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cation, by the extreme press of business at tions in the price for weaving, a fact material present in his department, but I am at the to consider when it is recollected that the same time to express to you his thanks for piece is so constantly referred to as a definite the suggestions and observations which your measure. letter contains,
Mr. Patrick M' Gray, a hand-loom weaver I am, &c.
of Drogheda, confirmed the statement given T. S. RICE.
to your Committee by Mr. Chadwick. He
stated that the earnings of a weaver are not REPORT OF THE SELECT COMMITTEE
more than 3s. to 38. 6d. per week ; that they ON HAND-LOOM WEAVERS.
generally live upon potatoes and salt, and (Continued from page 16, Vol. II.)
that only; that they are compelled to send That as to the third class, some of them their wives and families out to beg every day have potatoe-ground in the country, which in the week; and that the majority of the aids them in procuring food; but that the Weavers at Drogheda think it is impossible whole body are unable to procure by their they can be worse off unless their lives be earnings a sufficiency of necessary food; taken. that they are extremely ill clad; that, on From Spitalfields, Your Committee took that account, many refrain from attending the evidence of Mr. Ballance, a respectable Divine Worship, and that the witness has manufacturer, who stated that the weaver observed, for some time, a marked falling off could earn at the time he spoke from 78. 6d. in the looms, from the inability of the wea- to 88. per week, clear of deductions ; but vers to repair or renew them. The evidence that, to do this, he was compelled to work of this witness was confirmed before your 14 hours a day; that this labour is excessive, Committee by that of Mr. Moncrief, a ma- and is incompatible with the weaver's health ; nufacturer coming from the same place. that up to 1826, he could earn 14s. or 163.
As confirming the statement from Belfast, a week, and was not then overpaid ; that 205. your Committee will further state, that two per week would be sufficient pay; that it is witnesses were sent to give evidence, from impossible for them to support themselves Drogheda, being chosen at a meeting called at their present earnings ; that their disby the Mayor. Mr. J. Chadwick, a dealer in tresses are truly appalling, there being now linen, was first examined, and bore testimony many men who used to support their families to the wretched condition of the hand-loom with credit, who are mere paupers. weavers of the neighbourhood from which Mr. John Duce, a weaver of Spitalfields, he came, stating that their earnings were confirmed the above fully, and stated that not sufficient to find them in the necessaries the hours of labour were now frequently 16 of life; that in 1812 the wages for weaving hours a day; his answer to the question a piece of 78 yards was 158.; that in 1816 “ Do many of the spitalfields weavers work it was 168.; that in 1820 five yards were 16 hours a day?" being the following: "Yes, added to the length of the piece, and the often ; and on the Sunday, if you will walk price for weaving reduced to 108.; that in there, you will hear the looms going.” 1828 the length of the piece was again in
(To be continued.) creased to 88 yards, and the price for weaving
It is requested that Subscriptions be reduced to 78. 6d.; that in 1834 the length not paid to unknown individuals ; if not into of the piece was increased to 93 yards, and
the Bank of M. Attwood, Esq. M. P. then to the price for weaving reduced to 78. And
some Member of the Society. your Committee think it right to observe
Communications to be sent to the Secretary here, that this principle has been adopted
post paid. often, namely, increasing the length or breadth of the cloth concurrently with reduce PRINTED BY W. NICOL, 51, PALL MALL.
“A LONG PULL, AND A STRONG PULL, AND A PULL ALL-TOGETHER,”
FOR BETTER PRICES, BETTER PROFITS, AND BETTER WAGES.
each year of the same period; specifying the places to which they were sent :”
8. “Of the quantities of wheat and flour Speed the Plough.”
imported into this country from Canada, So conflicting are the opinions broached on and entered for home consumption, in each every side respecting the cause of the grie- year of the same period :" vous depression in the price of wheat (al. 9. “Of the quantity of Foreign wheat in though to those who are not wilfully blind, bond on 1st October, 1824 :” the matter is clear enough) that he renders 10. “Of the quantity of foreign wheat almost as great a benefit who affords ma- bonded since that date :" terials by which error may be disproved and 11. “Of the quantity of foreign wheat exploded, as he who has the merit of point- remaining in bond, at the time of making ing out the actual truth. Mr. Dillwyn, one up the last return;" of the Committee of this Society, and Mem- 12. “Of the quantity of foreign wheat ber for Glamorganshire, has therefore done taken out of bond in each year since 1st good service to the cause of agriculture in October, 1824." moving for the following returns :
The first of these returns will not speak so “Wheat and flour,-Returns ordered, much to the purpose in hand as the second :
1. “Of the quantities of wheat and flour but it will shew what the consumption of sold in Mark-lane in each year since 1824 :" London is, compared with the population,
2. “Of the quantities of wheat sold in latterly and in 1824. And if it be true, as each of the other 149 markets from which some assert, that the low prices are owing returns are made since 1828, and in the to an abundant supply, this will be shewn other towns which made returns prior to by the sales in Mark-lane having increased 1828, for each year since 1824 :"
in a greater ratio than the population; or if 3. “Of the quantities of wheat and flour the population of London, as the philosoimported into this country from Ireland, as phers maintain, is better off now than in the produce of that kingdom, in each year 1824, there will be the same result. This since 1824;"
return will also shew, in conjunction with 4. “Similar return, with regard to Scot. the next, the proportion of wheat consumed land :"
in the metropolis compared with that con5. “Of the quantities of foreign wheat sumed in the country districts; and thus and flour entered for home consumption, give a clue to the solution of another quesand upon which duty has been paid, for each tion which has been mooted, viz: the inyear of the same period :”
creased consumption of potatoes among the 6. “Of the quantities of wheat, flour, and working classes in the provinces in consebiscuit imported into this country from Jer- quence of their reduced circumstances; an sey, Guernsey, and the Isle of Man, in each opinion to which we attach considerable creyear since 1824; distinguishing the ports at dit and importance. We certainly have which they were entered;"
heard innumerable instances of the growth 7. “Of the quantities of wheat, flour, and of potatoe consumption, which must tend biscuit exported from the same islands in to diminish the price of wheat : but what a VOL. II.
