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In it is also shewn the value of each de- lutely increased or not. We will add the scription of free grain, &c. at the several last commentary of the Mark Lane Express periods, assuming for the standard the price with respect to the present harvest, in order of Irish produce, which constitutes the great that the truths on that subject may also be bulk of our supplies.
exposed. The most striking features exhibited by "September 14.—The rain during the past the above statement, are, the continued and week has been generally experienced through. not inconsiderable reduction, which, during out the country, and in the northern disthe last three years, has been going on in tricts has much impeded the progress of the the supplies, and, the decline which has at harvest; barley has, in consequence, in the same time taken place in prices of the many places, become stained, and wheat, leading articles of consumption. Of the in some parts sprouted; and unless the former it will be noticed that for the season weather assumes a different character to ending August, 1833, the deliveries of wheat that which the barometer at present indiwere 460,000 quarters, last year they were cates, much loss and injury will be sustained 394,000, and this only 297,000 quarters; of in those divisions of the kingdom where oats there were imported in 1833, 368,000, from natural causes the harvest is always in 1834, 312,000, and this year 228,000 later and more protracted. We had hoped quarters ; nor on reference to the manufac- to have been enabled to have offered some tured articles, flour and oatmeal, do we find detailed accounts of the crops in Scotland ; any increase to account for the falling off in but the weather in the northern, as well as the supplies of the raw material. It is, per- partly in the more southern portions of the haps, out of our province to endeavour to country, has checked agricultural proceedassign the cause of this great reduction, but ings; we are, however, induced to believe, it may be proper to remark that the super- from the cursory accounts received, that abundant growth of wheat in this country wheat in the northern and western divihas, by keeping the interior markets con- sions is deficient, and in parts considerably stantly supplied, so curtailed the sale of Irish blighted, having sustained much injury from produce that we have never, throughout the the thunder storms in the commencement of season, been able to force a trade beyond August, which have throughout the kingthe immediate neighbourhood, and our gra- dom left strong marks of their injurious innary stocks of free wheat are still upwards fluence, having in places completely laid the of 130,000 quarters. Those of oats amount crops, as if they had received the pressure to a mere trifle, which is also the case as re- of a roller, and from which in instances they gards almost every other article of the trade. have never been enabled to rally, and thus At the close of August, 1833, Irish wheat was the ear has been prevented receiving the neconsidered unusually low at 78. 10d. per cessary juices to ensure its plumpness of 70lbs. at the same period of 1834 it was re- grain, and the samples will, therefore, be duced to 58. 9d. and at this moment the irregular, and the quantity deficient in probest samples of last year's growth would not portion to the straw. Barley has suffered exceed 58. 6d. per 70lbs."
from similar causes, and will prove below an Since, then, the decline in the price of average. Oats, especially on gravelly soils, wheat can no longer be attributed to im- will be inferior in quality, and short in yield. portations from Ireland; and since in the From the southern portion of the kingdom, return No. 2, which we expect shortly to excepting the effects of the storms, the rehave in print from the order of the House ports are altogether more favourable. In of Commons, we shall then be able to judge, the northern as well as the southern parts from the quantity sold in each market, whe. of Ireland, wheat is represented inferior in ther the growth in each district has abso. sample, and below an average in produce ;
in the western, complaints are also being selves out of the difficulty in no other way, made as to the yield, though the crop gene- to attribute every fall of price to a greater rally promises a better return, without, how- supply from a plentiful harvest. One way ever, being abundant. Barley and oats are, of sustaining our own position, that the curfor the most part, favourably reported, and rency is at the bottom of the evil, is to shew the new samples of the latter which have that the other causes assumed are fallacious; appeared at market, have turned out heavy we think what we have now said, together in quality, and contracts for delivery are ge- with the returns which we are expecting, nerally offering at from 40 to 42lbs. per will clear up the doubts of many on this allbushel. A few weeks, however, must elapse important subject. before authentic information can be derived Barley and oats, but especially the former, as to the general result of the harvest either are much better crops than last year; and in Scotland or the Sister island.
