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relatively to the Service-books of other Communions, and also of our own Church at an earlier period of her national life: and, with this end in view, we have given a short account of the origin, deve. lopment, and alterations of the various Services.
Our commentary does not much affect originality. We have con. sulted the ritual collections of Martene and Mabillon, the York and Sarum Uses, and the present Service-books of the Greek Church; and we have freely used the works of Bingham, Palmer, Keeling, Stephens, Freeman, and Procter. In explaining the rules for find. ing Easter we have borrowed largely from De Morgan. The emblems of saints have been extracted from the work of Husenbeth.
We are much indebted to the Rev. H. J. Hotham, M.A. Fellow of Trinity College, for many valuable hints, and especially for the tables of Psalms according to the Latin ritual.
In order to render the commentary generally useful, passages, quoted from Greek or Latin authors, have been translated, except where our object was the comparison of the English form with that from which it is said to have been derived.
As a popular explanation of many matters ordinarily apprehended with some vagueness, and also as a sort of syllabus to the student of Church ritual, we ask for an indulgent acceptance of the Inter. leaved Prayer-book.
W. M. CAMPION.
EDITORS PREFACE TO THE SECOND
In issuing a second edition of the Prayer-Book Interleaved, we have availed ourselves of several hints given in reviews of the first edition, and have added a few supplementary illustrations. Thus a short account of the origin and use of the vestments prescribed in the First Prayer-Book of Edward VI. has been introduced; the notes on the words, Anthem, Ember, and Whitsunday have been enlarged; the institution of Trinity Sunday and the adoption of the clause, “Filioque,' into the creed of the Western Church have been discussed with somewhat more fulness. It has likewise been thought a suitable complement to the notes on the Psalter that the superscriptions of the Psalms, taken from the Bible Version, together with brief explanatory comments, should be added. Further historical details respecting the course followed in making the successive revisions of the Prayer-Book have also been given. We trust therefore that the second edition will be found more complete than the first.
W. M. CAMPION.
W. J. BEAMONT.
EDITORS PREFACE TO THE THIRD
The call for a third edition of the Prayer-Book Interleaved has enabled us to present it to the public still further revised and enlarged. Many additional illustrations from the Service Books of the Greek Church have been inserted; an alphabetical index of the Greek Psalter, with the Septuagint titles annexed, has been added; and a notice of the Order of Readers, recently revived, has been prefixed to the Ordination Services. We have also given, in the Communion Office, a more detailed account of the Scotch Liturgy of 1637, and of the Liturgy of the American Church.
The Report on Vestments of the Ritual Commission will be found in an Appendix.
W. M. CAMPION.
W. J. BEAMONT. 31st August, 1867.
EDITOR'S PREFACE TO THE FOURTH
THE Second Report of the Ritual Commission has been added to the Appendix.
Before the arrangements for the issue of this fourth edition could be completed, my dear friend and fellow-editor was removed from among us.
On the 6th of August, after an illness of but two days' duration, he entered into his rest. Those only who had the opportunity of witnessing his unceasing toil in the furtherance of every good work can justly estimate the loss which our Church has sustained by the cessation of his labours. His favourite maxim was, that life was given us for work. His own manner of life shewed how the Christian may apply that maxim to the promotion of God's glory and man's welfare.
“Blessed are the dead which die in the Lord from henceforth: Yea, saith the Spirit, that they may rest from their labours; and their works do follow them." Rev. xiv, 13.
W. M. CAMPION.
Ist October, 1868.
FROM the time of the Exodus to this day, God's people have always had public services of religion and set forms of worship. The learned Lightfoot (Works, Vol. ix. Ed. Pitman, 1823) gives a full account of the Temple worship and of the Synagogue worship at the time of our Saviour, the former consisting of set prayers, Psalms, lessons, sacrifices, and incense, the latter of prayers, praises, and Scriptures, without the sacrificial offerings. The disciples of Jesus, used to such services, desired their Lord that He also would teach them how to pray: and He gave His fullest sanction to set forms of devotion by teaching them that prayer, which has ever since borne His name, and which, with the exception of one single petition in it, was taken by Him from the liturgies then used among the Jews. Indeed herein He followed a custom already familiar to His countrymen according to the flesh, the custom, namely, that their chief teachers should compose short summaries from the longer liturgies in order to facilitate their retention in the memory (Lightfoot, on Matt. VI. 9, Vol. XI. pp. 141—149).
Our blessed Lord further gave His sanction to such services, first, by His own attendance at the synagogue worship and by taking part in its teaching (Mark i. 39; Luke iv. 15, 16, 44); secondly, by instituting the highest ordinance of devotion for His future Church after the exact pattern of the Paschal solemnity (see Buxtorf, de Cæna
Domini, passim; Lightfoot, on Matt. XXVI. 26, 27); apparently using on that occasion all the forms, prayers, and hymns which were then in use among the Jews (Lightfoot, on Mark xiv. 26).
The custom of the Apostolic Church to meet for prayer and the administration of the Holy Communion every Lord's Day (Acts ii. 42, 46; xx. 7), St Paul's direction that all this should be done de. corously and according to a regular order (1 Cor. xiv. 40), his directions to Timothy, Bishop of Ephesus, concerning the prayer, thanks. givings and intercessions to be used in that Church (1 Tim. ii. i seq.), all seem to point in the same direction, and to shew that the Apostles and the Apostolic Churches had set forms of service for public devotion. It is thought by the most impartial commentators that there are allusions to antiphonal hymns and liturgies, and perhaps quotations from them in the writings of St Paul. See Eph.v. 19 (Bull, Prim. Trad. 1. 52; Scholefield, Hints, p. 103; Conybeare and Howson, Alford and Ellicott in loc.), 1 Tim. iii. 16 (Winer, Gram. Pt. III. $64. 3; Conybeare and Howson, Ellicott in loc.).
The well-known testimony of Pliny, but just after the death of the last Apostle, refers to antiphonal hymns addressed to Christ as God, and probably to the public celebration of the sacraments in the Christian Churches (Plin. Lib. X. Ep. 97); and from that time a chain of evidence has been gathered out of the works of Ignatius, Justin Martyr, Irenæus, Tertullian, Hippolytus, Origen, Cyprian, Gregory Thaumaturgus, and others, extending to the time of the Council of Nice, all witnessing to the same early custom of having forms of prayer (see Bingham, Eccl. Ant. Bk. XIII. ch. v.). The objection, that no very early liturgy has come down to us, is explained by the fact, that in the earliest ages every diocese had its own forms of worship, and even that the wording of its Creed was drawn up by its own bishop. The general principle that "Nothing be done without the bishop,” extended even to the arranging of all the services of the diocese (Bingham, Bk. XIII. ch. v. § 1). And, moreover, the care, which Christians took to preserve their more sacred ordinances from pollution