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46. Num. ix. 12. Ps Xxxiv. 20.
17. Rev. 1.7.
and that they might be taken away. 32 i Then came the soldiers, and brake the legs of the first, and of the other which was crucified with him. 33 But k when they came to Jesus, and saw that he was dead already, they brake not his
legs : 34 1 but one of the soldiers with a spear pierced his + 1 John v. side, and forthwith came there out blood and water.
35 And he that saw it mbare record, and his a record is
true : and he knoweth that he saith true, that ye o might u Exod. xii. believe. 36 For these things Puere done, u that the scrip
12.. ture 9 should be fulfilled, A bone of him shall not be 1 Ps. xxii. 16, broken. 37 And again another scripture saith, * They
shall look on him whom they pierced. 38 And after r this i render, So the soldiers came. k render, having come to Jesus, when they saw. 1 render, nevertheless.
m render, hath borne witness. n render, witness.
O render, may. P render, came to pass.
q render, might. r render, these things. for the purpose of causing death, which typical significance: nor can I see how indeed it would not do. Friedlieb sup- 1 John v. 6 ff. can be understood without poses that the term involved in it the reference to this fact: see note there. *coup de grace,' which was given to all 35.] This emphatic affirmation of the fact executed criminals, and that the piercing seems to regard rather the whole incident, with the spear was this death-blow, and than the mere outflowing of the blood was also inflicted on the thieves.
and water. It was the object of St. John 34.] The lance must have penetrated to shew that the Lord's Body was a real deep, for the object was to ensure death, body, and underwent real death. And and see ch. xx. 27, probably into the both these were shewn by what took left side, on account of the position of place: not so much by the phænomenon the soldier, and of what followed.
of the water and blood, as by the infliction blood and water] The spear perhaps of such a wound,-after which, even had pierced the pericardium or envelope of the not death taken place before, there could heart, in which case a liquid answering not by any possibility be life remaining. the description of water may have flowed
The third person (he that saw with the blood. But the quantity would it ....) gives solemnity. It is, besides, in be so small as scarcely to have been ob- accordance with St. John's way of speaking served. It is hardly possible that the sepa- of himself throughout the Gospel. The ration of the blood into placenta and serum usage of the word believe in St. John makes should so soon have taken place, or that, it probable that he lays the weight on the if it bad, it should have been by an ob. proof of the reality of the death, as above. server described as blood and water. It is The clause, that ye may believe, depends more probable that the fact, which is on the three preceding clauses, without here so strongly testified, was a conse any parenthesis, as the final aim of what quence of the extreme exhaustion of the has gone before: in order that your faith Body of the Redeemer. The medical may receive confirmation. 36.] For' opinions on the point are very various, and -i.e. as connected with the true Messiahby no means satisfactory. Meyer's view ship of Christ, these things were a fulfil. after all seems to be the safe and true ment of Scripture. It is possible that one-that the circumstance is related as a Ps. xxxiv. 20 may be also referred to;miraculous sign, having deep significance but no doubt the primary reference is to as to the work of the Redeemer, and the Paschal Lamb of Exod. xii. 46: Num. shewing Him to be more than mortal. ix. 12; see 1 Cor. v. 7. 37.7 The It can be no reason against this, that prophecy, they shall look on Him whom St. John does not here dwell on any such they pierced, does not refer to the Roman
Joseph of Arimathæa, being a disciple of Jesus, but secretly y for fear of the Jews, besought Pilate that he y ch. ix. 22: might take away the body of Jesus : and Pilate gave him leave. He came therefore, and took s the body of Jesus. 39 And there came also 2 Nicodemus, which at the first z ch. ill. 1, 2: came to Jesus by night, and brought a mixture of myrrh and aloes, about an hundred pound weight. 40 Then took they the body of Jesus, and a wound it in linen clothes a Acts v.0. with the spices, as the manner of the Jews is to bury. 41 Now in the place where he was crucified there was a garden ; and in the garden a new sepulchre, wherein was
8 render, his body.