cause is this for reducing the price!! Reduce sive increase of Irish importations, by which wages another half, and wheat again in pro- means we shall be able to judge whether portion, and then what a jubilee for the they have been sufficient to account for the stock-jobbers! All these reductions having great fall in price, as Sir Robert Peel would their ultimate source, as we contend, and lead us to suppose. It is true that we are proceeding to prove, in the diminished have this return to a great extent before currency arising out of the bill of 1819. us in the papers delivered in to the Agricul
The second return will in a great measure tural Committee of 1833, but not in so conshew the productiveness of each season since venient a form. Our view of the Irish im1824 ; and we only wish that it had extend- portations is, that they have not been by ed to barley and oats as well as wheat; be many degrees sufficient to account for the cause we should then have had a confirma- fall ; especially since Mr. Jacob, of the Board tion of what is actually the fact, viz: that of Trade, himself, assured the Agricultural barley and oats have been, the last year or Committee of 1833, that this country, which two, high in price compared with wheat, ow about the year 1824, was competent to suping to deficient harvests, a fact that would ply itself with wheat, was now (in consebe exhibited in the comparative quantities quence of increased population) unable to sold in the growing districts. With respect do so, notwithstanding the large increase of to wheat, however, this return will shew Irish importations, and was on an average the scarce harvests of 1828 and the years dependent on foreign supply for about immediately succeeding, except where the 500,000 qrs. If this be true, or near it, town making the returns derives its supply the Irish importations ought not to have mainly from an upland district, which would caused one penny of the fall in price. This profit by a wet season. And this will afford however, we are well convinced of, viz. that data as to the proportion of upland soil although Irish importations have not been bearing wheat in the kingdom, and the pro- the cause of the great decline in price in portion of low land ; because the latter it England,—the decline of price in England, was which suffered so lamentably in conse- has been the cause of the increased Irish quence of the wet harvests of the above importations. Rents have been much more years; and where the growing districts shew fixed and much more strictly exacted, a very marked deficiency at those periods, through middlemen, in Ireland than in Eng. they will probably be composed of clay land. land : to amass a fixed rent, the tenant Then we shall be able to compare the supply must have a certain price for his commodity: in the growing districts for the last two if pigs are low, he must send more pigs to years (which are said to have been so over- market, and leave himself nothing but potaabundant as to cause the immense reduction toes: if wheat is low, and the rent cannot in price) with seasons of ordinary yield at be otherwise scraped together, the landlord, other periods, when the breadth of tillage if he be encumbered, which nine out of ten for wheat has been as large. We must pre- of Irish landlords are, is compelled to allow mise, however, that about 1824, the bone the tenant the privilege of ploughing up husbandry was only beginning to come into old pasture land, which will grow luxuriant general operation, and that this has increas- crops without manure. An immense quaned of late years the quantity of land usually tity of pasture land has been broken up dedicated to wheat; but in some measure from this cause since the fall in prices, and to counterbalance this increase, the cold with a view merely of meeting that fall; in clays, from the poverty of the farmers, have this view, which we have long held, we are been much over-cropped and run out, and, corroborated by that intelligent and most of course, are less productive.
impartial traveller Mr. Iriglis, in his inva. The third return will shew the progres. luable book " Ireland in 1834.” This is also Mr. O'Connell's opinion. Are we not were substantiated, the quantity imported is justified, then, in saying that low prices so small, it could produce little or no effect have produced larger Irish importations, on price. rather than that Irish importations have These returns, giving us the power to produced low prices ?
