel (Lord Dillon's comfortable than he expected. The Griffin agent in London), as well as other witnesses, proves, regularly gave him one of the bones for that the rent of the couar's land in Ireland is supper; and, pleased with his fidelity, made earned in England, and transmitted to Ireland to himself as agreeable a master as a Griffin be paid to the resident proprietor, or to the absentee landlord's sleward; thus increasing the poor
could do. Still, however, the Dog was rales in England, and redncing the wages of labor. secretly very anxious to return to earth;
THE WOOING OF MASTER FOX.
for having nothing to do during the day, On this the watch-Dog grew angry, and, but to doze on the ground, he dreamt per- though with much reluctance, he seized the petually of his cousin the Cat's charms; little Dog by the nape of the neck and threw and, in fancy, he gave the rascal Reynard him off, though without hurting him. Sudas hearty a worry as a Fox may well have denly the little dog changed into a monhave the honour of receiving from a Dog's strous serpent, bigger even than the Griffin paws. He awoke panting-alas! he could himself, and the watch-Dog barked with all not realise his dreams.
his might. The Griffin rose in a great hurry, One night, as he was watching as usual and the Serpent sprang upon him ere he over the treasure, he was greatly surprised was well awake. I wish, dearest Nymphato see a beautiful little black and white dog lin, you could have seen the battle between enter the cave; and it came fawning to our the Griffin and the Serpent, how they coiled honest friend, wagging its tail with pleasure. and twisted, and bit and darted their fiery
“Ah! little one," said our Dog, whom, tongues at each other. to distinguish, I will call the watch-Dog,
PILGRIMS OF THE RHINE “ you had better make the best of your way beck again. See, there is a great Griffin
(To be continued in our next.) asleep in the other corner of the cave, and if he wakes, he will either eat you up, or make you his servant as he has made me.” “I know what you would tell me,” says
COMMUNICATIONS RECEIVED. the little Dog; " and I have come down
Various Letters and Communications here to deliver you. The stone is now gone have been received, and are now under the from the mouth of the cave, and you have consideration of the Committee; they will nothing to do but to go back with me. be made use of from time to time as opporCome, brother, come.”
tunity offers. The Dog was very much excited by this address." “Don't ask me, my dear little friend,” said he, “ you must be aware that I should be too happy to escape out of this NOTICE TO CORRESPONDING cold cave, and roll on the soft turf once
MEMBERS. more; but if I leave my master, the Griffin, those cursed serpents, who are always on The Agricultural Associations which have the watch, will come in and steal his trea- sprung up so numerously in consequence of sure—nay, perhaps, sting him to death.” distress, are especially requested to take Then the little Dog came up to the watch- active steps to introduce the circulation of Dog, and remonstrated with him gently, the Magazine in every market town and and licked him caressingly on both sides of district; agriculture being admitted on all his face; and, taking him by the ear, en- hands to be the foundation of the great home deavoured to draw him from the treasure, trade, which is so miserably depressed. but the Dog would not stir a step, though With a view to this, the Corresponding his heart sorely pressed him. At length Members are requested to communicate the little Dog, finding it all in vain, said, with the Agricultural Associations in their “ Well then, if I must leave, good-bye; but respective districts. I have become so hungry in coming down It is also to be hoped that Corresponding all this way after you, that I wish you Members will forward, at their earliest conwould give me one of those bones; they venience, to the Secretary, any details or smell very pleasantly, and one out of so statistical facts relative to the agricultural, many could never be missed."
commercial, or maritime condition of the Alas,” said the watch-Dog, with tears people. in his eyes, “how unlucky I am to have Annual subscriptions of £1., and donaeat up the bone my master gave me, other- tions, to be paid to Local Committees, or wise you should have had it and welcome. into the Bank of Matthias Attwood, Esq. But I can't give you one of these, because M.P. Gracechurch-street, London. Annual my master has made me promise to watch subscribers of £1. are entitled to five copies over them all, and I have given him my paw of each number for the year ; and donors of on it. I am sure a dog of your respectable £5. £10. £15. £20. or £25., to five, ten, fif. appearance will say nothing farther on the teen, twenty, or twenty-five copies, accordsubject."
ing to the amount of donation. These Then the little dog answered pettishly, copies will be furnished to the subscribers “ Pooh, what nonsense you talk; surely a or donors on application to the Publishers, great Griffin can't miss a little bone, fit for who will forward them according to instrucme;" and nestling his nose under the watch- tions. Dog, he tried forthwith to bring up one of the bones.
PRINTED BY W. NICOL, 51, PALL MALL.