soldiers,--but to the repentant in the 23; Prov. vii. 17; Song of Sol. ii. 6. world, who, at the time the Gospel was aloes] The name of various sorts written, had begun to fulfil the prophecy: of aromatic wood in the East. Both and is not without a prophetic reference to materials appear to have been pulverized the future conversion of Israel, who were (the wood either by scraping or burning) here the real piercers, though the act was and strewed in the folds of the linen in done by the hand of wicked men, Acts x. 28. which the body was wrapped. The quan
38–42.] His Burial. 38.] after tity, about an hundred pound weight, is these things —not immediately after this, large; but perhaps the whole Body was but soon after. The narrative implies, encased, after the wrapping, in the mix. though it does not mention (as St. Mark ture, and an outer wrapper fastened over and St. Luke do), that Joseph himself took all. The proceeding was hurried, on acdown the Body from the cross. Lücke count of the approaching Sabbath : and thinks the soldiers would have done this : apparently an understanding entered into but their duty seems only to have extended with the women, that it should be more to the ascertaining of the fact of death. completely done after the Sabbath was The words of ver. 31, “that they might be over. This plentiful application of the taken away,” need not imply, by their aromatic substances may therefore have hands. It was customary to grant been made with an intention to prevent the bodies of executed persons to their the Body, in its lacerated state, from inci. friends. On Joseph, and the other pient decomposition during the interval. particulars, see notes on Matthew.
40.] See ch. xi. 44. Little is known He came ...-to Golgotha. 39.] St. with any certainty, except from these pas. John alone mentions Nicodemus. The sages, of the Jews' ordinary manner of Galilæan narrative had no previous trace burying. 41.] See note on Matthew, of him, and does not recognize him here. ver. 60. The words, in the place where Joseph bore too prominent a part not he was crucified, are so far in favour of to be inentioned by all. Luthardt beau- the traditional site of the Holy Sepulchre, tifully remarks on the contrast between that Calvary and the Sepulchre are close these men's secret and timid discipleship together, under the roof of the same before, and their courage now, Their church. And those who have found an love to Jesus was called out by the objection in that circumstance have formight of His love. His Death is the gotten this testimony of St. John. Power which constrains men. And thus & new sepulchre ....] And therefore this act of love on the part of both these given for the purpose-so that the addimen is a testimony for Jesus, and for the tional particular not here mentioned, that future effect of His death. Hence also it it belonged to Joseph, is almost implied. appears why the Evangelist mentions the The newness of the tomb was important, weight of the spices, as a proof of the that it should be seen that no one but greatness of their love, as Lampe ob- Jesus had risen thence, and Jesus not by serves.” myrrh, - the gum of an the power of another, as was once the case aromatic plant, not indigenous in Pales. at the grave of Elisha : so that no room tine, but in Arabia Felix, see Exod. xxx. might be left for the evasions of unbelief. VOL. I.
C ver. 31.
b Isa. lili. O. never man yet laid. 42 b + There laid they Jesus therefore
because of the Jews' preparation day; for the sepulchre was nigh at hand.
XX. 1 u The first day of the week cometh Mary Magdalene early, X when it was yet dark, unto the sepulchre, and
seeth the stone taken away from the sepulchre. 23 Then a chil: 28;. she runneth, and cometh to Simon Peter, and to the a other
disciple, whom Jesus loved, and saith unto them, They have taken away the Lord out of the sepulchre, and we
a ch. xiii. 23:
xix. 26: xxi. 7, 20, 24.
t better (see note) arranged as the original ; There then, on account of the Jews' preparation day, because the sepulchre was nigh at hand, laid they Jesus. U render, But on the first day. render, while. render, She runneth therefore.
42.] the Jews' preparation day counts :-I believe all such attempis to seems to indicate clearly the preparation be fruitless ;-and I see in their failure of the Passover, as I have before main strong corroboration of the truth of the tained that the words mean; not the mere evangelic narratives. It is quite impos. day of the week so called, which, as it was sible that so astounding an event, coining by the Christians also in the Apostles' time upon various portions of the body of disnamed the preparation (Parascévé), would ciples from various quarters and in various not be qualified by the additional state. forms, should not have been related, by ment that it was “the Jews' preparation four independent witnesses, in the scatday.” The words because the sepul- tered and fragmentary way in which we chre was nigh at hand, may certainly at now find it. In the depth beneath this first sight appear as if St. John were not varied surface of narration, rests the great aware that the tomb belonged to Joseph; central fact of the Resurrection itself, unbut it is more likely that the thought of moved and immoveable. As it was THIS asking for the Body may have been ori- above all other things to which the Apos. ginally suggested to Joseph by his possess. tles bore their testimony, so, in their testiing a tomb close to the place of crucifixion, mony to this, we have the most remarkable and so the nearness of the tomb may have proof of each having faithfully elaborated been the real original reason of the whole into narrative those particular facts which proceeding; and St. John, not anxious to came under his own eye or were reported record every particular, may have given it to himself by those concerned. Hence the as such. It is much better to keep great diversity in this portion of the nar. the order of the original in rendering this rative:-and hence I believe much that is verse. There is weight and pathos in the now dark might be explained, were the concluding words, as completing the great facts themselves, in their order of occur. subject of this part of the narrative, which rence, before us. Till that is the case, is lost by transposing as in A. V.
