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On the Sabbath.
75 declares that there is no fear of God before their eyes; but they who regularly perform the duties of the Christian Sabbath, do by this means profess that they believe the Gospel of Christ, that they regard the Divine authority, that they view themselves as in the presence of God, and that they are not ashamed of Christ and his words before a sinful and adulterous generation."-Orr on the Sabbath, p.
36. “ Bitter remorse hath been the fruit and consequence of neglecting the duties of the Christian Sabbath. Many of those unhappy persons who have been cut off by the hand of Justice have confessed that they began their pernicious and miserable course by disobedience to their parents, and by profaning God's holy day. Their anguish upon a review of their past conduct hath been great and insupportable. Many sabbath-breakers, who have not come to this miserable end, have still had bitter and self-condemn ing reflections, when conscience hath been awakened in the near prospect of death. • How have I hated instruction, and my heart despised reproof! and have not obeyed the voice of my teachers, nor inclined mine ear to them that instructed me! In the midst of the congregation and assembly I have neglected the ordinances of religion; I have profaned God's holy day. Oh! that I now had the opportunities of attending upon the means of grace which I once enjoyed, but which I ungratefully and foolishly despised ! Such have been the reflections of those who have profaned this day, and forgotten God in the days of health and prosperity.
« To see the curtain of time dropping ; to see a vast eternity opening before us; and to have such reflections haunting our conscience.—this will cause misery not to be expressed, create anguish not to be conceived.'”—The Same,
"Our prayers, and our participation of the Sacraments, lay us under powerful obligations to sanctify, the Sabbath. Christians, in general, pray that they
may be enabled to keep the Lord's day, and to adorn the doctrine of God our Saviour in all things. In the Church of England, after the fourth commandment is recited, the people are directed to address the Throne of Grace in these words : 'Lord have mercy upon us, and incline our hearts to keep this law.” They who address Heaven in these expressions, profess that they believe that they ought to obey the fourth, as well as the other commandments of the moral law; that they repent, because they have broken it; that they are resolved, for the future, to sanctify the Lord's day; that they stand in need of Divine Grace to perform this duty; and that they esrnestly desire that God would write His law in their hearts, and teach them to delight in the services of His holy day. God is not mocked: we ought to beware lest our practice contradict the language of our prayers. We have been baptized in the name of the Lord Jesus : we should therefore walk with Him in newness of life. Many of us have professed our faith in Christ, and our subjection to Him, at His holy table : we ought, therefore, to sanctify His day, and to show that we are His friends, by doing whatsoever He hath commanded."— The Same, p. 43.
After having given, in our last Number, the recommendations which Mr. Newby's book contains of Mangel Wurzel, the following directions and cautions from the same pamphlet may be of use:
“ To guard against the many spurious kinds of Mangel Wurzel, of which there are plenty, and which have hurt the reputation of the true, it is necessary to notice that the new and improved stock was first discovered by a gentleman in the county of Suffolk, Mangel Wurzel.
77 about eight years ago *, and is in form similar to the Norfolk pudding turnip; it grows three-fourths out of the ground; is in length from one to two feet, and will weigh from ten to twenty, and some to thirty, pounds each ; the colour, without, is red, and when cut across will exhibit rings of red and white alter-, nately; some perchance will be found wholly white when cut, nevertheless they are good. Dr. Lettsom, when he saw the new and improved stock, ownea it to be of superior size and quality to that which he first recommended. He said, that, on his own land, which was not favourable to the growth of Mangel Wurzel, the roots, upon an average, weighed full ten pounds each; and, if the leaves were calculated at half that weight, the product would be fifteen pounds · of nutritious aliment upon every square of eighteen inches, the portion of ground supposed to be allowed for each plant: but this weight is far short of what the roots have attained on good ground in favourable places.
“ The first object, with a view to produce, should be to keep the ground in such a state as will enable it to produce good crops. Good vegetables cannot be produced without good manure. Mangel Wurzel will grow well on that sort of land which is adapted to the growth of turnips : of course the better the condition of the land, the greater will be the crop: manure should be well wrought, and accompanied with good tillage. About the middle of April the ground should be well dunged, and deep ploughed, at least twice over, and cleared by harrowing, so as to leave the surface fine; this should be done as near the time when you intend to sow as can be; and, if the season should be such that the ground turns up very raw and wet, as sometimes in spring it is apt to do, a little time should be allowed it to dry; for when the soil is too wet it binds and does harm, especially
Mr. Newby?s Pamphlet was published in 1813.
in heavy grounds; but, if the land cannot possibly be got ready to receive the seed at this period, no one should be deterred from sowing even till May or the beginning of June, as many good crops have been procured after that time. To sow early is, however, an object to be desired, as it secures a better crop, and more easily managed in the thinning and cleaning from weeds.
" It is proper to form a germination before the seed is sown, by steeping it in soft pond water for twenty-four hours, to forward its growth, especially if the ground be very dry at the time of sowing,
“ The quantity of seed required for an acre is, if broad cast, four pounds; but, if carefully drilled or dibbled, two pounds may be sufficient. The proper depth for the seed to lie in the ground is about three quarters of an inch. If too deep, it will either rot, or not thrive well; and, if too shallow, it is liable to be injured by wind-drought or birds. It may be dibbled to advantage by having a stop on the lower part of the dibble to prevent the holes being made deéper than before mentioned.
“ As soon as the plants are fairly above ground, give them a hoeing with a carrot hoe, to kill the weeds, and a second hoeing when the roots are about the size of a radish, with a turnip hoe. Should there not be a full crop, the roots at this time may
be transplanted to fill up the vacancies: the last hoeing should be done carefully, leaving the plants about twelve or fourteen inches apart each way. When the roots are at full size, the tops may be taken off and given to cows, deer, sheep, swine, &c. taking care to preserve the middle leaves to form another head. Nothing more is now to be done than to keep the land clean by frequent hoeings. Take the whole crop up in October or November for winter or spring use, in dry weather, if possible. The roots must be pulled up, and the leaves cut or stripped off and given to the.cattle, leaving the centre or crown of the plant
79 perfect : they must be cleaned from the dirt, and deposited in straw in alternate layers, and be kept under cover to preserve them from the wet and frost, or be laid up in ridges or trenches like potatoes, covering them with straw to keep out the wet, &c.
There will be a source of food for horses, oxen, cows, sheep, deer; and swine, for many months; and if, in April or May, the whole should not be consumed, the roots may be transplanted out for seed ; and, after that has ripened, they will be found still as palatable and good for cattle as they were before they were planted out. Slice the roots with a knife, or any instrument, and give half a bushel to a cow, bullock, &c. at a time, and as often as they will take it.
“ A pound of good seed contains about 22,000, which will plant about three roods, in eighteen inch drills, leaving each seed twelve inches asunder-but it is recommended to sow rather too thick than too thin, as they do best not transplanted.”
You must look well to your garden this month. If any transplanting of trees is to be done, you have not much more time to lose. Take care and finish nailing and pruning your wall-fruit trees and espaliers, before the buds get out. Finish thinning the gooseberry and currant trees if not done. If
standard fruit trees have any dead branches, or any which grow awkwardly, or if they are thick and crowded, now is the time to use the knife. Look after the raspberries, remembering to take away the old dead wood, and leaving about three or sometimes four of the best young shoots, topping them of an equal length. Look also to the strawberry beds. Clear away weeds and runners, and thin the plants if re