" A LONG PULL, AND A STRONG PULL, AND A PULL ALL-TOGETHER,
FOR BETTER PRICES, BETTER PROFITS, AND BETTER WAGES.
* Alas, my dear Sir, I am dying every day of IS THE COUNTRY DISTRESSED? the most favourable symptoms."-Pope. The same day which brought to us the TO THE EDITOR OF THE MORNING CHRONICLE. proofs of our third Number, brought also
London, October 29, 1834.* the Morning Chronicle Newspaper, containing a letter with the signature T. on the has been called to a new periodical—the first
SIR—Within these few days my attention subject of this Magazine. It was not our number appeared on the first of this month intention to observe upon every passing --it is to be published monthly, and is called criticism ; but, if our right hand has not quite forgot its cunning, we think we could of the Society for the Encouragement of Do,
“ The Agricultural and Industrial Magazine write down the name at length of the signa- mestic Industry, and for promoting effectual ture T. which would exhibit to the public relief from the general distress.” The comview the arch representative in office, * of mittee of management, wholly members of the very dogmas we have essayed to op- Parliament, consists of-chairman, E. S. pose : and if this be a true conclusion, Cayley, Esq. M.P.; Hon. D. G. Hallyburton, nothing in the troubled sea of politics M. P.; Sir G. Cayley, Bart. M.P.; Sir Hyde could have delighted us opportunity thus afforded of meeting that Parker, M.P.; Sir R. B. Bulkely, Bart. M.P. Right Hon. Gentleman in an arena, not
Sir Eardley Wilmot, Bart. M.P.; George disturbed by party cheers and feelings, but,
Finch, Esq. M.P.; Hesketh Fleetwood, Esq. where fair play at least will be allowed. M.P.; W. C. Harland, Esq. M.P.; H. LamThe occasion is the more opportune, as we A. Chapman, Esq. M.P.; R. H. Hall Dare,
bert, Esq. M.P.; E. C. Lister, Esq. M. P.; were half in want of a stimulus to write an article or two on general distress before Esq. M.P.; L. W. Dillwyn, Esq. M.P.; John giving an historical sketch from first to last Fielden, Esq. M.P.; Sir C. Burrell, Bart. of the depreciation and appreciation of the M.P.; J. Maxwell, Esq. M.P.; R. A. Oswald, currency which has taken place since 1797. Esq. M.P.; G. Sinclair, Esq. M.P.; C. Tyrell,
Since the enemy has thus put forth his Esq. M.P.; G. F. Young, Esq. M.P. strength, we will meet him "foot to foot,” ceived by the House of Commons, they
Finding their plans but indifferently remaye, and horse to horse, and column to column : this, however, is but a cowardly
"shame the rogues and print them.” speech after all, for such is the weakness of
Their names sufficiently indicate the nathe forces he has to lead on to the attack, and
ture of the “ effectual relief” which the so quickly may the tables be turned, that if society would afford, viz.: “a relaxation of certain expressions did not render the identity dard that is, or unlimited issues of incon
the currency"-a degradation of the stanof T. a moral certainty, we should in sober vertible paper on the one hand; “ adequate” earnest have thought, that we were obliged to some good natured friend in disguise, who protecting duties—that is, such duties as the had wished to gain for us a easy victory.
parties interested would recommend-for We are aware of the typographical diffi. the agriculturist, the manufacturer, and the culty of setting statements against each shipowner, on the other. other in opposing columns: if for no other is to persuade the nation to adopt one or
The motive, of course, for the publication reason than that a complete answer must ever take a larger space than a complete assertion. both of these exquisite schemes; the one Our readers will forgive us for the waste of which, by a species of “thimble-rig conpaper occasionally in one of the columns.
veyance, would benefit the nation by enrichAfter all, however, T. shall have all the ing all debtors at the expense of all creditors, effect we can give him. To publish his by robbing Peter to pay Paul--the other letter at first in detached sentences at long community from buying cheap, in order to
better our condition by preventing the whole intervals might be construed into unfairness. We are not afraid of fair argument, chance of profit by selling dear: we are to
give to some portion of that community the and although we have the answer before he shall have the benefit of two weeks ad- get rich by mutually and universally picking vance of it. We give his letter in fuil in each others pockets.
The execution of this notable project is the present Number, begging our readers to read and digest it well, and to mark the worthy of the designt: both are safe from principles and the facts on which he shall be answered word for word and column
* Morning Chronicle, Nov. 6. against column in our next.