we shall see the price decline accordingly: The supplies of wheat since Monday have indeed it has already commenced : and the been principally of new Suffolk quality : fall in wool and sheep stock this autumn is some parcels fine and extremely heavy, as arousing many out of their confident dream well also the case from Essex, but from Kent that the high prices of these articles (caused the character of the wheat is generally not by the rot) were to be permanent. We 80 good. The samples continue to afford have long given the upland farmers this much disparity in their quality, many being warning; and pronounced their interest and thin, with smut prevailing to some extent. that of the lowland farmer, with respect to At the close of Friday, most of the samples prices, to be the same. were cleared off, the millers having taken We trust now to see the energies of every the better descriptions at Monday's decline class of farmers, upland and lowland, dairy in price, and inferior sorts having been pur- and corn, wool and stock farmers, combined chased by distillers at low figures. The aver- for the common object of relief: a relief age prices are again fast receding, upwards which, considering the prejudices of some, of 4,000 quarters are returned in the last and the open animosity of others, they will week's general average list at rates varying never obtain, but by the strictest unanimity from 34s. 6d. to 368. Od. per qr. viz. : from among themselves, and resolute perseverHampshire, Oxfordshire, şussex, Hunting- ance in electing sach members only as they don, Aylesbury, and Warminster. In Suffolk know will vote for unflinching inquiry into and Norfolk the average price is only 378. the causes of their distress.
B. 7d. to 378. 8d. on a quantity sold of 6,900 qrs. In bonded wheat nothing transpiring, ON THE NECESSITY FOR A CENTRAL AGRIand prices perfectly nominal.”
CULTURAL ASSOCIATION, AND FOR THE These opinions are confirmed altogether
RE-ESTABLISHMENT OF THE BOARD OF by our own experience. The wheat is shri
AGRICULTURE. velled in the ear, and the sample not by any means of average boldness; and this we at- Premiums, Libraries, that have been established
“ Hitherto the Agricultural Clubs, Sheus, tribute (in the north at least) to the too sud- in Country Towns, and the Books and Tracts den ripening of the corn, after a period of not say none, but) extremely little intiuence."
Edinburgh Review, July, 1831, rather cold and gloomy weather which pre
"The only means by which there is any hope of vailed in the north, at the time when no- accomplishing an improved Systein, is by the for. thing but blue sky and sunshine was to be and it is not a little surprising, thut amongst seen in the south. We are the more parti- don, there is none specially dedicated to the imcular in our inquiries concerning the har- provement of Agriculture."- Edinburgh Quarterly vests because it is the common habit of the Juurnal of Agriculture, Jane, 1834. philosophers, when they can extricate them. The Agricultural Article in several of your late numbers has conveyed to your readers live,—then never was there a period in the intelligence of the cheering fact, that the annals of our race in which to remedy an great body which stands at the head of the incredible amount of national distress such industrial classes of the nation, are deter- incredible means could be made available ; mined no longer to talk about distress, and never a moment in which, through their continue in patience and forbearance to agency, the beneficent intention of the perish under it, but that they are about, Great Common Parent of Good may be more both on their own account and that of their extensively realized, viz: "that the mouths fellow producers, to adopt measures for its of all his children shall be filled with food, redress. In this good and honest work the and their hearts with gladness." Farmers of Cambridgeshire led the way, The past supineness of the LAND-OCCUPIERS Suffolk followed, and Kent, Bucks, Lincoln, to their self-interest, has arisen partly from and other counties are preparing to adopt the very nature of their occupation, which similar proceedings. It only requires the does not admit of much attention to poliaffiliation of the Agricultural Societies, and tics, but principally to the natural and remeetings in the different districts, to pass spectful confidence reposed in their legitiresolutions similar in spirit to those carried mate protectors, the LAND - OWNERS, and at Ipswich, to shake to the core any future the LAND-RULERS. But to what has this Administration, and House of Commons, combined supineness and confidence brought that shall not foster native industry, and pro- them, and with them the other producing vide that the EMPLOYING CLASSES, by re- classes ? that is the question. If it be a munerative prices, shall be enabled to supply state becoming the wealth, the intelligence, labour in abundance to their dependants,— the industry of this great nation, then let it that great body of our people, by whose in- go on and prosper. But if it be a state undustry and skill the nation is nourished and paralleled in the history of any other people, clothed,--the EMPLOYED CLASSES.
