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s truth cometh to the light, that his deeds may be made manifest, that they are wrought in God.
22 After these things came Jesus and his disciples into tch. Iv. 3.
the land of Judæa; and there he tarried with them, and
baptized. 23 And John also was baptizing in Ænon near Samiks,e to u Salim, because there was much water there : Sand y Matt. xiv. 3. they came, and were baptized.
24 For y John was not yet cast into prison. 25 Then there arose a question
t between some of John's disciples and the Jews about purifyS render, the truth.
t read and render, on the part of John's disciples with a Jew. from a vain love of praise, but from a desire probable, both from the text here and for communion wherein he finds strength from other considerations, that John would and security,” De Wette. But this is not have been baptizing, than in Samaria. all: the manifesting his works, that they The name Ænon is an intensitive form of are wrought in God, is and can be only by Ain, a fountain, which answers to the the candle of the Lord being kindled within description here given. Both places were him, and he himself born again in the West of the Jordan : see ver. 26, and coinKingdom of God; see Ps. cxxxix. 23, 24.
pare ch. i. 28.
they came, and were We hear nothing of the effect pro- baptized, i. e. the multitudes. duced on Nicodemus by this interview. 24.] There is much difficulty, which proIt certainly did not alienate him from bably never will be cleared up, about the Jesus, see ch. vii. 50; xix. 39, also ch. xii. date of the imprisonment of John, and its 42. “It speaks for the simplicity and reference to the course of our Lord's historic truthfulness of our Evangelist, that ministry. Between Matt. iv. 11, 12, there he adds nothing more, and even leaves un- seems to be a wide hiatus, in which (see told the immediate result which the dis- note there) the first chapters of this Gos. course had.” Baumgarten-Crusius.
pel should be inserted. But the records 22—36.] Removal of Jesus and His from which the threc Gospels have arisen disciples into the neighbourhood of the were apparently unconscious of any such Baptist, who, upon occasion giren, bears interval. Our Evangelist seems here to another notable testimony to Him.
refer to such records, and to insert this 22.] After these things: the sequence is remark, that it might not be imagined, as not immediate; for this, St. John uses it would be from them, that our Lord's “after this” or “ that,” see ch. xi. 7, 11; public ministry (in the wider sense, see xix. 28. the land of Judæa] The below on ver. 26) began with the impri. rural districts of Judæa, in distinction sonment of the Baptist. 25.] The cir. from the metropolis. baptized, viz. cumstances under which this dispute arose by means of His disciples ;
; -see ch. iv. seem to have been these :-John and our 2, and note. The place is not named : Lord were baptizing near to one another. perhaps He did not remain in one fixed (On the relation of their baptisms, see spot. 23.] The situation of these below on ver. 26.) They were both watched places is uncertain. Eusebius and Jerome jealously (see ch. iv. 1) by the Pharisees. place Salim eight Roman miles south of One of these (a Jew, i. e. a certain Jew, Scythopolis, and Ænon at the same dis. which, in St. John's use of that term, tance, on the Jordan. If Scythopolis was would mean, one of the rulers or chief the ancient Bethshan, both places were in men) appears to have entered into dispute Samaria : and to this agree Epiphanius, with the disciples of John about the relaand the Samaritan chronicle called Abul tive importance of the two baptisins; they Phatach. In Judith iv. 4, we find men- perhaps maintaining that their master's tion of “the valley of Salem” in Samaria purification preparatory to the Messiah (see note on Heb. vii. 1). An Ænon in was absolutely necessary for all, and he the wilderness of Judah is mentioned Josh. (the Jew) pointing out to them the apxv. 61 (in the Alexandrine text of the parent inconsistency of this Messiah him. LXX, not in our English Bible) and ib. self authorizing a baptism in his name, and ver. 32, Shilhim (Seleem, LXX) and Ain, alleging that if so, their master's baptism both in Judah, where it is certainly more was rendered superfluous. We are driven
Mark i. 2.
