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d ch. X. 15.
Ps. cx. 1.
of God exalted, and having received of the Father the c John xiv. 28: promise of the Holy Ghost, he d hath shed forth this, 713. ch." which ye now see and hear. 34 For David d is not ascended "Eph. iv.s. into the heavens : but he saith himself, e The LORD said e Paesi unto my Lord, Sit thou on my right hand, 35 until I make *. 25. Eph. thy foes thy footstool. 36 Therefore let all the house of 1.18. Israel know assuredly, that God hath made that same fch. v. 31. Jesus, whom ye [dd have] crucified, both Lord and Christ.
37 Now when they heard this, 8 they were pricked in 8 Zech, xil. 10. their heart, and said unto Peter and to the rest of the chi so apostles, e Men and brethren, what fshall we do? 38 Then Peter said unto them, h Repent, and be baptized every one". ch. iii.
d render, did not ascend.
I render, must.
Luke iii. 10. ch, in. 0: xvi. 30.
h Luke xxiv.
tion. we all,-first, and most properly, mies. See notes, Matt. xxii. 41 ff. The the Twelve : but, secondarily, the whole connexion is, For David himself is not body of believers, all of whom, at this time, ascended into the heavens, -as he would had probably seen the Lord since His be, if the former prophecy applied to Resurrection; see 1 Cor. xv. 6. 33.] him : BUT he himself says, removing all Peter now comes to the Ascension-the doubt on the subject, &c. 36.] THE exaltation of Jesus to be, in the fullest CONCLUSION FROM ALL THAT HAS BEEN sense, Lord and Christ. being by the SAID. The Apostle says, let all the house right hand of God exalted] Some would of Israel know, because all hitherto said render, “being exalted to the right hand has gone upon proofs and sayings belongof God.” But plausible as this seems, it ing to Israel, and to all Israel. In the is inadmissible. The great end of this words God hath made, we have as before, speech is to shew forth (see above) the the ground-tone of the whole discourse. GOD OF ISRAEL as the Doer of all these Lord, from ver. 34. Christ, in things. the promise] Christ is the full and glorious sense in which that said to have received from the Father term was prophetically known. The same the promise above cited from Joel, which is expressed in ch. v. 31 by “hath exalted is spoken of His days. This, and not (to be a Prince and a Saviour.”- The final of course the declarations made by Him- clause sets in the strongest and plainest self to the same effect, is here referred light the fact to which the discourse testito, though doubtless those were in Peter's fies- ending with whom ye crucified, mind. The very expression, shed forth, the remembrance most likely to carry comrefers to “ I will pour out" above, ver. 17 punction to their hearts. “In the close of (in the original they are the same word). his discourse, he again reproaches them
this: i. e. 'this influence,' this with His crucifixion, that they may be merely; leaving to his hearers the inference touched with the greater compunction of that this, which they saw and heard, must conscience, and may be eager to seek the be none other than the promised effusion remedy for their sin.” Calvin. Bengel of the Spirit. which ye now see need calls this “the sting at the end” of the not imply, as Dr. Burton thinks, that discourse. 37–41.7 EFFECT OF THE " there was some visible appearance, which DISCOURSE. 37.] The compunction the people saw as well as the apostles :" arose from the thought that they had - very much of the effect of the descent rejected and crucified Him who was now of the Spirit would be visible, — the so powerful, and under whose feet they, as enthusiasm and gestures of the speakers, enemies, would be crushed.—“St. Lukegives for instance; not, however, the tongues of us the fruit of the discourse, that we may flame,- for then none could have spoken know that the power of the Spirit was put as in ver. 13. 34.] This exaltation forth, not only in the diversity of tongues, of Christ is also proved from prophecy, but also in the hearts of the hearers." and from the same passage with which Calvin. 38. Repent] The word imJesus Himself had silenced His ene. ports change of mind : here, change from
i Joel ii. 28.
ch. iii. 25.