Christian or barbarian, bond or free, then However much the farming classes have let that man be held accursed who shall been sinned against-and they have been seek to defend, to maintain, or to perpetuate deeply -sinned against-it is nevertheless it! true that their present condition is in a If we are to continue to live much longer great measure owing to their own sinning in the bonds of social fellowship and peace, The rock on which their common prosperity the EMPLOYING CLASSEs, whether agricultuhas split has been the one circumstance that, ral or industrial, must have their hands through years of accumulating misery and strengthened-must have their grievances distress, they have played the part of the redressed, and their condition ameliorated. waggoner in the fable, crying to the legisla- To effect this, their dependants, whether the ture “Help, help!," but never putting their non-producing classes on the one hand, or own shoulders resolutely to the wheel. the producing classes on the other, are Now, it is an old saw, and, when practically bound to come to the rescue. A combinaattended to, of great price, that “God helps tion of all the three parties for this endthem who help themselves :"-and if the and it is an end which justice, patriotism, farmers of the United Kingdom are really and humanity alike requires is now impedetermined not utterly to perish,-if there rative. Its result will be an Administration, be yet enough of the ancient yeoman leaven and a House of Commons, in future that . left to make them assert their birth-right, would act not without and against our - viz. to demand relief and protection from the HOME INTERESTS, but with them and for
Government they support ;-to cause them them. to resolve that they shall again themselves AGRICULTURE has a long debt of justice live, and that all their fellow-producers shall due to her, and the time has arrived in which it must be paid, or we shall pay the courage in his subjects the love of agriculpenalty of our turpitude and folly. In a ture, his Minister Pitt, in his prosperity late report of a Select Committee of the speech of 1791-2, entirely overlooked it, House of Commons, it is acknowledged as though the greatest and most important a truth, that “THE AGRICULTURE OF THE source of our national power, as not worthy KINGDOM IS THE FIRST OF ALL ITS CON- of being mentioned. Lord Auckland, who CERNS, THE FOUNDATION OF ALL ITS PROS- was held to be one of the most eminent PERITY IN EVERY OTHER MATTER BY WHICH practical statesmen of his time, followed the THAT PROSPERITY IS PRODUCED;" but with example, and in a speech on the state of the it is conjoined the neutralizing falsehood, nation, in which he proposed to enumerate
OF MELIORATION IN THE the causes to which our national prosperity CONDITION OF THE LANDED INTEREST, REST was to be ascribed, never stated a single RATHER ON THE CAUTIOUS FORBEARANCE, word on the importance of agriculture, but THAN ON THE ACTIVE INTERFERENCE OF seemed to consider England as exclusively PARLIAMENT !" Yes ! this latter declara- a commercial and manufacturing nation. tion embodies the damning do-nothing prin. Nay, in 1796, even a Committee of the ciple by which the internal prosperity of the Privy Council, appointed to consider the country IN EVERY MATTER is strangled. laws regarding the exportation and imporAnd when was it otherwise? We have had tation of grain, were so completely ignorant statesmen in every age who have acknow- of the agricultural resources of the country, ledged the maxim that, “ ON EVERY COUN- and indeed of the other nations of Europe, as TRY THE FIRST CREDITOR IS THE PLOUGH," to state it as their opinion, that we must deand that THIS ORIGINAL INDEFEASIBLE pend for a part of our consumption, not on CLAIM SUPERSEDES EVERY OTHER DEMAND,” increased cultivation at home, nor even on but what has the admission done for Agri- the produce of Europe, but on the harvests culture ? Let the remark of the writer of of America! And what, during the course a review of the present state of Agriculture, of the present enlightened century—in which which appeared in a late number of the the sword has been converted into a ploughEdinburgh Review, answer the question. share, and the schoolmaster is said to be " It would be useless at this time of day to everywhere abroad-has been done to reenter into any lengthened argument to shew move this stigma ? National institutions of the paramount importance of an improved all kinds abound. We have our Royal Sosystem of agriculture in countries like Great cieties of literature, our scientific associaBritain and Ireland. Every one is ready to tions, our mechanics' institutes; we have admit its superior claims on the public at- our lecture halls, our re-unions of the learntention. Nevertheless the progress of agri- ed, our collections of useful inventions; we cultural improvement is peculiarly slow,- have our horticultural, botanic, and zooloLITTLE DIFFERENCE EXISTS IN THIS RE- logical gardens,—but where is our national SPECT BETWEEN THE REIGNS OF William Institution of Agriculture-our repository of III. AND William IV. In Wales agricul rural implements, our experimental farms ? ture is still most backward, the country does We have our BOARD OF TRADE: where is not produce half of what it is capable. This our Board OF AGRICULTURE ** We have remark is not much less applicable to England : in fact were all England as well culti- • The apartments in Somerset Honse about to be vated as Northumberland and Lincoln, it vacated by the Royal Academy, would answer this would produce more than double the quan- purpose very well: and it is fit that the most nutity that is obtained from it.” Although
merous and peaceable class of his Majesty's subjects
shonld have a fair proportion of influence in his his late Majesty King George III., wrote, councils, and a ready channel of communication with his own hand, a little work to en. with his government.
