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water. 11 The woman saith unto him, Sir, thou hast nothing to draw with, and the well is deep : from whence then hast thou that living water? 12 Art thou greater than our father Jacob, which gave us the well, and drank thereof himself, and his & children, and his cattle? 13 Jesus answered and said unto her, h Whosoever drinketh of this water shall thirst again : 14 but whosoever i drinketh of ech. vi. 35, 59. the water that I shall give him k shall never thirst; but the water that I shall give him shall I be in him a well rch. vil. 88. 8 render, sons.
h render, Every one that drinketh. i render, shall have drunk. k render, shall thirst no more for ever. I render, become.
of all such prophetic promises as Ezek. gift was of water which cannot satisfy ; xxxvi. 25; Zech. xiii. 1 (see also Jer. but the water which He should give has ii. 13); but, as regarded the woman, living power, and becomes an eternal the ordinary sense was that intended fountain within. This liowever, that He for her to fusten on, which she does ac. was greater than Jacob, lies only in the cordingly. On the question, how this background: the water is the subject, as living water could be now given, before before. The words apply to every Jesus was glorified, see on ch. vii. 38, 39. siunilar quenching of desire by earthly
11, 12.] Though “Sir" (the same means: the desire springs up again ;word as that commonly rendered “ Lord”) is not satisfied, but only postponed. The is not to be pressed as emphatic, it is not manna was as insufficient to satisfy hunger, without import; it surely betokens a dif- -as this water, thirst, see ch. vi. 49, 58: ferent regard of the stranger than the it is only the living water, and the bread words “thou being a Jew" did :—“She of life, which can satisfy. In the calls him · Sir,' thinking Him to be some original, the words Every one that drinketh great man.” Euthymius. The course of set forth the recurrence, the interrupted her thoughts appears to be : “ Thou canst seasons, of the drinking of earthly water; not mean living water ( bubbling up and -- but whosoever shall have drunk sets leaping,' Euthymius), from this well, be- forth the once having tasted, and ever concause thou hast no vessel to draw with, and tinuing in the increasing power, and living it is deep ; whence then hast thou (knowest forth-flowing, of that life-long draught. thou of, drawest thou) the living water of
shall thirst no more for ever, shall which thou speakest ? Our father Jacob never have to go away and be exhausted, was contented with this, used it, and be and come again to be filled ;- but shall queathed it to us: if thou hast better have the spring at home, in his own breast, water, and canst give it, thou must be “so that he can “ draw water with joy out greater than Jacob.” There is something of the wells of salvation” (Isa. xii. 3) at also of Samaritan nationality speaking here. his pleasure. “When thirst does recur, it Claiming Jacob as her father (Josephus is the defect of the man, not of the water." says of the Samaritans, When they see the Bengel. shall become a well] All Jews prospering, they call them their rela- earthly supplies have access only into tives, as being themselves sprung from Jo. those lower parts of our being where the seph ; but when they see them in trouble, desires work themselves out - are but local they profess to have no connexion with applications; but the heavenly gift of thein'), she expresses by this question an spiritual life which Jesus gives to those appropriation of descent from him, such as who believe on Him, enters into the very almost to exclude, or at all events set at a secret and highest place of their personal greater distance, the Jews, to one of whom life, the source whence the desires spring she believed herself to be speaking
out :- and, its nature being living and 13, 14.] Our Lord, without noticing this, spiritual, it does not merely supply, but it by His answer leaves it to be implied, lives and waxes onward, unto everlasting that, assuming what she has stated, He life, in duration, and also as producing is greater than Jacob: for his (Jacob's) and sustaining it. It should not be
of water springing up into everlasting life. 15 & The woman saith unto him, Sir, give me this water, that I thirst not, neither come hither to draw. 16 Jesus saith unto her, Go, call thy husband, and come hither. 17 The woman answered and said, I have no husband. Jesus said unto her, Thou hast well said, m I have no husband : 18 for thou hast had five husbands; and he whom thou now hast
m better, An husband I have not : see note.