Rom. ix. .
ing. 26 And they came unto John, and said unto him, Rabbi, he that was with thee beyond Jordan, a to whom z ch. 1.7, 15, thou u barest witness, behold, the same baptizeth, and all men come to him. 27 John answered and said, a A man a 1 Cor. iv.7. can receive nothing, except it be given him from heaven. James 1.17. 28 Ye yourselves bear me witness, that I said, “I am not b ch. i. 20, 27. the Christ, but • that I am sent before him. 29 d He that e Mal. ill. 1. hath the bride is the bridegroom : but the friend of the a Mate
. 2. bridegroom, which standeth and heareth him, rejoiceth Eph. vas, a greatly because of the bridegroom's voice: this my joy ever. os. therefore is fulfilled. 30 He must increase, but I must s Matt. Iiviii. decrease. 31 e He that cometh from above is above all : 1: 15, 27, u render, hast borne.
8 render, with joy. to these conjectures, because the text gives 28.] Not only so, but I have always us no further insight into the fact, than given the same consistent testimony; that what the circumstances and the answer of I was only the forerunner of One greater John render probable.
The word him in the pare ch. i. 28. all men come to original does not refer to “ the Christ :” him] Not, probably, any who had been but to Jesus, as the subject of ver. 26; baptized already by John; but multitudes and thus is not merely a general testimony of persons. The baptism now carried on with regard to the Messiah, but a personal by the disciples appears to have stood very one to Jesus. In reading this verse there. much in the same position as that of John. fore, strong emphasis should be laid on tho It was preparatory to the public ministry word him. 29.] Here first, (and of our Lord properly so called, which here only in our Gospel,) comes, from the began in Galilee after the imprisonment of mouth of the Forerunner, this great sym. Jolin. It was not accompanied with the bolical reference, which is so common in the gift of the Spirit, seech. vii. 39. As other Gospels and in the Epistles. It is John's commission was now on the wane, remarkable that our Lord brings it forso our Lord’s was expanding. The solemn ward in His answer to the disciples of cleansing of the temple was its opening; John respecting fasting, Matt. ix. 15: and now it is proceeding onwards, gather- where see note on the further import of ing multitudes around it (see ch. iv. 1). the terms used. The friend of the
27.] The subject of this answer bridegroom was the regular organ of comis, – the divinely-appointed humiliation munication in the preliminaries of marand eclipsing of the Baptist himself before riage, and had the ordering of the marriage the greater majesty of Him who was come feast. It is to this last time, and not to after him. Accordingly he begins in this any ceremonial custom connected with the verse by answering to the zeal of his dis- marriage rites, that this verse refers. The ciples, that he cannot go beyond the friend rejoices at hearing the voice of the bouuds of his heaven-appointed mission.' bridegroom, (see Jer. vii. 34; xvi. 9 ; xxv. “I cannot arrogate to myself and take 10: Rev. xviii. 23,) in his triumph and upon me what God has not given.” Wet- joy, at the marriage. He rejoiceth with stein. Some apply the words to Jesus :- joy because he hears in the voice of the “ If His circumstances are more illustrious, Bridegroom an assurance of the happy and all men come to Him, it is no matter completion of his mission, and on account of wonder; for such would be the case of the voice itself,—“so sweet, so lovely, with Divinity." Chrysostom. But the so telling of salvation.” The words whole tone of the answer makes the other standeth and belong merely to the graphic view more likely. Of course the remark, setting forth of the similitude. this being general, may in the background have my joy therefore is fulfilled] “Because I reference to the greater mission of Jesus; have presented the bride to Him, and fulbut not primarily. The parallelism of filled, as is elsewhere said, the ministry “a man” here, and himself, as the subject entrusted to me.” Euthymius. of “ I said” in the next verse, also sup- 30 ] decrease, " as the morning-star at ports this view ; see Heb. v. 4.
the rise of the sun.” Euthymius. See note
B1 Cor. xv. 17. 8 he that is of the earth is 9 earthly, and speaketh of the earth: h he that cometh from heaven is above all.