xi. 15, 18:
of you in the name of Jesus Christ for the remission of
sins, and ye shall receive the gift of the Holy Ghost. i Joel ili: 28: 39 For the promise is unto you, and i to your children, and k ch. 1. 45: kto all that are afar off, even as many as the Lord our God iv. 17iv. shall call. 40 And with many other words did he testify
and 8 exhort, saying, h Save yourselves from this i untoward generation. 41 k Then they that gladly received his
word were baptized : and the same day there were added 8 render, exhort them.
h render, Be saved : see note. i render, crooked.
k render, So then. lomit.
3. $. 14. Eph. ii. 18, 17.
thinking Jesus an impostor, and scorning was their conversion as Gentiles, which Him as one crucified, to being baptized in was yet to be revealed to Peter. It is surHis name, and looking to Him for remis prising to see Commentators finding a sion of sins, and the gift of the Spirit.- difficulty where all is so plain. The very The miserable absurdity of rendering this expression, as many as the Lord our God word by 'do penance,'--so the Rheims shall call, shews in what sense Peter un(Roman-Catholic) Version,-orunderstand- derstood those afar off ; not all, but as ing it as referring to a course of external many as the Lord our God shall summon rites, is well exposed by this passage--in to approach to Him,- bring near,—which, which the internal change of heart and in his present understanding of the trords, purpose is insisted on, to be testified by must import-by becoming one of the admission into the number of Christ's chosen people, and conforming to their followers. be baptized every one of legal observances. 40.] The words you) Here, on the day of Pentecost, we cited appear to be the concluding and have the first mention and administration inclusive summary of Peter's many exhor. of CHRISTIAN BAPTISM. Before, there tations, not only their general sense : just had been the baptism of repentance for as if ver. 36 had been given as the reprethe remission of sins, by John, Luke iii. 3; sentative of his whole speech above. but now we have the important addition, The Apostle's command is improperly renin (or, on) the name of Jesus Christ,-in dered in A. V. 'save yourselves :' it is the Name-i.e. on the confession of that strictly passive,-be saved, let us save which the Name implies, and into the bene, you'-let God by us save you.' In saying fits and blessings which the Name implies. this crooked generation, St. Peter alludes The Apostles and first believers were not thus to Deut. xxxii. 5. 41.] This first baptized, because, ch. i. 5, they had received baptism of regeneration is important on the BAPTISM BY THE HOLY GHost, the thing many accounts in the history of the Chris. signified, which superseded that by water, tian Church. It presents us with two the outward and visible sign.-The result remarkable features : (1) It was conferred, of the baptism to which he bere exhorts on the profession of repentance, and faith them, preceded by repentance and accom- in Jesus as the Christ. There was no panied by faith in the forgiveness of sins instruction in doctrine as yet. The inin Christ, would be, the receiving the gift fancy of the Church in this respect cor. of the Holy Spirit. 39.] your responded to the infancy of the individual children, viz. as included in the prophecy mind; the simplicity of faith came first, cited ver. 17, your little ones: not, as in the ripeness of knowledge followed. Neanch. xiii. 32, 'your descendants,' which der well observes that, among such a mul. would be understood by any Jew to be titude, admitted by a confession which alnecessarily implied. Thus we have a pro. lowed of so wide an interpretation, were vidential recognition of Infant Baptism, at probably many persons who brought into the very founding of the Christian Church. the church the seeds of that Judaizing
to all that are afar off ] i. e. to the form of Christianity which afterwards Gentiles; see Eph. ii. 13. There is no proved so hostile to the true faith ; while difficulty whatever in this interpretation. others, more deeply touched by the Holy The Apostles always expected the conver Spirit, followed humbly the unfolding of sion of the Gentiles, as did every pious that teaching by which He perfected the Jew who believed in the Scriptures. It apostolic age in the doctrine of Christ.
vi. 18. Col.