overlooked, that this discourse had, be- granting her request, “ give me this water.” sides its manifold and wonderful meaning The first work of the Spirit of God, and of for us all, an especial moral one as ap- Him who here spoke in the fulness of that plied to the woman,-who, by successive Spirit, is, to convince of sin. The 'give draughts at the broken cistern' of carnal me this water' was not so simple a matter lust, had been vainly seeking solace :- as she supposed. The beart must first be and this consideration serves to bind on laid bare before the wisdom of God: the the following verses (ver. 16 ff.) to the secret sins set in the light of His countepreceding, by another link besides those nance; and this our Lord here does. The noticed below. 15.] This request command itself is of course given in the seems to be made still under a misunder- fulness of knowledge of her sinful condistanding, but not so great an one as at tion of life. In every conversation which first sight appears. She apprehends this our Lord held with men, while He conwater as something not requiring a water. nects usually one remark with another by pot to draw it ;- as something whose power the common links which bind human shall never fail ;-which shall quench thirst thought, we perceive that He knows, and for ever ;-and half in banter, half in sees through, those with whom He speaks. earnest, wishing perhaps besides to see
17.] This answer is not for a mowhether the gift would after all be con- ment to be treated as something unex. ferred, and how,-she mingles in with pected by Him who commanded her. He “this water,"—implying some view of has before Him her whole life of sin, which its distinct nature, - her 'not coming she in vain endeavours to cover by the hither to draw,'-her willing avoidance of doubtful words of this verse. 18.] the toil of her noonday journey to the well. There was literal truth, but no more, in We must be able to enter into the com- the woman's answer: and the Lord, by plication of her character, and the impres. His divine knowledge, detects the hidden sions made on her by the strange things falsehood of it. Notice it is true (a fact which she has heard, fully to appreciate - bare truth), not truly: this one word the spirit of this answer. 16.] The was true : further shewn by the emphatic connexion of this rerse with the foregoing position of the word husband in our Lord's has been much disputed; and the strangest answer,—which was not so placed in hers. and most unworthy views have been taken thou hast had five husbands] These of it. Some (e. g. Grotius) have strangely five were certainly lawful husbands; they referred it to the supposed indecorum of are distinguished from the sixth, who was the longer continuance of the colloquy with not ;, probably the woman had been sepathe woman alone; some more strangely rated from some by divorce (the law of still (Cyril of Alexandria) to the incapacity which was but loose among the Samariof the female mind to apprehend the mat. tans),- from some by death,- or perhaps ters of which He was to speak. Both these by other reasons more or less discreditable need surely no refutation. The band of to her character, which had now become women from Galilee, 'last at the cross, and degraded into that of an openly licentious earliest at the tomb,' are a sufficient answer woman. The conviction of sin here lies to them. Those approach nearer the beneath the surface: it is not pressed, nor truth, who believe the command to have at the moment does it seem to have worked been given to awaken her conscience; or deeply, for she goes on with the conversato shew her the divine knowledge which tion with apparent indifference to it; but the Lord had of her heart. But I am per. our Lord's words in vv. 25, 26 would tend suaded that the right account is found, in to infix it more deeply, and we find at ver. viewing this command, as the first step of 29, that it had been working during her
i Judg. ix. 7.
2 Chron. vii. 12.
is not thy husband : in that n saidst thou truly. 19 The woman saith unto him, Sir, hI perceive that thou art a h Luke vil. 16: prophet. 20 Our fathers worshipped in this mountain ; ch. w. 18: and ye say, that in * Jerusalem is the place where men k Deut. til. ought to worship. 21 Jesus saith unto her, Woman, be- Kings.x. & lieve me, the hour cometh, 'when ye shall neither in this 1 mal. 1. 11.
I Mal. i. 11.
1 Tim. ii. 6. mountain, nor yet at Jerusalem, worship the Father. 22 Ye worship mo ye know not what : we know what we wor. m 2 Kings
a render, hast thou spoken true.
o render, that which ye know not: we worship that which we know. journey back to the city. 19.] In in Deut. xii. 5. She pauses, having speaking this her conviction, she virtually suggested, rather than asked, a question, confesses all the truth. That she should --seeming to imply, · Before I can receive pass to another subject immediately, seems, this gift of God, it must be decided, where as Stier remarks, to arise, not froin a wish I can acceptably pray for it;' and she to turn the conversation from a matter so leaves it for Him whom she now recogunpleasing to her, but from a real desire to nizes as a prophet, to resolve this doubt. obtain from this Prophet the teaching re
21.7 Our Lord first raises her view quisite that she may pray to God accept to a higher point than her question im. ably. The idea of her endeavouring to plied, or than indeed she, or any one, escape from the Lord's rebuke, is quite in. without His prophetic announcement, consistent with her recognition of Him as could then have attained. The cona prophet. Rather we may suppose a cluding words mean, Ye shall worship the pause, which makes it evident that He Father but not (only) in this mountain, does not mean to proceed further with His nor in Jerusalem .... The prophelaying open of her character. 20.7 in tic ye shall worship, though embracing in this mountain-Mount Gerizim, on which its wider sense all mankind, may be taken once stood the national temple of the Sa- primarily as foretelling the success of the maritan race. In Neh. xiii. 28, we read Gospel in Samaria, Acts viii. 1--26. that the grandson of the high priest the Father, as implying the One God and Eliashib was banished by Nehemiah be- Father of all. There is also, as Calvin cause he was son-in-law to Sanballat, the remarks, a “tacit opposition” between the Persian satrap of Samaria. Him Sanballat Father,--and our father Jacob, ver. 12, not only received, but made him high our fathers, ver. 20. 