form such judgments and arrive at such The 6th and 7th returns will be instru- conclusions, must necessarily be very immental in showing in what degree the im• portant; and we again thank the hon. memportations from the Channel Islands and the ber for Glamorganshire, for obtaining them Isle of Man, have affected our markets. for us. They will enable us the better to The Committee which lately sat on that sweep away all those delusions with which subject, makes out a sufficient case, in our self-interested men have worked upon the opinion, against the complaints which were minds of the farmers (aye, and the land. made of extensive smuggling from that lords too, for both have been equally igno. quarter. And the reasoning is equally con- rant, and equally the dupes of the stockclusive. If men did not think it worth jobbers), and blinded them as to the real while to smuggle when corn was high, and efficient cause of their distress. But when they might have made a large profit, these returns have not been procured withthey will not do it, to any extent, at out difficulty. It is true that Mr. Dillwyn least, when corn is low, and there is less obtained, as is usual in moving for returns room for a profit to be afforded. Besides, of this nature, the consent of the Treasury, when we know the quantity of foreign although, it is understood, with some diffi. corn coming in to the Channel Islands, and culty: and the returns were ordered by the that exported from thence to England, we House of Commons. It appears, however, know, at least, that more cannot be ex- that Mr. Poulett Thompson was not present ported, than comes in to the Islands from in his place at the time; for immediately foreign countries: and suppose we allow on hearing that these returns had been orthat the whole came to England free of dered, he gave notice of his intention to duty, it would not affect the market in any move that they be rescinded. No doubt, it sensible degree. But it was clearly made was disagreeable that the truth on these out before the Committee, that if any were subjects should be unfolded to the public; smuggled, it could only be somewhere about because it would be an insuperable answer 3,000 or 4,000 quarters. We should wish to all the delusions about good harvests our readers, however, to be in possession of having been the main cause of the fall in the facts of the case, and so the return will price. However, it appears, that an underbe useful.
standing was come to between Mr. Dillwyn The other returns refer mainly to the and Mr. Poulett Thompson, and that the latforeign importations, and will shew,--Ist, ter ultimately consented to abandon his how much or how little we have been de- opposition to the returns. The grounds pendent on a foreign supply; and 2dly, how stated by Mr. Poulett Thompson for his much or how little the fall in price has been wish to rescind the leave for the returns, are caused by foreign importations; it will also understood to have been a Report made by shew what amount of duty operates against the Statistical Board (in the Board of Trade) letting foreign corn out of bond.
that the returns were already before the As there have been charges made of smug. House, or in the London Gazette ! Suppogling corn of the United States through sing this to be fact, what was the StatistiCanada, for export to England, at the Cana. cal Board instituted for, but to extract from dian rate of duty, viz. 58. a quarter; that the innumerable and disorderly returns return will shew that, even if this charge made to the House of Commons some clear view of the information already before it,
Liverpool, August 31, 1835. the most of which, till lately, was a confused “Waiting upon you, as usual, with our chaos of heterogeneous matter? An accu- monthly report of the corn trade, we have mulation of matter that was useless to the esteemed the present month a proper period public until it became separated and digested for extending the scale of imports to a series for the scrutiny of ordinary enquirers. of years, and have, accordingly, given in the
But when has the 2nd, the most impor- following table, the annual importation of tant of all the returns, been laid before the each article of the trade, taking the twelve House ? viz. that for the quantity sold at months ending 31st August, 1829, as the each of the 149 markets, taking the ave- first of the series. rages? Never, as far as we know. The returns, as at present ordered, would be of great service, and afford essential information to the agriculturists; and it shewed no friendly disposition to the British farmer to interpose any obstacles in their way; and the perseverance of Mr. Dillwyn, in obtaining them, is worthy of the highest praise.
P.S.—We subjoin the foregoing letter, which has just come before us, from one of the regular Correspondents of the Mark Lane Express, from Liverpool, corroborating our views respecting the importations from Ireland. We have stated before, that in 1834 the importations of wheat from Ireland into Liverpool were much diminished from those of the previous year : the present account shews that in 1835, the importations are less by nearly 200,000 quarters than in 1833 ; the whole quantity in 1833 being only 459,000 quarters, which exhibits a diminution in the export of wheat from Ireland into Liverpool in two years of about 40 per cent. We shall hear next, no doubt, that the diminished supply from Ireland has lowered the price! At all events it will be accounted for by the increased growth of wheat and excellent harvests in England;
Total Imports 12 months ending August 31st, 1835 296775
Prices on ditto ditto 58. 6d.
otal Imports 12 months ending August 31st, 1834 893812 31454
Prices on ditto ditto 58. 9d.
Prices on ditto ditto 7s. 10d.
Prices on ditto ditto
Prices on ditto ditto 105.
the writer of the letter below is of this opi: il ?
nion apparently. The return (No. 2.) of the quantity sold in all the markets, taking the averages, will prove whether the quan. tity has increased ; so that whichever way we look, the above returns will be of paramount service to the cause of British agri. culture, as tending to sweep away delusions that have so long interfered with its relief.
The following is the letter to which we referred :