17. ch. ir.
unto them about three thousand souls. 42 1 And they con- 1 ver.46. ch.
i. 14. Rom. tinued stedfastly in the apostles' doctrine 11 and fellowship, 11.12. Eph. and in breaking of bread, and in prayers. 43 And fear *.23. Heb. came upon every soul: and m many wonders and signs m Mark xyi. were done by the apostles. 44 And all that believed were $3: v. 12. together, and n had all things common; 45 and sold their n ch. iv. 82, 84.
11 render, and in community. (2) Almost without doubt, this first bap- sion of the whole matter to the notes on tism must have been administered, as that 1 Cor. x. xi.,- barely to render [the] of the first Gentile converts was (see ch. x. breaking of [the] bread to mean the | 47, and note), by affusion or sprinkling, breaking of bread in the Eucharist, as now not by immersion. The immersion of 3000 understood, would be to violate historical persons, in a city so sparingly furnished truth. The Holy Communion was at first, with water as Jerusalem, is equally incon and for some time, till abuses put an end ceivable with a procession beyond the walls to the practice, inseparably connected to the Kedron, orto Siloam, for that purpose. with the agapæ, or love-feasts, of the
42-47.] DESCRIPTION OF THE LIFE Christians, and unknown as a separate AND HABITS OF THE FIRST BELIEVERS. ordinance. To these agapæ, accompanied This description anticipates; embracing a as they were at this time by the celebration period extending beyond the next chapter of the Lord's supper, the “breaking of This is plain from ver. 43: for the miracle [the] bread” refers,- from the custom of related in the next chapter was evidently the master of the feast breaking bread in the first which attracted any public atten- asking a blessing; see ch. xxvii. 35, where tion : vv. 44, 45, again, are taken up anew the Eucharist is out of the question. at the end of chap. iv., where we have a in prayers) or, in the prayers:—the apvery similar description, evidently apply pointed times of prayer: see ver. 46. But ing to the same period. 42.] the it need not altogetherexclude prayer among apostles' doctrine: compare Matt. xxviii. themselves as well, provided we do not (20. and in community] The living assume any set times or forms of Christian together as one family, and having things worship, which certainly did not exist as in common. It is no objection to this yet. See notes on Rom. xiv. 5; Gal. iv. meaning, that the fact is repeated below, ío. 43.] every soul, designating in ver. 45 : for so is the breaking of bread generally the multitude,-those who were in ver. 46, and the continuing in prayers. not joined to the infant Church. This is The meaning given in the A. V., “in the evident by the words “all that believed," Apostles' fellowship,” is not objectionable when the church is again the subject, ver. in itself, but still I conceive bears no 44. They were filled with fear, dread, meaning defensible in construction. See reverential astonishment, at the effect profurther in my Greek Test breaking duced by the outpouring of the Spirit. On of bread] or, the breaking of the bread. the anticipatory character of the latter
This has been very variously explained. part of the verse, see general remarks | Chrysostom, “In mentioning bread here at the beginning of this section. he seems to me to signify fasting, and 44.] If it surprise us that so large a ascetic life: for they partook, not of number should be continually assembled luxuries, but simply of subsistence.” And together (for such is certainly the sense of similarly Bengel: “The breaking of bread, were together, not that they were joined that is, a frugal diet, common among them by brotherly love, as Calvin)—we must all.” But on ver. 46 he recognizes & remember that a large portion of the three covert allusion to the Eucharist.— The inter thousand were persons who had come up to pretation of the breaking of bread here Jerusalem for the feast, and would by this as the celebration of the Lord's supper has time have retured to their homes. been, both in ancient and modern times, and had all things (in) common] i. e. no the prevalent one. Chrysostom himself, in individual property, but one common another place, interprets it, or at all events stock: see ch. iv. 32. That this was litethe whole phrase, of the Holy Communion. rally the case with the infant church at And the Romanist interpreters have gone Jerusalem, is too plainly asserted in these so far as to ground an argument on the passages to admit of a doubt. Some have passage for the administration in one kind supposed the expressions to indicate merely only. But,– referring for a fuller discuss a partial community of goods : contrary to
tch. v. 14;
1o Isa. Ivili. 7. possessions and goods, and ° parted them to all men, as p ch. i. 14. every man had need. 46 And they, continuing daily 4 Luke xxiv., with one accord in the temple, and breaking bread
m from house to house, n did eat their meat with gladness s Luke ii. 52. and singleness of heart, 47 praising God, and having Rom. xiv. 18. favour with all the people. And the Lord o added to the
church daily such as should be saved. a ch. ii. 46. III. 1 Now Peter and John P went up [9 together] a into
m render, at home.