(and I am willing to believe that it will be CHAP. XX. 1—29.] JESUS ALIVE FROM one of our delightful employments here. THE DEAD. COMPLETION OF THE DIS. after, to trace the true harmony of the CIPLES' FAITH WROUGHT THEREBY. And Holy Gospels, under His teaching of whom herein, 1-18.] Contrast between His they are the record,) we must be content former life, within the conditions of the to walk by faith, and not by sight. We flesh, and His present, in which His must also remember in this case, that our communion with His own partakes of his Evangelist is selecting his points of narranew relation to the Father. Compare tion with a special purpose,-- to shew us Matt. xxviii. 1: Mark xvi. 1: Luke xxiv. how the belief of the disciples was brought 1. On the chronology of the events of out and completed, after the unbelief of the Resurrection, see note on Matt. xxviii. Israel : cf. vv. 30, 31. 1, 2. Mary 1. I attempt no harmony of the ac. Magdalene] She was not alone (Matthew,
Acts il. 25
know not where they have laid him. 3 Peter therefore went forth, and ? that other disciple, and a came to the sepulchre. 40 So they ran both together : and the other disciple did outrun Peter, and came first to the sepulchre, 5 and [che] stooping down and looking in, saw the bch. xix. 40. linen clothes lying; yet went he not in. 6 Then a cometh Simon Peter following him, and went into the sepulchre, and e seeth the linen clothes I lie, 7 and · the napkin, that och. xi. 46. was 8 about his head, not lying with the linen clothes, but wrapped together in a place by itself. 8 h Then went in also i that other disciple, which came first to the sepulchre, and he saw, and believed. 9 For as yet they knew not d the scripture, that he must rise again from the dead. a Ps. xvi. 10.
Ps. xvi. 10. 10 k Then the disciples went away again unto their own 75 home. z render, the.
& render, they went toward. b render, And
Comit. d render, cometh also.
e render, beholdeth. I render, lying.
8 render, upon. b render, Then therefore. i render, the.
- render, So. Mark, Luke). Does this appear in the describes the exhaustive gaze of Peter, who plural verb, “we know not where they did. Notice also that John, when he have lcid Him,” below? This is not, as stooped and looked in, saw only the linen Meyer says, precluded by the use of “I clothes, which seem to have been lying know not” in ver. 13. Mary there speaks where the Feet were, nearer the entrance, in her own person, which she might do, how whereas Peter, on going in, saw the napkin, ever accompanied. Still, probably not. She which was perhaps deposited further in, perhaps uses the plural, as involving all the near the place of the Head. 8. he disciples in her own feeling of ignorance and saw, and believed] Nothing is said of of consequent sorrow. So Meyer: and it Peter-did he believe too? I think not ; is more natural to take it thus. One thing and that John modestly suppresses it. we may conclude for certain, that she, for But what did John believe? Was it merely, some reason, did not see the vision related that the Body had been taken away, as in the three other Gospels. 37 St. Mary had reported (Bengel and others)? Luke, ver. 12, speaks only of Peter's going. Surely not; the facts which he saw would
4-8.] Full of most interesting and prevent this conclusion : nor does John characteristic detail. John, probably the so use the word believe. He believed younger, outruns Peter ;- but when there, that Jesus was risen from the dead. He reverently (not for fear of pollution, as received into his mind, embraced with his some have thought) abstains from enter- assent, THE FACT OF THE RESURRECing the sepulchre. The ardent and impe- TION, for the first time. He did this, on tuous Peter goes directly in— Jolin follows the ocular testimony before him ; for as - and believes. What can exceed the inner yet neither of them knew the Scripture, truth of this description ? And wbat is so as to be previously convinced of the not related is as full of truth as that certainty that it would be so. But (see which is. For, vv. 6, 7, we seem to hear above) Peter does not seem to have as yet the very voice of Peter describing to his received this fact ;-accounting probably companion the inner state of the tomb. for what he saw as Mary had done. Lampe