erected, or are erecting, our London Univer- and which in the course of twenty years has sities, our School of Arts, our British Mu. doubled her wealth, her productiveness, and seum, our National Gallery of Paintings her social comforts, should we have been where is our Public Building for the pro- paying for years past eight millions of poor tection, direction, and advancement of that rates ? should we, in addition to the most branch of industry by which learning and oppressive and injurious restraints on our art and taste flourish, and without the pros- domestic intercourse, have had eight millions perity of which they must all decay? Whilst of road debts, with an annual income of 731. innumerable Societies abound for objects of per mile, and an expenditure of 851. ? should infinitely minor importance, what is there to we, with a beneficial climate and fertile soil, shew in the metropolis of the Empire, in the and millions of unemployed hands, have seat of Government, the centre of kowledge, been paying to the labourers of foreign states of wealth, of activity, and power, that Agri- about 15,000,0001. yearly for flax, hemp, culture as a science, though the acknow- corn, tobacco, &c. which might have been ledged source of our national greatness, grown at home? Would the currency jug“the foundation of our prosperity in every gle, which has cut off one half of the resourmatter by which that prosperity is produc- ces of productive and rural industry, have ed,” has ever been domiciled amongst us? been permitted? Would the tithe question
Nothing! and is it then surprising that have been still unsettled? Would the malt agriculture is in a state of decay and ruin, tax, limiting consumption to the extent of and that through agriculture all our other 50,000,0001. yearly have been unrepealed ? interests, whether of the sail, the loom, Would nearly one half of the surface of the or the spade, are unprosperous ? No, kingdom have changed landlords ? Would the hackneyed wish "Speel the plough,” two thirds of our tenantry have been insolhas been sufficiently on the lips, but never vent? Would farms every where be going has warmed the hearts of the ministers, out of tillage? Would our fellow countryand law-makers of England. For years we men be expatriated in tens of thousands have been toasting 'Liberal landlords and yearly? Would our labourers be losing in enterprising tenants,' whilst the doctrine of the recklessness of the pauper the sobriety, the Jew has been practically illustrated in the industry, and the contentment of the every district of the kingdom, viz. that a husbandman? decreasing fertility in soil is a grand law of How full of projects is England, from the nature, (!) from whose all pervading influ- senate to the humblest of her village assemence the utmost efforts of human ingenuity blages : how redundantly philanthropic in cannot enable man to escape !" Even now schemes for amending the condition, physiwhat is there that stands between the Utili- cal or moral, of distant nations-how neglitarian's wish, 'that the hour should come in gent of her own children! To be the deniwhich not a blade of corn shall be grown in zen of remote latitudes, to be coloured by England,' and its accomplishment, except other climates, seems the one sole postulate the complicated state of society, luckily so which she insists upon as an argument for tenacious in its texture ? Successful agricul- her benevolence. 20,000,0001. has been ture, with truth it may be said, has at no given to break the chain of that slavery time been considered the basis of our national which bound so many thousands of our substrength and greatness. Never has it re- jects abroad; but what has been done to ceived the support due to its utility and im- break the chain of that pauperism by which portance. Had a society existed in Eng- many millions of our countrymen at home land similar to that great superintending, have been demoralized, unchristianized, all directing, and fostering association which but revolutionized ? During the year endpresides over the rural economy of Scotland, ing March 31, 1835, the sum of 125,7211.