† The ignorance, indeed, of these good people
of the matter they have undertaken to bandle, is In the press before the late ministerial changes. quite astounding: in the first page it is coolly as
exposure or criticism for reasons which it The census of 1821 showed a population of 21,193,458 would not be decorous, even during the va- The census of 1832 showed a population of 24,271,763 cation of Parliament, to enlarge upon. I
Being an increase of 3,078,305 should not accordingly, Mr. Editor, have thought it worth while to trouble you or shall have, in round numbers, 25,000,000
Assuming the same ratio of increase, we your readers with any comment on so very for the population, of 1833—an increase innocent a publication, but that it affords a
upon the population, of 17 per cent. fit opportunity to say word upon the as
Let us now take the three great staples of sertion-on an assumption of the truth of which these respectable gentlemen have be- periods respectively, what were the quanti
our manufactures, and examine, at those taken themselves to the dangerous occupa- ties retained for home consumption. tion of book-making, and which has been
COTTON. made so perseveringly that others, perhaps,
1821-2,513,518 lbs. 1821-137,401,549 lbs. besides the assertors may believe it to be 1833–4,758,453 1833—296,076,640 true-I mean that assumption of general distress which figures in the title of the Increase, 2,244,935–47 per c. 158,675,091-115 per C.
FOREIGN WOOL. Agricultural and Industrial Magazine,
1821-15,898,353 lbs. "general distress.” The assertion involved
1833-39,618,503 in this phrase is difficult to handle, not only
Increase, 23,720,150-150 per Cent. from its vagueness, but from the extreme fastidiousness of the assertors, as to the
Home consumption, with respect to the nature of the evidence by which it is to be above articles, means all that was worked rebutted. Point to the improvement of the up at home, whether for home use or export; roads—they tell you it arises from the mul- but the proportion used at home was no titude of paupers'; to the increase of houses doubt about similar at both periods. With --they are built on speculation and with regard to the following six articles no such borrowed money; to enlarged trade as an
uncertainty exists. evidence of wealth—they smile at your RETAINED FOR HOME CONSUMPTION. credulity, and show you it is all carried on
SPIRITS. to a loss; talk of the immense increase of
1821—-7,503,001 lbs. 1821-13,160,288 Galls.
1833—22,760,523 1833–26,069,757 every description of carriage—and Mr. T. Attwood (the real founder and prophet of Increase 15,257,522-203 per C. 13,509,469–102 per C. the sect, although most ungratefully omitted
1821--3,056,882 Cwt. 1821-4,686,885 Galls. in the committee of management of the
1833-1,075,762 1833–6,413,789 “ Industrial" Magazine), will assure you that a fondness for vehicular conveyance is Increase 1,018,880-33 per C. 1,726,904—37 per C.
TOBACCO. one of the commonest forms of phrenzy
1821-22,426,627 lbs. 1821-15,328,550 lbs produced by the desperation of utter ruin. 1833--31,829,075 1833—20,771,813 To what kind of evidence shall we then resort? Food and raiment, that which can
Increase 9,402,348–42 per C. 4,943,263-31 per C. be worn or eaten—perhaps even the com- Thus, while the increase of our population mittee of the Industrial Magazine will allow has been 17 per cent., the mean increase of that the presence of “general distress” in consumption of the materials of our three any community may be not ill-measured by great staples of manufacture has been 100 the degree in which its members are provi- per cent.; and of the six articles which conded with these matters.
tribute to the comforts or luxuries of all If, therefore, a nation shall be found to classes, 75 per cent. have from one period to another less of these The imperfect state of our statistical innecessaries, comforts, or luxuries, it may be formation does not afford us the means of said to be more distressed in the latter than ascertaining the increase of consumption of the former period; if it possess and enjoy the mere necessaries of life-bread and animore of them, it can scarcely, I think, be mal food; but independently of the predenied by any one out of the committee, sumption that with the increased consumpthat the general distress" is somewhat tion of those things which are comparatively abated. Let us apply this test to our own luxuries, the consumption of necessaries, case. We will go back from 1833 to 1821, amongst the humbler classes, must also have a period of 12 years, for two reasons; first, increased in a ratio greater than the populabecause we have in 1821 a census of the tion, we have the well-established fact, that population ; secondly, because in that year (speaking of the whole community) the rate we returned to cash payments—the grand of wages has fallen, within the period refercause, according to the Industrial Commit- red to; indeed since the war, very much less tee, of general distress.
than the price of provisions. With these
facts before us, shall we really permit ourserted, in the very teeth of official documents and selves to be persuaded into the belief that recorded facts, thai the circulating medium during we are a declining people? That there is the war was double what it is al present !!! misery in Ireland (although Ireland is im