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country shall be completed, every railway Agricultural Petitions have been hitherto or tramway that may be beneficial formed, treated by the Legislature, and to urge their every canal cut where necessary, every em. conviction, that nothing is so likely to ensure bankment made, every tract of waste land such universal and vigorous co-operation as cultivated, every required harbour erected, shall compel the attention of Parliament to and, in a word, every cause removed which our distressed condition, as the formation of now renders labour unremunerative, and in- a general Central Association in London ; to dustry unblest.
the proceedings of which, all parts of the . Let then the various Agricultural Asso- kingdom may have the opportunity of conciations scattered throughout the country, tributing their support.” and which are so powerless for want of union, connect themselves with some one Central Declaration of the East Kent Agricultural Association which will be a nucleus for
Association. their efforts, and through which they may
February 1834. act with effect on the legislature, and let “The East Kent Agricultural Association, other Associations of the producing classes is established with a view to promote the which desire the protection of domestic in- prosperity of Agriculture, by the mutual codustry, join the same central body; for they operation of the proprietors and occupiers may rest assured that whatever superficial of land. differences may appear in their views, their It is far from the wish or design of this real interests are one and the same. The Society, by the powerful influence of comSociety conducting this Magazine seems bination and union, to acquire any partial well fitted for the nucleus which is so de- benefit, to the public prejudice; or to ensirable; it should be extended and made croach on those duties and privileges which more general ; it is gratifying however to attach exclusively to the King's governsee that so many Associations have already ment and to the wisdom and discretion of sent in their adhesion to it.
The prosperity of Agriculture is necesWe shall conclude this article with the sarily dependent upon the flourishing confollowing communications from the East dition of the nation at large. Our fellow Kent Agricultural Association, which bear subjects are our principal customers; and on the subject of it.
as their collective wealth is the measure of
their ability to pay, so must that ability be (Copy.)
the measure of remuneration to the AgriCommittee Monthly and Special Meeting, culturist for the outlay of his capital, and 25th July 1835.
for the exercise of his skill. · Proposed by F. Bradley, Esq., Seconded Should our manufactures, our foreign by W. 0. Hammond, Esq., and
commerce, and our general trade unfortuResolved, " That the Secretary is requested nately decline, the cultivators of the soil to express to the Marquis of Chandos, the cannot fail to experience a corresponding cordial thanks of this Committee, for his depression. zealous exertions in behalf of the Agricul- As Agriculturists, therefore, we have no ture of the kingdom; and to assure his separate interests. We acknowledge ourLordship of their readiness to co-operate with selves to be intimately united in prosperity the gentlemen who attended the meeting on or adversity with our fellow countrymen of Wednesday last, in preparing Petitions, as every description ; with them we must flousuggested by the resolution adopted on that rish, or with them we must fall. , day; they cannot, however, forbear to ex- We utterly disclaim any party object, or press their regret at the neglect with which any political purpose direct or indirect. A restless interference in public affairs is in- incumbrances are increasing, and their means consistent with the nature of our occupa- diminishing, do not seek to discover the real tions, and foreign to our inclinations and cause of the evil and unite to obtain the propursuits. We have on all occasions evinced per remedy." that quiet and uncbtrusive obedience to the It will be the object of this Association, laws, and that patience under protracted to vindicate themselves from whatever just difficulties, which constitute the surest test reproach may be contained in these remarks, of confidence in the Government and of The time is arrived, when endurance withfaithful allegiance to the King. We pre- out exertion, would be apathy and supinesume not to arrogate to ourselves any supe- ness. We will, therefore, diligently apply rior discernment, in reference to those ourselves to the examination of the evils complicated relations which connect the which oppress us, and endeavour to trace general interests of the nation. We are them to their cause : but we will leave the aware that these difficult and important remedy to those whose duty it is to consider considerations require a kind of knowledge every question of legislation, not in refer. and an extent of sagacity to which our ence to one class alone, but to the general habits, occupations, and experience can give interests of the commonwealth. us no pretensions. We are willing, there. We are induced, at the present time to fore, with entire submission, to leave all associate for mutual counsel and support, measures of legal enactment to the wisdom under circumstances which are calculated of the Legislature.
