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dch. ii. 3.
a Rom. xvi. 3.
2 Tim. iv. 19.
also his offspring. 29 Forasmuch then as offspring of God, ' we ought not to think that the Godhead - Isa. xl. 18. is like unto gold, or silver, or stone, graven by art and man's device. 30 And a the times of this ignorance God afkom. i1.9 d winked at; but ”now commandeth all men every where hizkeramy to repent : 31 because he hath appointed a day, in the mid? iv. 5. which he will judge the world in righteousness by that ° Rom. ii. 16: man whom he hath ordained; whereof he hath given assurance unto all men, in that d he hath raised him from the dead. 32 And when they heard of the resurrection of the dead, some mocked : and others said, We will hear thee again of this matter. 33 e So Paul departed from among them. 34 Howbeit certain men clave unto him, and believed : among the which was Dionysius the Areopagite, and a woman named Damaris, and others with them.
XVIII. 1 After these things Paul departed from Athens, and came to Corinth ; 2 and found a certain Jew named a Aquila, born in Pontus, lately come from Italy, with his Cor. xvi. 10.
e render, [And] thus. head like to the works of his (man's) hands. We must not allot these two parties, as some
certain of your own poets) viz. have done, the former to the Epicureans, Aratus, in the opening lines of the poem the latter to the Stoicks : the description is called “the Phænomena :" Cleanthes general.— The words, we will hear thee also in his hymn to Zeus (Jupiter), has the again of this matter, need not be taken same words. Aratus was a native of as ironical. The hearing not having taken Tarsus, about 270 B.C., and wrote astro- place is no proof that it was not intended nomical poems, of which two remain. at the time : and the distinction between Cleanthes was born at Assos, in Troas, these and the mockers seems to imply that about 300 B.C. The Apostle, by the plural, these were in earnest. 33. thus] i. e. seems to have both poets in his mind. “in this state of the popular mind:' (with The his refers to Zeus (Jupiter) in both an expectation of being heard again ?) cases, the admission being taken as a por- The “so” of the A. V. does not give this tion of truth regarding the Supreme God, forcibly enough, but looks like a mere which even heathen poets confessed. 30. particle of transition. 34. Dionysius God overlooked] The rendering of the A.V. the Areopagite] Nothing more is known bears the same meaning, but is to our ears of him. Eusebius relates that he was in these days objectionable. In this as- bishop of Athens, and Nicephorus, that he surance lie treasures of mercy for those died a martyr. The writings which go by who lived in the times ignorance. God his name are undoubtedly spurious. overlooked them : i. e. corrected not this CHAP. XVIII, 1.] Corinth was at this ignorance itself as a sin, but the abuses time a colony (see note, ch. xvi. 12), the even of this, by which the heathen sunk capital of the Roman province of Achaia, into deeper degradation. The same argu. and the residence of the proconsul. For ment is treated more at length in Rom. i. ii. further particulars, see Introduction to
31. in righteousness] Righteousness 1 Cor. § 2. 2. a certain Jew] It is the character of the judgment,—the appears that Aquila and Priscilla were not element of which it shall consist.
Christians at this time: it is the similarity whereof he hath given assurance] “As of employment only which draws them to the thing asserted was hardly credible, he St. Paul, and their conversion is left to be gives a distinguished proof of it.” Grotius. inferred as taking place in consequence : 32. some mocked: and others said ...] see ver. 26.
born in Pontus] literally, VOL. I.
b ch.xx. 34.
1 Cor. iv. 12.
c ch. xvii. 2.
wife Priscilla ; because that Claudius had commanded all Jews to depart from Rome: and came unto them. 3 And because he was of the same craft, he abode with them,
band wrought : for by their occupation they were tent2 Thess. iii.8. makers.
4 c And he reasoned in the synagogue every sabbath, and persuaded the Jews and the Greeks. 5 f And
d when Silas and Timotheus were come from Macedonia, do Ins.18. Paul was og pressed in the spirit, and testified to the Jews f render, But. 8 read and render, earnestly occupied in discoursing, testifying
d ch. xvii. 14,
15. ver. 28.