32 And what he hath seen and heard, that he testifieth ; and
no man receiveth his testimony. 33 He that hath received ki John v. 10. his testimony, hath set [2 to] his seal that God is true.
34 ' For he whom God [a hath] sent speaketh the words
of God: for God giveth not the Spirit mby measure y render, of the earth.
z omit for perspicuity.
h chu vi, 38,
1 Cor. xv. 47. Eph. 1. 21.
Phil. ii. 9. i ver. 11.
ch. viii. 20: XV. 15.
1 ch. vii. 18.
mch. i. 16.
31.] Many modern He (the Baptist) ever speaks not as a discritics maintain that after ver. 30 we have ciple of Jesus, not as within the Kingdom, the words, not of the Baptist, but of the —but as knowing the blessedness of those Evangelist. Lücke and De Wette as- who should be within it; as standing by, sume that the Evangelist has put his own and hearing the Bridegroom's voice. thoughts into the Baptist's mouth, or at Nor again is there any thing inconsistent least mixed them with his words. The with the frame of mind which prompted reason of this arbitrary hypothesis is, (a) the question sent by John to our Lord That the sentiments of the following verses afterwards in the onward waning of his seem to them not to be congruous with the days in prison ; see note on Matt. xi. 2. time and position of the Baptist. But he that cometh from heaven] This some of them confess that this very posi- gives us the reason why He must increase: tion of the Baptist is to them yet un- His power and His words are not from explained, and are disposed to question the below, temporary, limited; but are divine applicability to their idea of it of very and inexhaustible ; and, ver. 32], His much which is undoubtedly recorded to witness is not, like John's, only of what he bave been said by him. So that we can- has been forewarned to expect, but of that not allow such a view much critical weight, which He has seen and heard. But no unless it can be first clearly shewn, what man,-i.e. in reference to the world, into were the Baptist's convictions concerning which He is come, the darkness in which the Person and Office of our Lord. (6) His light shines,—no one comparatively,– That the diction and sentiments of the receives His testimony. The state of men's following verses are so entirely in the minds at Jerusalem with regard to Jesus style of our Evangelist. But first, I by must ere this have been well known to the no means grant this, in the sense which is Baptist. 33, 34.] This exception shews here meant. It will be seen by the reff. the correctness of the sense just assigned in my Greek Test. that the Evangelist to “no man." “ He that hath received does not so frequently repeat his own His testimony, and believeth Him, hath favourite expressions as in most other pas- confirmed, shewn, that God is true who sages of equal length. And even were sent Him, Whose are the words which He this so, the remark made above on vv. 16– speaks; but he that hath not received it 21, would apply here also; that the Evan. and disbelieveth Him, doeth the contrary, gelist's peculiar style of theological expres- and in fact is an open withstander of God,” sion was formed on some model ; and on Euthymius. true, not as Wetstein, what more likely than in the first place that God has been true to His promises by the discourses of his divine Master, and the prophets : this does not suit the conthen such sententious and striking tes- text; but as above from Euthym., true in timonies as the present ? But there is a Himself: a revealer, and fountain of truth. weightier reason than these for opposing for God giveth not the Spirit by the above view, and that arises from what measure] Seeing that the contrast is bemodern criticism has been so much given tween the unlimited gift of the Spirit to to overlook,—the inner coherence of the Him that comes from above, and the limited discourse itself ; in which John explains participation of Him by those who are of to his disciples the reason why He must the earth; we must not understand the increase ; whereas his own dignity was to assertion generally, but supply to Him as be eclipsed before Him. This will be seen has usually been done. The Rabbinical below as we proceed. And there is books say that the Holy Spirit was only nothing inconsistent with what the Lord given to the prophets by measure. This himself says of the Baptist in these verses. unmeasured pouring of the Spirit on Him
on Matt. xi. 2 ff.
