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Questions from the History of England.

365

QUESTIONS FROM THE HISTORY OF

ENGLAND.

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(See page 302, Vol. III.) In what year did Henry the Sixth begin to reign *?

How old was he when his father, Henry the Fifth, died ?

Who was appointed Protector whilst the king was too young to govern?

Did the Duke of Bedford carry on the war in France ? Was he successful ?

By what strange means were the English affairs in France entirely changed ?

Who was Joan of Arc?

What French town did she relieve by driving the English away?

Was she, at length, taken in battle by the English?

How did they treat her?

How were things going on in England during all this time?

What relation was Henry the Sixth to Henry the Fourth ?

Had this branch of the royal family a right to the throne ?

Was not this the Lancaster family? Was not the Duke of York descended from an elder branch of the family?

Ought he not therefore to have been king?

When the people were dissatisfied with the present king, did they not wish to have one of the York family instead?

Did this lead to rebellions ?

Who first pretended to be of that family, and tried to raise the country in his favor ?

Did many people follow Cade?

* 1422.

How many?
What became of Cade?

During an illness of the kirg, who was appointed to govern instead of him?

Did the Duke of York, having once got possession of power, endeavour to keep it in his own hands?

Did this lead to the wars of York and Lancaster?
Who was King Henry's wife ?
How did this queen act?

Were many battles fought between the York and
Lancaster party?
In what battle was the Duke of York's

army

defeated and himself killed ?

In what battle did the Duke's party recover itself?

After this success of the York party, who was proclaimed king?

In what year was this * ?

What became of Henry the Sixth after Edward the Fourth was proclaimed king?

Who was the Duke of Gloucester, and what was his character ?

Why were the wars of York and Lancaster sometimes called the wars of the Roses?

Which party wore a red rose, and which wore a white one ?

How many kings have we had of the house of Lancaster?

V.

EPITAPHS

Copied from the Church-Yard of Brixton, Isle of Wight.

To realms of bliss her soul is fled, we trust,
Although her body is consign'd to dust;
Pious she was, in every state of life,

A tender mother, faithful friend, and wise: Stedfast in faith, she saw the approach of death, Apd, strong in Christian hope, resign'd her breath.

* 1461.

Letter from a Coachman...

367

ON AN INFANT.

Sweet Babe! how transient was thy stay,
How soon from earth thou’rt call'd away!
But faith and hope can trace thy flight
To realms of joy and pure delight.

LETTER FROM A COACHMAN.

To the Editor of the Cottager's Monthly Visitor.

SIR, I READ a letter in your book last month, from the gentleman with the strange name; he thinks you have some readers among coachmen and footmen ; and so you have, for I am myself a gentleman's coachinan; and I take the liberty of sending you a few lines, as I, perhaps, can say a word or two on the matters which Mr. Quæsitor wrote to you about.

He says, Sir, that coachmen are apt to get up and leave the church before the sermon is over;—and so they are: and they often lose, by this, the best part of the sermon.

But the gentleman does not seem to know whether this is the fault of the master or of the servant: it is sometimes one, Sir, and sometimes the other. There are some masters and mistresses who very properly require their servants to go to church; they live, perhaps, at some distance from the church, and come in a carriage; but though the servants come into the church, yet if they do not like religion, they will take the earliest opportunity of getting out again; and they would, as an excuse, say that they must have the carriage in readiness for their master or mistress when they come out. This is often the case with footmen as well as coachmen, though they have no need to be out a moment before church is over.

Some years ago, I lived with a gentleman and lady, whose house was a good way from church, and they were both elderly people, and could not walk. My master used to say, that, as the Sabbath was intended for a rest, and that "men-servants, and maid- . servants, and cattle” were included in the privilege, he did not like to cause unnecessary labour on that day; but he considered that using his cattle for the sake of going to a place of worship was lawful, for those who were not able to walk: but still he wished as many of the servants to go to church as could safely leave the house, and he always contrived some method, that no servant, if it could be helped, should be absent from church for the whole of the Sunday. I used to put up my horses at a neighbouring stable, where the ostler took care to have them ready, and I used to go out a little before the sermon was ended, so that I might have the carriage up just when my master came out. I thought I did well in always being ready. My master, however, considered within himself, that I could not have been ready so soon if I had staid till the end of the sermon, and he one day asked me how it

was;

and I told him, “That I was obliged to slip out awhile before the sermon was over, or I should keep his honour waiting." "O never mind that, John," said he very mildly, “I had rather wait awhile than that you should be hurried away from hearing what I think of so much consequence.” I have, since this, always remained till the service was ended; and as my master seemed to think religion a thing of such great consequence to himself, I began to ask myself whether it was not of great consequence to me. And ever since that time I have joined in the servíce, and listened to the sermon, as if they were great considerations to me.

I believe it is common in London for the coachmen not to go into the Church at all, but to come with the carriages a little while before service is Letter from a Coachman.

369 over; and then, if their masters are considerate, they contrive that the coachmen should go at another part of the day. Some masters, indeed, care nothing about these things, and there is as much work and bustle in the stables on a Sunday as on any other day, just

as if a poor servant had not a soul to be saved. But there are different kinds of masters and mistresses, and some will walk to Church, if they are within distance, out of kind consideration for their servants. I must own, however, Sir, that servants themselves are often in fault. There is an old saying, that " where there is a will there is a way;" and I have myself generally found that there is hardly any place where a man might not go to Church some part of the day if he wished it. To be sure, it would be of no use for masters to give servants time to go to Church, if these servants had no desire to go ;--but then good masters think it right to give them the opportunity, and shew them the bad consequences of neglecting such things. Dear me, Sir, what a difference there is in different families, as to these things! Some live as if they really thought of the value of their souls; . and there is peace and harmony, and a sort of regard and attachment all over the house, from my lord himself to the lowest stable-boy ;-but in other families there is nothing else besides swearing, and roaring, and drinking, and all sorts of profligacy from one end to the other. You have no notion, I am sure, in your quiet cottage, what a marvellous deal of wickedness is going on among the servants in London. I dont mean that they are all so, for I am in a place myself where we have a good master and mistress, and I can honestly speak well of my fellow servants; but I know many places where things are shockingly bad indeed. What a swearing and what a drinking, and a quarrelling there will often be when the gentlemen's and ladies' carriages are got together at a late party at night!

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