a Pontian by race. It is remarkable, that towards his son ?' asks a Talmudic writer, Pontius Aquila is a name found in the “To circumcise him, to teach him the law, Pontian gens at Rome more than once in to teach him trade.' Rabbi Judah saith, the days of the Republic, whence some have • He that teacheth not his son a trade, supposed that this may have been a freed- doth the same as if he taught him to be a man of a Pontius Aquila, and that the words thief:' and Rabban Gamaliel saith,. He “a Pontian by race may have been an that hath a trade in his band, to what is inference from his name. But besides that he like? He is like a vineyard that is St. Luke's acquaintance with the real origin fenced.'» Cony beare and Howson, i. p. of Aquila could hardly but have been accu- 58.-- The places where St. Paul refers to rate,- Aquila, the translator of the Old his supporting himself by his own manual Test. into Greek, was also a native of Pon- labour are,-ch. xx. 34 (Ephesus): 1 Cor. tus. From the notices of Aquila and ix. 12 ff.; 2 Cor. vii. 2 (Corinth):-1 Thess. Priscilla in the Epistles, they appear to have ii. 9; 2 Thess. iii. 8 (Thessalonica).- In travelled, fixing their abode by turns in 2 Cor. xi. 9, we learn that supplies were different principal cities for the sake of also brought to him at Corinth from Macetheir business. In ver. 19, we have them donia, i.e. Philippi: see Phil. iv. 15. left at Ephesus (see also ver. 26): in 1 Cor. tent-makers] The general opinion now is, xvi. 19, still there; in Rom. xvi. 3 ff., again that St. Paul was a maker of tents from the at Rome ; in 2 Tim. iv. 19, again at Ephe. "cilicium,' or hair-cloth of Cilician goats.
because that Claudius had com- If it be objected, that he would hardly manded all Jews to depart from Rome...] find the raw material for this work in cities Suetonius says, “ The Jews, who at the far from Cilicia, it may be answered, tbat instigation of Chrestus were continually this would not be required in the fabri. exciting tumults, he expelled from Rome, cation of tents from the hair-cloth, which but as he gives this without any fixed note doubtless itself would be an article of of time, as the words “at the instigation commerce in the markets of Greece. of Chrestus” may be taken in three ways Chrysostom calls Paul sometimes a leather (as indicative either (1) of an actual leader cutter, imagining that the tents were made of that name, or (2) of some tumult con- of leather. 5.] See ch. xvii. 15; nected with the expectations of a Messiah, 1 Thess. iii. 6. The meaning is, that or (3) of some dispute about Christianity), when Silas and Timotheus returned frons - Neander well observes that after all Macedonia, they found Paul anriously which has been said on it, no secure his. occupied in discoursing to the Jews. It torical inference respecting the date of seems to be implied, that they found him the event, or its connexion with any Chris- in a state of more than ordinary anxiety, tian church at Rome, can be drawn. It more than usually absorbed in the work of was as a Jew that Aquila was driven from testifying to the Jews :-a crisis in the Rome: and there is not a word of Chris- work being imminent, which resulted in tians here. See more in my Greek Test. their rejection of the word of life. (On the The edicts soon became invalid, or the pro- whole character of his early preaching at hibition was taken off: we find Aquila at Corinth, see notes, 1 Cor. ii. 1–5.) Thus Rome, Rom. xvi. 3, and many Jews resi- only, the but in ver. 5 and that in ver. 6 dent there, ch. xxviii. 17 ff. 3. wrought] will both be satisfied : he discoursed in “The Jewish Rabbis having no state pay, the synagogue, &c. ... but when Silas it was their practice to teach their children and Timotheus returned, he was earnestly a trade. What is commanded of a father occupied in discoursing, &c. Bat, as they
ch. xiii. 51.
19: xxxiii. 9.
that Jesus was h Christ. 6f And 'when they opposed them- scheelt .. selves, and blasphemed, 8 he i shook his raiment, and said Matt...) unto them, Your blood be upon your own heads; ik I am h lev, 8. 9.11; clean : * from henceforth I will go unto the Gentiles. 7 And 26 Ezek. he departed thence, and entered into a certain man's i Ezek. it is house, named Justus, one that worshipped God, whose k eh. Tito house joined hard to the synagogue. 8 1 And Crispus, the 11 Cor. i. 14. chief ruler of the synagogue, believed on the Lord with all his house; and many of the Corinthians hearing believed, and were baptized. 91 Then m spake the Lord to Paul in m ch. xxiii. 11. the night by a vision, Be not afraid, but speak, and hold not thy peace :
10 n for I am with thee, and no man shall n Jerut. 18, 19. set on thee to hurt thee : for I have much people in this city. 11 And he continued there a year and six months, teaching the word of God among them. 12 And when Gallio was the deputy of Achaia, the Jews made insurrec
render, the Christ.
i render, shook out. k better perhaps, I shall henceforth with a clear conscience go unto the Gentiles.
render, And the Lord spake.
opposed themselves and blasphemed, &c. for solemnity's sake, we have an affirmation
6.] The term blood is used as in and negation combined, John i. 3. See ch. xx. 26. The image and nearly the also Isa. lviii. 1. 10. I have much words, are from Ezek. xxxii. 4.