n literally, took their share of food. But the A. V. is better as an English rendering.
o read and render, brought together daily more that were in the way of salvation. P render, were going.
q omit. the express assertion of ch. iv. 32. In order, Matt. xxvi. 9. 46. continuing daily however, rightly to understand this com with one accord in the temple See Lake munity, we may remark: (1) It is only xxiv. 53. The words need not mean, found in the church at Jerusalem. No though they may mean, that they were trace of its existence is discoverable any assembled in Solomon's porch, as in ch. v. where else : on the contrary, St. Paul 12–but most probably, that they regu. speaks constantly of the rich and the poor, larly kept the hours of prayer, ch. iii. 1. see 1 Tim. vi. 17; Gal. ii. 10; 2 Cor. viii.
at home] i. e. privately, as con13, 15; ix. 6, 7; 1 Cor. xvi. 2: also St. trasted with their public frequenting of James, ii. 1–5; iv. 13.-And from the the temple: not, from house to house,' as practice having at first prevailed at Jeru. A. V.:- the words may bear that meaning salem, we may partly perhaps explain the (see Luke viii. 1), but we have no trace of great and constant poverty of that church, such a practice, of holding the agapa, or Rom. xv. 25, 26; 1 Cor. xvi. 1–3; 2 Cor. love-feasts, successively at different houses. viii. ix.; also ch. xi. 30; xxiv. 17.- The non- — The breaking of bread took place at establishment of this community elsewhere their house of meeting, wherever that was: may have arisen from the inconveniences cf. ch. xii. 12. did eat their meat] which were found to attend it in Jeru. i.e. they partook of food : viz. in these salem : see ch. vi. 1. (2) This community agape, or breakings of bread. singleof goods was not, even in Jerusalem, en ness of heart] The word rendered singleforced by rule, as is evident from ch. v. 4 ness originally implies freedom from stones (xii. 12), but, originating in free-will, or rocks, and thus simplicity, evenness, became perhaps an understood custom, still purity. 47.] praising God does not however in the power of any individual not seem only to refer to giving thanks at to comply with. (3) It was not (as Grotius their partaking of food, but to their thought) borrowed from the sect of the general manner of conversation, including Essenes, with whom the Apostles, who the recurrence of special ejaculations and certainly must have sanctioned this com- songs of praise by the influence of the munity, do not appear historically to have Spirit. more that were in the way of had any connexion. But (4) it is much salvation: compare the Apostle's commore probable that it arose from a con. mand, ver. 40;—those who were being tinuation, and application to the now saved. Nothing is implied by this word, increased number of disciples, of the com. to answer one way or the other the quesmunity in which our Lord and His Apos- tion, whether all these were finally sared. tles had lived (see John xii. 6; xiii. 29) It is only asserted, that they were in the before.— The practice probably did not way of salvation when they were added to long continue even at Jerusalem : see Rom. the Christian assembly. Doubtless, some xv. 26, note. 45.] possessions probably of them might have been of the class mean landed property, ch. v. l-goods, alluded to Heb. x. 26–29: at least there any other possession; moveables, as dis is nothing in this word to preclude it. tinguished from land. parted them, i.e. CHAP. III.1-10.7 HEALING OF A LAME their price; see a similar way of speaking, MAN BY PETER AT THE GATE OF THE
the temple at the hour of prayer, 5 being the ninth hour. b Ps. Iv. 17. 2 And a certain man lame from his mother's womb was e ch. xiv. 8. carried, whom they laid daily at the gate of the temple which is called Beautiful, a to ask alms of them that a Jobn ix. 8. entered into the temple ; 3 who seeing Peter and John about to go into the temple asked an alms. 4 And Peter, fastening his eyes upon him with John, said, Look on us. 5 And he gave heed unto them, expecting to receive something of them. 6 Then Peter said, Silver and gold have I none; but such as I have give I thee : e In the name of ech. iv. 10. Jesus Christ of Nazareth, rise up and walk. 7 And he