Luke x. 22. ch. v. 20, 22: xiii. 3:
Heb. i1. 8.
ch. i. 12: vi. 47. ver. 16, 16. Rom. 1. 17.
b Gen. xxxiii.
19: xlviii. 23.
[b unto him]. 35 n The Father loveth the Son, and hath o Matt, si: 27: given all things into his hand. 36 • He that believeth on the Son hath everlasting life : and he that believeth not wij the Son shall not see life : but the wrath of God abidetb Hab. ii... on him.
IV. I When therefore the Lord knew how the Pharisees 1 John v. io. had heard that Jesus made and a baptized more disciples a ch. lit. 22, 26. than John, % (though Jesus himself baptized not, but his disciples, 3 he left Judæa, and departed again into Galilee. 4 And he must needs go through Samaria. 5° Then cometh he to a city of Samaria, which is called Sychar, near to the parcel of ground that Jacob gave to his son Joseph. 6 Now Jacob's well was there. Jesus therefore, being Josh. Liv.
render, So he cometh. accounts for his speaking the words of God.
4.] If He was already 35.] This, again, is the ground why on the borders of Samaria, not far from the Father gives not the Spirit by measure Ænon (see note on ch. iii. 23), the direct (to Him): see Matt. xi. 27–29, with which way was through Samaria. Indeed withthis verse forms a remarkable point of con- out this assumption, we know from Jonexion, shewing that what is commonly sephus that the Galilæans ordinarily took known as John's form of expression was this way. But there was probably design not confined to him, but originated higher, also in the journey. It could not have having its traces in the narrative of the been mere speed, -since He made two other Gospels, which is confessedly, in its days' stay on the way. 5.] Sychar is main features, independent of him.
better known by the 0. T. name of She36.] Compare ch. i. 12, 13; ver. 15. chem. It was a very old town on the The word rendered “believeth not”
may range of Mt. Ephraim, in a narrow valley mean disobeyeth, and is so rendered Rom. between Mt. Ebal and Mt. Gerizim, Judg. ii. 8; x. 21:1 Pet. ii. 7, and elsewhere. ix. 7. Some think that Sychar, which Unbelief implies disobedience. abideth]
drunken,” was originally a conIt was on him, see ver. 18, in his state of temptuous name applied by the Jews to darkness and nature,--and can only be Shechem, which had supplanted the removed by faith in the Son of God, which proper appellation. Very near it was he has not.
afterwards built Flavia Neapolis. There is CHAP. IV. 1–54.] MANIFESTATION a long and interesting history of Sychem, OF HIMSELF AS THE SON OF GOD IN and the Samaritan worship on Gerizim, SAMARIA AND GALILEE. 1–42.] On his and the Christian church in the neighbour. way back to Galilee through Samaria, he hood, in Robinson's Palestine, iii. 113– discourses with a Samaritan woman. Con- 136. See also Dr. Thomson, The Land fession of his Messiahship by the Sama- and the Book, p. 472 ff. He thinks that ritans. 1.] An inference may be Syehar and Shechem are not the same, drawn from this, that our Lord knew the because at Shechem (Nablus) there are anger of the Pharisees to be more directed delicious fountains of water, which the against Him than against the Baptist,- woman would hardly have left to draw probably on account of what had passed in from a deep well two miles off. Jerusalem. that Jesus, not “that He" the parcel of ground that Jacob gave to
because the report which the Pha- his son Joseph] This is traditional : it risees had heard is given verbatim.
finds however support from Gen. xxxiii. 19, 2.] Probably for the same reason that where we find Jacob buying a field near Paul did not baptize usually (1 Cor. i. Shechem, and Josh. xxiv. 32, where, on 14–16); viz. because His office was to the mention of Joseph's bones being laid preach and teach ;-and the disciples as there, it is said that it became the inheyet had no office of this kind. To assume ritance of the children of Joseph. Our a further reason, e.g. that there might not Lord does not allude to the tradition in the be ground for those whom the Lord himself conversation, though the woman does. had baptized to boast of it, is arbitrary 6.] Robinson (iii. 112) can only solve the
xvii 24. Luke ix. 6., 53. Acts y. 28.