people] See John X. 16. As our Lord from henceforth] Not absolutely, only at forewarned Paul in Jerusalem that they Corinth : for ver. 19 we find him arguing would not receive his testimony concerning with the Jews again in the synagogue at Him, so here He encourages him, by a Ephesus. The difference in the readings promise of much success in Corinth. The of the last clause in the verse is matter of word people, the express title beforetime punctuation. Probably there should be of the Jeros, still used now, notwithno stop at clean, and then it will read as standing their secession. 11.] The in the margin, I shall henceforth with a year and a half may extend either to his clear conscience go to the Gentiles. departure, or to the incident in ver. 12 ff. 7.] In order to shew that he henceforth Meyer would confine it to the latter, taking separated himself from the Jews, he, on the verb in the sense of remained in leaving the synagogue, went no longer to quiet :' but it will hardly bear such emthe house of the Jew Aquila (who appears phasis : and seeing that the incident in afterwards to bave been converted), but to vv. 12 ff. was a notable fulfilment of the the house of a Gentile proselyte of the promise, --for though they set on him, gate, close to the synagogue: in the sight they could not hurt him, I should be of all the congregation in the synagogue : disposed to take the other view, and regard for this seeins to be the object in mention- that which is related ver. 12 to ver. 18, as ing the circumstance. 8.] On this, a having happened during this time. schism took place among the Jews. The 12. Gallio] His original name was Marcus ruler of the synagogue attached himself to Annæus Novatus: but, having been adopted Paul, and was, together with Gaius, bap- into the family of the rhetorician Lucius tized by the Apostle himself (1 Cor. i. 14): Junius Gallio, he took the name of Junius and with him many of the Corinthians Annæus Gallio. He was brother of Lucius (Jews and Gentiles, it being the house of Annæus Seneca, the philosopher, whose a proselyte), probably Aquila and Priscilla character of him is in exact accordance also, believed and were baptized. with that which we may infer from this 9. speak, and hold not thy peace] So, narrative: “No man on earth is so pleasant
XXV. 11, 19.
tion with one accord against Paul, and brought him to the judgment seat, 13 saying, This [m fellow] persuadeth men to worship God contrary to the law. 14 And when Paul
was now about to open his mouth, Gallio said unto the o ch. xxiii.20: Jews, ° If it were a matter of wrong or wicked lewdness, O
ye Jews, reason would that I should bear with you : 15 but if it be a question of words and names, and of your law, look ye to it; [o for] I will be no judge of such matters. 16 And he drave them from the judgment seat. 17 Then Pall the Greeks took p Sosthenes, the chief ruler of the synagogue, and beat him before the judgment seat. And
p 1 Cor. i. 1.
m not expressed in the original : better, This man.
to me, as this man is to all.”
“ Gallio, my
Christ, which the Jews denied. This, to a brother, whom there is none that does not Roman, would be a question of names, love a little, even those who have not the So Lysias (ch. xxiii. 29) declined to power of loving more.” He is called “ the decide Paul's case, and Festus (ch. XXV.20) pleasant Gallio” by Statius. He appears though he did not altogether put the to have given up the province of Achaia enquiry by, wished to judge it at Jers. from ill health. He was spared after the salem, where he might have the counsel of execution of his brother : but Dio Cassius those learned in the Jewish law.
17. adds, that Seneca's brothers were put to all (the people)] Apparently, all the mob, death afterwards, and Eusebius in his i.e. the Gentile population present. SasChronicle, on A.D. 66, says that he put an thenes, as the ruler of the synagogue end to himself after his brother's death. (either the ruler, or one of the rulers;
the deputy] See note on ch. xiii. 7. perhaps he had succeeded Crispus), had Achaia was originally a senatorial province, been the chief of the complainant Jews, but was temporarily made an imperial one and therefore, on their cause being rejected, by Tiberius.