On the napkin, see ch. xi. 44 and beautifully says, “We conclude that from note. seeth represents the original this moment, in the gloom of the sepulchre, word used of the cursory glance of John, the mind of John was enlightened by saving who did not go in-beholdeth, that which faith in the Resurrection of Jesus, as with
il But Mary stood without at the sepulchre weeping: and as she wept, she stooped down and looked into the sepulchre, 12 and 1 seeth two angels in white sitting, the one at the head, and the other at the feet, where the body of Jesus had lain. 13 And they say unto her, Woman, why weepest thou ? She saith unto them, Because they have taken away my Lord, and I know not where they have
laid him. 14 [m And] when she had thus said, she turned e ch. xxi. 4. herself back, and I saw Jesus standing, and e knew not that
it was Jesus. 15 Jesus saith unto her, Woman, why weepest thou? whom seekest thou ? She, supposing n him
to be the gardener, saith unto him, Sir, if thou have borne I render, beholdeth.
m omit. Brender, that it was.
a new ray of the risen Sun of Righteous. forth and weep again, or further to seek ness. 10. went away again unto her Lord. Chrysostom's reason is very their own home] St. Luke, xxiii. 12, has beautiful, but perhaps hardly probable, the very same expression; see there in from the fact that Mary on turning round margin. This is remarkable, as he evi. did not recognize our Lord : “ It seems to dently has a fragment of the same inci. me that while she was saying these words, dent. 11.] She had come with them, the sudden appearance of Christ behind but inore slowly. 12.] From what has her struck the angels, who saw their Lord, been said above, my readers will not expect with amazement: and that they immeme to compare the angelic appearances in diately shewed, both by their posture and the four Gospels. What wonder, if the by their look, that they saw the Lord : heavenly hosts were variously and often and this caused Mary to turn round and visible on this great day, when the look behind her.” We need not surely morning stars sang together, and all the enquire too minutely, why she did not sons of God shouted for joy ?' What know Him. The fact may be psychologican be more accurate in detail than this cally accounted for—she did not expect description of the vision of Mary ? Every Him to be there, and was wholly preoccuword was no doubt carefully related to the pied with other thoughts : or, as Dräseke Apostle, and as carefully recorded. And says, “Her tears wore a veil, which con. ali is significant: they are in white, be. cealed Him who stood before her. The cause from the world of light: they sit, seeking after the Dead prevents us from as not defending, but peacefully watching seeing the Living. 15.] The same the Body: at the Head and the Feet, for kind of repetition by the Lord of what the the Body of the Lord was from head to angel had before said is found in Matt. foot in the charge of His Father and of xxviii. 7–10. It is idle to enquiré trhy His servants. 13.] Here again the she thought Him to be the gardener: but finest psychological truth underlies the I may once for all observe that we must narrative. The other women (Mark, ver. believe the clothing of His risen Body to 5. Luke, ver. 5) were afraid at the vision; have been that which He pleased to as. but now Mary, having but one thought or sume; not earthly clothing, but perbaps desire, to recover the lost Body of her some semblance of it. Certainly, in this Lord, feels no fear. The angels case, He was clothed ;-or she must at doubtless are proceeding further to assure once have recognized Him. But see on the her as they did the women before :--but words “she turned herself” below. this is broken off by the appearance of the Sir] The Greek word rendered both “ Siro" Lord Himself, or perhaps by Mary's turn- and “ Lord” is one and the same through. ing away. 14.] she turned herself out the New Test. We can only judge back-having her attention attracted by from the circumstances in each case, which consciousness of some one being present it represents. Here there can be no doubt, near her-not perhaps by the approach of seeing that she did not recognize her Lord, Jesus. Or it might be with intent to go that it is merely the appellation of courtesy