to excite the most serious alarm in the minds But we feel that it will be within the limit of all men who are capable of reflection. of our just and reasonable exertions, and it is not under the influence of disappointscarcely less our duty than our interest, to ment at the disappearance of former exagaid the deliberations of Parliament by the gerated profits, that we are induced thus to assertion of such facts, and by such state- unite : but under a certain conviction that ments relative to our condition, as may continued returns, inadequate to the outlay tend to render that condition well-known of our capital, must occasion ultimate and and understood.
speedy ruin, and by involving the Peasantry A Right Honourable Baronet, who holds in our distress, give rise throughout the a distinguished office in his Majesty's Cabi- kingdom to a frightful state of suffering, net, has stated in a publication referring to anarchy and demoralization. the landed interest, that they have a " dis- In adverting to the Reports of the Parposition both by prejudice and habit, to liamentary Committee on the state of Agriawait the course of events, and to place im- culture; and to the statements which have plicit reliance on the wisdom of Govern- been published by the Poor Law Commisment, rather than by the exercise of their sioners, we perceive with dismay, the decontroling power to avert the evils which structive operation of those circumstances they foresee, and to provide the defences which are hurrying the country forward to which their safety may require.”
a most appalling crisis. “ The other productive classes,” he ob- How dreadful would be the consummaserves, "guard their respective interests in tion, if districts now fertile and abounding a far different manner. If measures threaten in an industrious population, should be to affect the manufacturing or commercial converted into sterile wastes, and the Peabody, all minor differences are merged in the santry abandoned to the effects of want and unanimous opposition which at once is despair, by the insidious but certain absorporganised. But the Agriculturists, while tion of that capital on which their subsisttheir property is melting away, while their ence depends. station in society is in danger, while their If, however, we are not wanting to our
selves, there may yet be opportunity and they could prove their assertions, they time, under the blessing of Divine Provi. would not neglect the opportunity now ofdence, to avert so tremendous a national fered, for if ever war was declared with any catastrophe. It will therefore be the endea- party in a fair and honourable manper, it vour of the East Kent Agricultural Associa- was so on Saturday last; and I must think tion, to contribute all the useful information that when men are attacked and refuse, or which the circumstances of their respective decline, to act on the defensive, they must be localities may furnish. They will endeavour convinced of their own weakness, and there. to qualify themselves by mutual consulta- fore strive to shun that power against which tion and assistance, to aid, if necessary, the they feel unable to contend. deliberations of Parliament with such state- Hoping I am not in error, ments and facts as may result from their I have Sir, the honour to be collective experience and observation."
Your obedient humble Servant, R. B.
Secretary to the Operative Weavers of LonHAND LOOM WEAVERS.
don, 10, Fleur-de-Lys-street, Norton FalWe strain a point to insert, at full length, gate. the following communication on account A Meeting of the Spitalfields Silk Weaof the Meeting mentioned in Mr. Cole's vers, to express their dissatisfaction at the letter. The monopoly by the monied in- conduct of the House of Commons in reterest of the daily press is an evil of the jecting Mr. Maxwell's motion for leave to greatest magnitude : but it will not much bring in a Bill to regulate prices, and in longer avail to keep up the left handed sys- withholding all relief for their distress, took tem which preaches the diffusion of politi- place on the 8th of last month. The meetcal knowledge amongst our distressed work. ing was numerously and respectably at. ing classes, but studiously withholds what. tended. Amongst the company on the platever is calculated to shew the true way out form, we observed the Hon. Douglas Hally, of distress--the path of pleasantness and burton, M.P., John Maxwell, Esq. M.P., peace.