22.) But He priest of a temple which he built on Mount will not leave the temple of Zion and the Gerizim. Josephus makes this appointment worship appointed by God without His sanctioned by Alexander, when at Tyre;- testimony. He decides her question not but the chronology is certainly not accu. merely by affirming, but by proving the rate, for between Sanballat and Alexander Jewish worship to be the right one. In is a difference of nearly a century. This the Samaritan worship there was no leadtemple was destroyed 200 years after by ing of God to guide them, there were no John Hyrcanus (B.C. 129); but the Sama- prophetic voices revealing more and more ritans still used it as a place of prayer and of His purposes. The neuter, that which, sacrifice, and to this day the few Samari. is used to shew the want of personality and tans resident in Nablus (Sychem) call it the distinctness in their idea of God :--the holy mountain, and turn their faces to it second that which, merely as correspondin prayer. They defended their prac. ing to it in the other member of the sentice by Deut. xxvii. 4, where our reading tence. Or perhaps better, both, as desigand the Heb. and LXX is Ebal, but that nating merely the abstract object of wor. of the Samaritan Pentateuch, Gerizim (pro- ship, not the personal God. The word bably an alteration): also by Gen. xii. 6, 7; we is remarkable, as being the only in. xiii. 4 ; xxxiii. 18, 20; Deut. xi. 26 ff. stance of our Lord thus speaking. But Our fathers most likely means not the pa. the nature of the case accounts for it. He triarchs, but the ancestors of the then Sa- never elsewhere is speaking to one so set maritans. the place where men ought in opposition to the Jews on a point where to worship] The definite place spoken of Himself and the Jews stood together for
Isa, 11. 3. Luontevastir ship: P for salvation 9 is of the Jews. 28 But the hour Luke xxiv. 47. Rom. iz: 4,6 m. ix. 4, 5.
cometh, and now is, when the true worshippers shall woro Phil. iii. 3. ship the Father in 'spirit Pand in truth : for r the Father p eh. i. 17. 42 Cor. iii. 17. seeketh such to worship him. 24 a God is a Spirit: and they
that worship him must worship [shim] in spirit and in P render, because.
9 render, cometh. r render, such the Father also seeketh them that worship him to be.
somit : not in the original. God's truth. He now speaks as a Jew. the idea, in the woman's answer, of the The nearest approach to it is in His answer Messiah, by Whom He seeks (Luke xix. 10) to the Canaanitish woman, Matt. xv. 24, His true worshippers, to gather them out 26. because: this is the reason why of the world. 24.] God is & Spirit, we know what we worship, because the was the great Truth of Judaism, whereby promises of God are made to us, and we the Jews were distinguished from the idol. possess them and believe them; see Rom. atrous people around them. And the Samaiii. 1, 2. salvation (or, literally, the ritans held even more strongly than the salvation (of men]) cometh of the Jews Jews the pure monotheistic view. Traces It was in this point especially, expectation of this, remarks Lücke, are found in the of the promised salvation by the great alterations inade by them in their PentaDeliverer (see Gen. xlix. 18), that the teuch, long before the time of this history. Samaritan rejection of the prophetic word This may perhaps be partly the reason why had made them so deficient in comparison our Lord, as Bengel remarks, 'never deliof the Jews. But not only this ;--the vered, even to His disciples, things more Messiah Himself was to spring from among sublime,' than to this Samaritan woman. the Jews, and had sprung from among God being pure spirit (perhaps better them;—not “shall come,” but cometh, the not'a Spirit,' since it is His Essence, not abstract present, but perhaps with a refer. His Personality, which is here spoken of), ence to what was then happening. See cannot dwell in particular spots or temples Isa. ii. 1–3. 23.] The discourse re. (see Acts vii. 48; xvii. 24, 25); cannot turns to the ground taken in ver. 21, but require, nor be pleased with, earthly manot so as to make ver. 22 parenthetical terial offerings nor ceremonies, as such : only: the spiritual worship now to be on the other hand, is only to be approached spoken of is the carrying out and conse- in that part of our being, which is spirit, quence of the salvation just mentioned, and even there, inasmuch as He is pure and could not have been brought in with and holy, with no by-ends nor hypocritical out it. and now is] “ This which regards, but in truth and earnestness. But was not added in ver. 21, is now added, here comes in the deeper sense alluded to that the woman might not think that the above. How is the Spirit of man to be locality of this true worship was to be brought into communion with God ? sought in Judæa alone,” Bengel. “ Thou seekest to pray in a temple : pray the true worshippers, as distinguished (1) in thyself. But first be the temple of from hypocrites, who have pretended to God,” Augustine. And how is this to be? worship Him : (2) from all who went be. Man cannot make himself the temple of fore, whose worship was necessarily imper. God. So that here comes in the gift of fect. The words in spirit and in truth God, with which the discourse began,- the (not without an allusion to “in this moun. gift of the Holy Spirit, which Christ tain”) are, in their first meaning, opposed to should give to them that believe on Him: in mere habit and falsehood, -and denote thus we have praying in the Holy the earnestness of spirit with which the Spirit,' Jude 20. So beautifully does the true worshippers shall worship; so Ps. expression the Father here bring with it cxlv. 18, " The Lord is nigh .... unto all the new birth by the Spirit,-and for us, that call upon him in truth." A deeper the readers of the Gospel, does the dismeaning is brought out where the ground course of ch. ii. reflect light on this. And of this kind of worship is stated, in the so wonderfully do these words forın the next verse. Such worshippers God conclusion to the great subject of these not only requires,' from His very nature, first chapters: “GOD 18 BECOME ONE but seeks,- is seeking. This seeking on FLESH WITH US, THAT WE MIGHT BEthe part of the Father naturally brings in COME ONE SPIRIT WITH HIM.'
