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“A LONG PULL, AND A STRONG PULL, AND A PULL ALL-TOGETHER,"
FOR BETTER PRICES, BETTER PROFITS, AND BETTER WAGES.
each year of the same period; specifying the places to which they were sent :"
8. “ Of the quantities of wheat and flour “ Speed the Plough.”
imported into this country from Canada, So conflicting are the opinions broached on and entered for home consumption, in each every side respecting the cause of the grie- year of the same period :" vous depression in the price of wheat (al. 9. “Of the quantity of Foreign wheat in though to those who are not wilfully blind, bond on 1st October, 1824 :" the matter is clear enough) that he renders 10. “Of the quantity of foreign wheat almost as great a benefit who affords ma- bonded since that date :" terials by which error may be disproved and 11. “Of the quantity of foreign wheat exploded, as he who has the merit of point- remaining in bond, at the time of making ing out the actual truth. Mr. Dillwyn, one up the last return :" of the Committee of this Society, and Mem- 12. “Of the quantity of foreign wheat ber for Glamorganshire, has therefore done taken out of bond in each year since Ist good service to the cause of agriculture in October, 1824." moving for the following returns :
The first of these returns will not speak so “ Wheat and flour,-Returns ordered, much to the purpose in hand as the second :
1. “Of the quantities of wheat and flour but it will shew what the consumption of sold in Mark-lane in each year since 1824 :” London is, compared with the population,
2. “Of the quantities of wheat sold in latterly and in 1824. And if it be true, as each of the other 149 markets from which some assert, that the low prices are owing returns are made since 1828, and in the to an abundant supply, this will be shewn other towns which made returns prior to by the sales in Mark-lane having increased 1828, for each year since 1824 :"
in a greater ratio than the population; or if 3. “Of the quantities of wheat and flour the population of London, as the philosoimported into this country from Ireland, as phers maintain, is better off now than in the produce of that kingdom, in each year 1824, there will be the same result. This since 1824:"
return will also shew, in conjunction with 4. “Similar return, with regard to Scot. the next, the proportion of wheat consumed land :"
in the metropolis compared with that con5. “Of the quantities of foreign wheat sumed in the country districts; and thus and four entered for home consumption, give a clue to the solution of another quesand upon which duty has been paid, for each tion which has been mooted, viz : the inyear of the same period :"
creased consumption of potatoes among the 6. “Of the quantities of wheat, flour, and working classes in the provinces in consebiscuit imported into this country from Jer- quence of their reduced circumstances; an sey, Guernsey, and the Isle of Man, in each opinion to which we attach considerable creyear since 1824; distinguishing the ports at dit and importance. We certainly have which they were entered ;"
heard innumerable instances of the growth 7. “Of the quantities of wheat, flour, and of potatoe consumption, which must tend biscuit exported from the same islands in to diminish the price of wheat : but what a VOL. II.
cause is this for reducing the price!! Reduce sive increase of Irish importations, by which wages another half, and wheat again in pro- means we shall be able to judge whether portion, and then what a jubilee for the they have been sufficient to account for the stock-jobbers! All these reductions having great fall in price, as Sir Robert Peel would their ultimate source, as we contend, and lead us to suppose. It is true that we are proceeding to prove, in the diminished have this return to a great extent before currency arising out of the bill of 1819. us in the papers delivered in to the Agricul
The second return will in a great measure tural Committee of 1833, but not in so conshew the productiveness of each season since venient a form. Our view of the Irish im1824 ; and we only wish that it had extend- portations is, that they have not been by ed to barley and oats as well as wheat; be many degrees sufficient to account for the cause we should then have had a confirma- fall ; especially since Mr. Jacob, of the Board tion of what is actually the fact, viz : that of Trade, himself, assured the Agricultural barley and oats have been, the last year or Committee of 1833, that this country, which two, high in price compared with wheat, ow- about the year 1824, was competent to suping to deficient harvests, a fact that would ply itself with wheat, was now (in consebe exhibited in the comparative quantities quence of increased population) unable to sold in the growing districts. With respect do so, notwithstanding the large increase of to wheat, however, this return will shew Irish importations, and was on an average the scarce harvests of 1828 and the years dependent on foreign supply for about immediately succeeding, except where the 500,000 qrs. If this be true, or near it, town making the returns derives its supply the Irish importations ought not to have mainly from an upland district, which would caused one penny of the fall in price. This profit by a wet season. And this will afford however, we are well convinced of, viz. that data as to the proportion of upland soil although Irish importations have not been bearing wheat in the kingdom, and the pro- the cause of the great decline in price in portion of low land; because the latter it England,—the decline of price in England, was which suffered so lamentably in conse- has been the cause of the increased Irish quence of the wet harvests of the above importations. Rents have been much more years; and where the growing districts shew fixed and much more strictly exacted, a very marked deficiency at those periods, through middlemen, in Ireland than in Engthey will probably be composed of clay land. land : to amass a fixed rent, the tenant Then we shall be able to compare the supply must have a certain price for his commodity: in the growing districts for the last two if pigs are low, he must send more pigs to years (which are said to have been so over- market, and leave himself nothing but potaabundant as to cause the immense reduction toes: if wheat is low, and the rent cannot in price) with seasons of ordinary yield at be otherwise scraped together, the landlord, other periods, when the breadth of tillage if he be encumbered, which nine out of ten for wheat has been as large. We must pre- of Irish landlords are, is compelled to allow mise, however, that about 1824, the bone the tenant the privilege of ploughing up husbandry was only beginning to come into old pasture land, which will grow luxuriant general operation, and that this has increas. crops without manure. An immense quaned of late years the quantity of land usually tity of pasture land has been broken up dedicated to wheat; but in some measure from this cause since the fall in prices, and to counterbalance this increase, the cold with a view merely of meeting that fall; in clays, from the poverty of the farmers, have this view, which we have long held, we are been much over-cropped and run out, and, corroborated by that intelligent and most of course, are less productive.