John Fielden, Esq. M.P., Dr. Bowring, M.P.,
R. Broun, Esq., Montgomery Martin, Esq., TO THE SECRETARY OF THE AGRI. Honorary Secretary to the Agricultural and
CULTURAL AND INDUSTRIAL MA. Industrial Magazine, William Connor, Esq., GAZINE
Author of “Rack-rent the one Great Cause August 14, 1835. of Ireland's Evils,” J. Hill, Esq., &c. &c. Sir,-1 transmit to you for publication, a Mr. Sewell being called to the Chair, read report of the meeting of last Saturday. No the bill concerning the meeting, and said newspaper that I have seen has taken any that, being appointed to preside, he hoped notice of it, which circumstance, I am of every individual present would pay an imopinion, augurs well for the ultimate success partial attention to each speaker, whatever of our cause. The talent and ability, with might be the sentiments to which he might the deep knowledge displayed at the meet- give expression. Several Members of Pare ing by yourself and the other gentlemen liament and other gentlemen were present, who honoured us with their presence, is who would address the meeting, and he exmore that the theorists can cope with ; and pected that day to see his fellow-workmen it is therefore their narrow policy to with- behave with their accustomed spirit and hold the proceedings from the public, be- good sense. cause facts are stubborn things, and weighty Mr. Foster said Mr. Chairman and feltoo, when put in the scale of reason to ba. low workmen,-We having been under the Lance against mere assertion. Sure I am if protection of the law for a regulated price
for our labour, it is urinecessary for me to the evidence of the former Committee, -to describe the benefits which would result underrate the existence of the distress,-or from such a measure ; for half a century we to produce a different conviction upon the were protected, and during that period we minds of the honourable gentlemen who at, enjoyed the comforts which every working tended to receive it. The fact is, the Reman ought to enjoy. We have had practi- port of the Committee of the present sescal proof of the well working of a regulative sion is in strict accordance with that of the system. We have also had practical proof of last, and yet in spite of all the evidence, in the evil working of the competition or free opposition to the Reports of the two Com. labour system, and the load of evils under mittees, notwithstanding the expense, time, which we are now bowed down, caused us. to and trouble bestowed upon the subject, the apply to the Legislature for a return to the House peremptorily rejected the motion of regulative system, not only for a return to our indefatigable FRIEND, Mr. Maxwell, for it for ourselves, but for an extension of its leave to bring in a Bill for our relief. After blessings to the whole of the grievously op- the diligent investigation of the two Compressed body of operative hand loom weavers mittees, which were of the largest ever apthroughout the United Kingdom. You are pointed by the House, I must continue to aware that in consequence of the loud com- think that some respect ought to have been plaints of the operative hand loom weavers, shown to their opinions and decisions.a Committee of the House of Commons, was (Shame, shame!) But I regret to state that appointed in the last session of Parliament, their endeavours for our relief was treated and the decision to which that Committee in a most unceremonious manner; and the came was, “that some legislative enactment introduction of the Bill was resisted by Pouwas imperatively necessary for the removal lett Thompson, upon the ground that not a of existing evils which operate alike injuri. Member, except those on the Committee, ously to master and operative.” Such were had paid any attention to the two large the decisions of the Committee of last Ses. volumes of evidence upon the occasion ; and sion; the distress of which the hand loom he therefore called upon Mr. Hume to assist weavers complained was found to exist to a his opposition, as they knew nothing at all frightful degree: the facts adduced in evi. of the matter; and by the force and power dence before that Committee were heart. of that reasoning, the House, (the reformed rending, and it was determined to continue House of Commons !) very promptly obeyed the investigation in the present session. A his call; the decision of the House beingCommittee had been granted this session, for Mr. Maxwell's motion, 43; against it but how was it granted? Why, it was grant- and humanity, 129–being a majority for ed with a view, and in the hope of getting free labour-that is, for wrenching the ut. other evidence which should counteract that most out of the necessities of the poor, of 86! of the last session, and nullify the Report of This decision is a convincing proof that the the Committee of that session. Mr. Hume working portions of the community are not told the House, upon