TEMPLE. 1. the ninth hour] See ch. sheep and cattle and other offerings, and x, 3, 30. There were three hours of therefore a greater crowd would be at. prayer; those of the morning and evening tracted. (3) Others again refer the epithet sacrifice, i. e. the third and ninth hours, “ Beautiful” to two gates opening towards and noon. 2.] The word is literally, the city on the western side. So that was being carried. They took him at the the matter must remain in uncertainty. hours of prayer, and carried him back
4. Look on us] Calvin's note between times. the gate .... which is important: “Peter would not have is called Beautiful] The arrangement of thus spoken without being certain of the the gates of the Temple is, from the notices design of God; and his words command which we now possess, very uncertain the man to look for some singular and Three entrances have been fixed on for the unusual benefit. Yet we may enquire, “ Beautiful Gate :" (1) The gate thus whether the Apostles had the power of described by Josephus: “ Nine of the gates working miracles when it pleased them. I were covered with gold and silver, as were answer, that their ministration of divine also the posts and lintels. But one gate, influence did not empower them to attempt that outside the temple itself, was of any thing of their own will or motive, but Corinthian brass, and far surpassed the the Lord wrought by them when He saw silver and gilt gates in splendour.” This it expedient. Hence it arose, that they gate was also called Nicanor's gate, and healed one, not all without distinction. So lay on the Eastern side of the Temple, that in this, as in other things, they had towards the valley of Kedron. Josephus God's Spirit for their guide and direction. mentions it again, as “the Eastern gate of Therefore, before Peter orders the lame the inner enclosure, which is of brass," man to rise, he cast and fixed his eyes on and gives a remarkable account of its size him. That look was not without the and weight: adding, that when, before the express prompting of God's Spirit. And siege, it was discovered supernaturally hence it was that he spoke with such cer. opened in the night, “this to unskilled tainty of the coming miracle. The Apostle persons seemed a most favourable omen: summoned the lame man by this command for they said, that God had opened to to receive the gift of God: he for his part them the gate of prosperity.” But some looked for nothing but an alms." find a difficulty in this. I'he lame man, 6.] “ There is no doubt, that it was the they say, would not be likely to have been custom to give alms even to those who admitted so far into the Temple (but it were not of the community of the faithful, appears that lepers used to stand at bnt Peter then either had nothing about Nicanor's gate): and besides, he would him, going as he was to the temple, or he have taken up his station naturally at an could not bestow enough to help the poor outer gate, where he might ask alms of all man's need. Notice the Apostle's modewho entered. These conditions suit better ration in his discharge of so important a (2) the gate Susan; as does also the cir- stewardship : compare ch. ii. 45; iv. 35." cumstance mentioned ver. 11, that the Bengel. But perhaps it is more simple to people ran together to Solomon's porch; conclude that Peter spoke here of his own for this gate was on the east side of the station and means in life-'I am no rich court of the Gentiles, and close to Soloinon's man, nor have I silver or gold to give porch. Another suitable circuinstance was, thee.' 7.7 “Thus also did Christ: that by this gate the market was held for He often cured by a word, often by an