d 181. xii 8:
wearied with his journey, d sat thus on the well : and it was about the sixth hour. 7 There cometh a woman of Samaria to draw water : Jesus saith unto her, Give me to drink. 8 (For his disciples were gone away unto the city to buy e meat.) 9 Then saith the woman of Samaria unto him, How is it that thou, being a Jew, askest drink of me, which am a woman of Samaria ? for · [f the] Jews have no dealings with [f the] Samaritans. 10 Jesus answered and said unto her, If thou knewest the gift of God, and who it
is that saith to thee, Give me to drink; thou wouldest Zeeh. xlii. 16 have asked of him, and he would have given thee a living d render, was sitting
omit. difficulty of the present well standing in a wider signification. The fact is abundantly spot watered by so many natural foun- illustrated in the Rabbinical writings. tains, by supposing that it may have been The question of the woman shews a lively, dug, according to the practice of the naïve disposition, which is further drawn patriarchs, by Jacob, in connexion with out and exeinplified by Him who knew the plot of ground which he bought, to what is in man, in the following dialogue. have an independent supply of water.
10.] The important words the gift thus refers to being wearied with his jour- of God have been misunderstood by many ney, and might be expressed by accordingly. Commentators. Some suppose them to There is no authority for the meaning mean 'our Lord Himself,' and to be in just as he was,' or just as it happened, apposition with the next clause, and who i. e. on the bare stone. the sixth hour, it is, &c. Others, this opportunity of i.e. mid-day. Townson supposed the sixth speaking with Me.' Doubtless both these hour, according to St. John, to mean six meanings are involved, --- especially the in the evening, after the way of reckoning former : but neither of them is the primary in Asia Minor :'- but, as Lücke observes, one, as addressed to the woman. The this way of reckoning in Asia Minor is a WATER is, in this first part of the pure invention of Townson’s. A decisive discourse, the subject, and serves as a answer however to such a supposition here, point of connexion, whereby the woman's or any where else in our Evangelist, is thoughts may be elevated, and her desire that he would naturally have specified aroused. The process of the discourse in whether it was 6 A.M. or P.M. The un
this particular is similar to that in Acts usualness of a woman coming to draw xiv. 17. From recognizing this water as water at mid-day is no argument against the gift of God, in its limitation, ver. 13, its possibility; indeed the very fact of her and its parabolic import, ver. 14, her view being alone seems to shew that it was not is directed to Him who was speaking with the common time. 8.] The disciples her, and the Gift which He should bestow, had probably taken with them the baggage, —THE GIFT OF THE HOLY SPIRIT: see among which would be the vessel for draw- ch. vii. 37-39. who it is] These ing water,—see ver. 11. The Rabbis pregnant words form the second step in say that a Jew might not eat the bread or our Lord's declaration. He who speaks drink the wine of a Samaritan : but that with thee is no ordinary Jew, nor any appears from this verse to be exaggerated. ordinary inan, but One who can give thee
9. being a Jew] She knew this the gift of God; One sent from God, and perhaps by his dress, more probably by God Himself. All this lies in the words, his dialect. There seems to be a sort of which however only serve to arouse in playful triumph in the woman's question, the woman's mind the question of ver. 12 q.d. even a Jew, when weary and athirst, (see below). living water] Designcan humble himself to ask drink of a edly used in a double sense by our Lord, Samaritan woman.' for Jews have no that the woman may lay hold of the dealings with Samaritans are the words material meaning, and by it be awakened of the Evangelist to explain her question. to the higher one (see reff.). The words The word rendered have no dealings is bring with them, and in our Lord's properly spoken of trade,—but here is in a
inner meaning involved, the performance