impartial traveller Mr. Iriglis, in his invaThe third return will shew the progres. luable book “ Ireland in 1834.” This is also Mr. O'Connell's opinion. Are we not were substantiated, the quantity imported is justified, then, in saying that low prices so small, it could produce little or no effect have produced larger Irish importations, on price. rather than that Irish importations have These returns, giving us the power to produced low prices ?
form such judgments and arrive at such The 6th and 7th returns will be instru. conclusions, must necessarily be very immental in showing in what degree the im. portant; and we again thank the hon. memportations from the Channel Islands and the ber for Glamorganshire, for obtaining them Isle of Man, have affected our markets. for us. They will enable us the better to The Committee which lately sat on that sweep away all those delusions with which subject, makes out a sufficient case, in our self-interested men have worked upon the opinion, against the complaints which were minds of the farmers (aye, and the land. made of extensive smuggling from that lords too, for both have been equally igno. quarter. And the reasoning is equally con- rant, and equally the dupes of the stockclusive. If men did not think it worth jobbers), and blinded them as to the real while to smuggle when corn was high, and efficient cause of their distress. But when they might have made a large profit, these returns have not been procured withthey will not do it, to any extent, at out difficulty. It is true that Mr. Dillwyn least, when corn is low, and there is less obtained, as is usual in moving for returns room for a profit to be afforded. Besides, of this nature, the consent of the Treasury, when we know the quantity of foreign although, it is understood, with some difficorn coming in to the Channel Islands, and culty: and the returns were ordered by the that exported from thence to England, we House of Commons. It appears, however, know, at least, that more cannot be ex- that Mr. Poulett Thompson was not present ported, than comes in to the Islands from in his place at the time; for immediately foreign countries: and suppose we allow on hearing that these returns had been orthat the whole came to England free of dered, he gave notice of his intention to duty, it would not affect the market in any move that they be rescinded. No doubt, it sensible degree. But it was clearly made was disagreeable that the truth on these out before the Committee, that if any were subjects should be unfolded to the public; smuggled, it could only be somewhere about because it would be an insuperable answer 3,000 or 4,000 quarters. We should wish to all the delusions about good harvests our readers, however, to be in possession of having been the main cause of the fall in the facts of the case, and so the return will price. However, it appears, that an underbe useful.
standing was come to between Mr. Dillwyn The other returns refer mainly to the and Mr. Poulett Thompson, and that the latforeign importations, and will shew,- 1st, ter ultimately consented to abandon his how much or how little we have been de- opposition to the returns. The grounds pendent on a foreign supply; and 2dly, how stated by Mr. Poulett Thompson for his much or how little the fall in price has been wish to rescind the leave for the returns, are caused by foreign importations; it will also understood to have been a Report made by shew what amount of duty operates against the Statistical Board (in the Board of Trade) letting foreign corn out of bond.
that the returns were already before the As there have been charges made of smug. House, or in the London Gazette! Suppo. gling corn of the United States through sing this to be fact, what was the StatistiCanada, for export to England, at the Cana. cal Board instituted for, but to extract from dian rate of duty, viz. 58. a quarter; that the innumerable and disorderly returns return will shew that, even if this charge made to the House of Commons some clear Total Imports 12 months ending August 31st, 1835
al Imports 12 months ending August 31st, 1833
Prices on ditto ditto
Total Imports 12 months ending August 31st, 1832
Prices on ditto ditto
Total Imports 12 months erding Angust 31st, 1831
Prices on ditto ditto
Total Imports 12 months endloy August 31st, 1830
Total Imports 12 months ending August 31st, 1829
Prices on ditto ditto
per 70 lbs.
view of the information already before it,
Liverpool, August 31, 1833. the most of which, till lately, was a confused “Waiting upon you, as usual, with our chaos of heterogeneous matter? An accu- monthly report of the corn trade, we have mulation of matter that was useless to the esteemed the present month a proper period public until it became separated and digested for extending the scale of imports to a series for the scrutiny of ordinary enquirers. of years, and have, accordingly, given in the
But when has the 2nd, the most impor. following table, the annual importation of tant of all the returns, been laid before the each article of the trade, taking the twelve House ? viz. that for the quantity sold at months ending 31st August, 1829, as the each of the 149 markets, taking the ave- first of the series. rages ? Never, as far as we know. The returns, as at present ordered, would be of great service, and afford essential information to the agriculturists; and it shewed no friendly disposition to the British farmer to interpose any obstacles in their way; and the perseverance of Mr. Dillwyn, in obtaining them, is worthy of the highest praise.