Mr. Maxwell moving represented in that House; their interests for leave to bring in a Bill for the relief of are totally neglected, and the severest want the hand loom weavers, that he had voted human nature is capable of sustaining is for a reappointment of the Committee, be- treated with as much indifference as if pain cause he was of opinion that the evidence and suffering were of no consequence. All was all on one side, and he wished to give the laws are made for the interest and bean opportunity to all parties to come for- nefits of the rich. All kinds of accumulated ward and give their evidence in a fair and property is protected, but they tell us-our impartial manner. That opportunity was sagacious, safe, and sapient President of the given, but no evidence came to invalidate Board of Trade tells us, it would do us ten times the amount of our present injuries, if Much had been said about the decisions of our labour were protected. Yet Poulett likes the Committee of the House of Commons, protection for his own labour, (laughter) for he would let them into some of the secrets in 1824, in the very session in which the of that Committee, for it was necessary for protection we had enjoyed for fifty years them to know that of the sixty-four Hon. was taken from our labour, an act was pas- Members of that Committee, that there sed which guarantees £5,000 a year to the were sometimes not more than five attendRIGHT HONOURABLE THE PRESIDENT OF ing their duties; that, he would admit, was THE BOARD OF TRADE. Poulett is there- not the fault of his honourable friend, Mr. fore protected in his wages, work or play, Maxwell, whose benevolence was unquesand we, the operative weavers, require and tioned, but it served to show how the busicall upon the Legislature to give us equal ness had been attended. He, for his part, laws, equal justice, and equal protection. considered that nothing could be more (Immense cheering).
delusive than a fixed rate of wages, and he Mr. Le Bean, in a long and very able felt assured that any legislation would be speech, moved the first Resolution, “That imperfect which denied to the operative the it is the opinion of this meeting that the Re- right of disposing of his labour at the highest port of the late Committee on hand loom price he could obtain for it. He was really weavers' petitions was founded in a just dis- anxious to see an improvement in their concrimination of the subject, the assigned dition, and had, a few nights ago, given nocauses of the distress of that suffering body tice of a motion for the establishment of being the true ones, and the remedies pro- boards of trade, or counsels of commerce, so posed being fully efficient to effect that re- that masters and men might settle all their lief wbich is so necessary, and which is so differences in an amicable manner. He was much desired by the whole of the hand loom afraid the present proposition of relief was weavers of the United Kingdom."
diverting them from the right and proper Mr. Payton said-It is not my intention object which was a reduction of the taxato do any thing further than second the mo- tion. He was always on the liberal side tion, as Dr. Bowring is present and has in- in the House; he would give them cheap timated that he has but a very short time to national institutions, and cheap bread; he stay with us, and as it is only right to give would vote for a property tax, and then with that gentleman, and every other who may an extension of the principles of free trade, wish to do so, an opportunity of addressing they must be prosperous and happy. He the meeting, I shall therefore say that I most was for general education, and none was heartily second the motion.
more affectionately disposed towards the Dr. Bowring then came forward and ad- working classes than himself, though differdressed the meeting. He assured the as- ing as he did from them upon the present sembled operatives that no man more fully question, he was afraid he was looked upon admitted their distress than himself, not as an intruder ; but he would say that he even his honourable friend Mr. Maxwell, had paid every possible attention to their who had been chairman of their committee, case, and could think no otherwise than that and had entered warmly into their cause; it would be a species of the worst tyranny but he differed with that honourable gentle. to forbid a starving man from getting the man as to the mode of relief which should best price he could for his labour. be adopted. He thought the most efficient Montgomery Martin Esq., in proposing relief would be given by relieving them of the second Resolution, namely, that "so their national burdens--by giving them free long as the industrious classes had a large corn whereby they might exchange their portion of their earnings abstracted from manufactures with other countries for food. them by taxation-so long it was the impe