& Matt. xxvi.
63,04. Mark xiv.
truth. 25 The woman saith unto him, I know that Messias cometh, which is called Christ: when he is come, he will r ver. 29, 80. tell us all things. 26 Jesus saith unto her, * I that speak s poti vzvl. unto thee am he. 27 And upon this came his disciples, 01, 02. **
ch, tr. 87. and marvelled that he ss talked with the woman : yet no man said, What seekest thou ? or, Why talkest thou with her ? 28 The woman then left her waterpot, and went her way into the city, and saith to the men, 29 Come, see a man, ' which told me all things that ever I did : is [t not] this t ver. 26. the Christ? 30 Then they went out of the city, and came
88 render, was talking with a woman. 25.] These words again seem uttered in the flesh, and then to force recorded under a complicated feeling. From her events into agreement with it. Such “story,” ver. 29, she certainly had some a plan will be formed in our own minds suspicion (in her own mind, perhaps over from continued study of the Scripture and beyond His own assertion of the fact : narrative :-- but by the arbitrary system but see note there) that He who had told which I am here condemning, the very her all things, &c., was the Christ; and facts which are the chief data of such from her breaking in with this remark a scheme, are themselves set aside. When after the weighty truth which had been De Wette says, “This early and decided just spoken, it seems as if she thought declaration of Jesus is in contradiction thus, · How these matters may be, I cannot with Matt. viii. 4, and xvi. 20,'-he understand ;- they will be all made clear forgets the very different circumstances when the Christ shall come. The ques. under which both those injunctions were tion of ver. 20 had not been answered to spoken :-while he is forced to confess her liking or expectation: she therefore that it is in agreement with the whole puts aside, as it were, what has been spirit of the Serinon on the Mount. He said, by a remark on that suspicion which who knew what was in man, varied His was arising in her mind. It is not revelations and injunctions, as the time certain what expectations the Samaritans and place, and individual dispositions rehad regarding the Messiah. The view quired. 1] In saying I that speak here advanced might be well derived unto thee, He intends a reference to her from Deut. xviii. 15 ;- and the name, words, “ will tell us all things,”-I am He, and much that belonged to it, might have who am now speaking to thee-fulfilling been borrowed from the Jews originally. part of this telling all things ; see also her
which is called Christ appear to confession ver. 29. 27.] The ground me to be the words of the woman, not of of their wonder, as given in the original, the Evangelist ; for in this latter case was the circumstance, that our Lord was he would certainly have used Messias talking with a woman. None of them again in ver. 29. See also the difference said either--to the woman-What seekest of expression where he inserts an inter- thou ? or to the Lord, Why disputest pretation, ch. i. 42: xix. 13, 17. It is thou, or Why talkest thou with her ?possible that the name “ Christ” had or perhaps both questions to Him. Why become common in popular parlance, like talkést thou with her ?-I rather prefer many other Greek words and names. the former interpretation. 28 - 30.]
The verb rendered will tell us is She does not mention to the men His own und especially of enouncing or propound announcement of Himself,—but as is most ing by divine or superior authority. natural under such circumstances, rests the 26.] of the reasons which our Lord had, matter on the testimony likely to weigh thus to declare Himself to this Samaritan most with them,- her own. We often, woman and through her to the inha- and that unconsciously, put before another bitants of Sychem (ver. 42), as the not our strongest, but what is likely to be Christ, thus early in his ministry, we his strongest reason. At the same time surely are not qualified to judge. There she shews how the suspicion expressed in is nothing so opposed to true Scripture ver. 25 arose in her own mind. criticism, as to form a preconceived plan 30.] came,-more properly, were coming, and rationale of the course of our Lord --- had not arrived, when what follows hap