P.S.-We subjoin the foregoing letter, which has just come before us, from one of the regular Correspondents of the Mark Lane Express, from Liverpool, corroborating our views respecting the importations from Ireland. We have stated before, that in 1834 the importations of wheat from Ireland into Liverpool were much diminished from those of the previous year: the present account shews that in 1835, the importations are less by nearly 200,000 quarters than in 1833 ; the whole quantity in 1833 being only 459,000 quarters, which exhibits a diminution in the export of wheat from li Ireland into Liverpool in two years of about 40 per cent. We shall hear next, no doubt, that the diminished supply from Ireland has lowered the price ! At all events it will be accounted for by the increased growth of wheat and excellent harvests in England; the writer of the letter below is of this opi. nion apparently. The return (No. 2.) of the quantity sold in all the markets, taking the averages, will prove whether the quantity has increased ; so that whichever way we look, the above returns will be of para . mount service to the cause of British agriculture, as tending to sweep away delusions that have so long interfered with its relief.
The following is the letter to which we referred :
In it is also shewn the value of each de- lutely increased or not. We will add the scription of free grain, &c. at the several last commentary of the Mark Lane Express periods, assuming for the standard the price with respect to the present harvest, in order of Irish produce, which constitutes the great that the truths on that subject may also be bulk of our supplies.
exposed. The most striking features exhibited by "September 14.-The rain during the past the above statement, are, the continued and week has been generally experienced throughnot inconsiderable reduction, which, during out the country, and in the northern disthe last three years, has been going on in tricts has much impeded the progress of the the supplies, and, the decline which has at harvest; barley has, in consequence, in the same time taken place in prices of the many places, become stained, and wheat, leading articles of consumption. Of the in some parts sprouted; and unless the former it will be noticed that for the season weather assumes a different character to ending August, 1833, the deliveries of wheat that which the barometer at present indiwere 460,000 quarters, last year they were cates, much loss and injury will be sustained 394,000, and this only 297,000 quarters; of in those divisions of the kingdom where oats there were imported in 1833, 368,000, from natural causes the harvest is always in 1834, 312,000, and this year 228,000 later and more protracted. We had hoped quarters ; nor on reference to the manufac. to have been enabled to have offered some tured articles, flour and oatmeal, do we find detailed accounts of the crops in Scotland ; any increase to account for the falling off in but the weather in the northern, as well as the supplies of the raw material. It is, per- partly in the more southern portions of the haps, out of our province to endeavour to country, has checked agricultural proceedassign the cause of this great reduction, but ings; we are, however, induced to believe, it may be proper to remark that the super- from the cursory accounts received, that abundant growth of wheat in this country wheat in the northern and western divihas, by keeping the interior markets con- sions is deficient, and in parts considerably stantly supplied, so curtailed the sale of Irish blighted, having sustained much injury from produce that we have never, throughout the the thunder storms in the commencement of season, been able to force a trade beyond August, which have throughout the kingthe immediate neighbourhood, and our gra- dom left strong marks of their injurious inDary stocks of free wheat are still upwards fluence, having in places completely laid the of 130,000 quarters. Those of oats amount crops, as if they had received the pressure to a mere trifle, which is also the case as re- of a roller, and from which in instances they gards almost every other article of the trade. have never been enabled to rally, and thus At the close of August, 1833, Irish wheat was the ear has been prevented receiving the neconsidered unusually low at 78. 10d. per cessary juices to ensure its plumpness of 70lbs. at the same period of 1834 it was re- grain, and the samples will, therefore, be duced to 58. 9d. and at this moment the irregular, and the quantity deficient in probest samples of last year's growth would not portion to the straw. Barley has suffered exceed 58. 6d. per 70lbs."
from similar causes, and will prove below an Since, then, the decline in the price of average. Oats, especially on gravelly soils, wheat can no longer be attributed to im- will be inferior in quality, and short in yield. portations from Ireland; and since in the From the southern portion of the kingdom, return No. 2, which we expect shortly to excepting the effects of the storms, the rehave in print from the order of the House ports are altogether more favourable. In of Commons, we shall then be able to judge, the northern as well as the southern parts from the quantity sold in each market, whe. of Ireland, wheat is represented inferior in ther the growth in each district has abso- sample, and below an average in produce ;