of Achaia] The Roman and themselves ignominiously dismissed, province of Achaia contained Hellas and was roughly treated by the mob. From the Peloponnesus, and, with Macedonia, this, certainly the right explanation, has embraced all their Grecian dominions.- arisen the explanatory gloss, “ the Greeks." “The judgment seat is mentioned three Another explanatory gloss," the Jews," is times in the course of this narrative (see given : and has sprung from the notion vv. 16, 17). It was of two kinds : (1) that this Sosthenes was the same person fixed in some public and open place : (2) with the Sosthenes of 1 Cor. i. 1, a Christian moveable, and taken by the Roman magis. and a companion of Paul. But, not to trates to be placed wherever they might insist on the improbability of the party sit in a judicial character. Probably here driven from the tribunal having beaten and in the case of Pilate (John xix. 13), one of their antagonists in front of the the former kind of seat is intended. See tribunal,—why did they not beat Paul hin. Smith's Dict. of Antiquities, under 'Sella.' self?—there is no ground for supposing See also some remarks on the tribunal,- the two persons to be the same, Sosthenes the indispensable symbol of the Roman being no uncommon name. If they were, judgment seat,' in the Edinburgh Review this man must have been converted after. for Jan. 1847, p. 151.” Conybeare and wards; but he is not among those who acHowson, vol. i. 494. 13. contrary to companied Paul into Asia, either in ver. 18, the law] Against the Mosaic law :-the or ch. xx. 4.—The carelessness of Gallio exercise of which, as a 'lawful religion,' about the matter clearly seems to be a was allowed to the Jews. 15. ques- further instance of his contempt for the tions] The plural expresses contempt: If Jews, and indisposition to favour thein or it is questions, &c. : as we should say, <a their persecution of Paul. Had this been parcel of questions. See ch. xxiii. 29. otherwise meant, certainly and would not names] Paul asserted Jesus to be the have been the copula. So little did the
Rom, xvi. 1.
Gallio cared for none of those things. 18 And Paul after this tarried there yet a good while, and then took his leave of the brethren, and sailed thence into Syria, and with him Priscilla and Aquila ; having I shorn his head in * Cen- 9 Numb: vi. 18. chréa ; for he had a vow. 19 And he came to Ephesus, and left them there : but he himself entered into the synagogue, and reasoned with the Jews. 20 When they desired him to tarry longer time with them, he consented not; 21 but bade them farewell, saying, [9 I must by all sch. ws: 21. means keep this feast that cometh in Jerusalem ; but] I will
I omitted by most of our oldest authorities.
information against Paul prosper that the the same arrangement is found in the informers themselves were beaten without best MSS. at ver. 26, and) at Rom. xvi. 3; interference of the judge.' Meyer.
2 Tim. iv. 19. There need be no enquiry 18.] It has been considered doubtful whether what danger can have prompted such a the words having shorn his head in Cen- vow on his part, when we recollect the chrèa apply to Paul, the subject of the catalogue given by him in 2 Cor. xi. Besentence, or to Aquila, the last subject. sides, he had, since his last visit to JeruI agree with Neander that if we consider salem, been suffering from sickness (see the matter carefully, there can be no doubt note on ch. xvi. 6, and Introd. to Gal. that they can only apply to Paul. For, $ 1.3): it is true, a considerable time ago, although this vow differed from that of the but this need not prevent our supposing Nazarite, who shaved his hair at the end of that the vow may have been then made, to his votive period in the temple at Jeru- be paid on his next visit to Jerusalem. salem, and burnt it with his peace-offering That he had not sooner paid it is accounted (Num. vi. 1—21), Josephus gives us a de- for by his having been since that time scription of a somewbat similar one, where under continual pressure of preaching and it appears that the hair was shaved thirty founding churches, and having finally been days before the sacrifice. At all events, detained by special command at Corinth. no sacrifice could be offered any where That he was now so anxious to pay it but at Jerusalem : and every such vow (ver. 21), consists well with the supposition would conclude with a sacrifice. Now we of its having been long delayed. in Cen. find, on comparing the subsequent course chrča] Cenchrèa (pronounced Kenchrea) of Aquila with that of Paul, – that the was a village with a port, about eight miles former did not go up to Jerusalem, but from Corinth, forming its naval station remained at Ephesus (ver. 26): but that on the Asiatic side, as Lechæum did on the Paul hastened by Ephesus, and did go up
Italian. There was soon after a Christian to Jerusalem : see ver. 22. Again, it would church there : see Rom. xvi. 1. 19. be quite irrelevant to the purpose of Ephesus] Ephesus was the ancient capital St. Luke, to relate such a fact of one of of Ionia, and at this time, of the Roman Paul's companions. That he should do so proconsular province of Asia, — on the apologetically, to shew that the Apostle still Cajster, near the coast, between Smyrna countenanced conformity with the law, is a and Miletus. It was famed for its comview wbich I cannot find justified by any merce, but even more for its magnificent features of this book : and it surely would temple of Artemis (Diana: see ch. xix. 24, be a very far-fetched apology, and one likely 27, and notes). See a full account of its to escape the notice of many readers, seeing situation and history, secular and Christian, that Aquila would not appear as being under in the Introduction to Eph. & 2. 2–6; and Paul's influence, and even his conversion to an interesting description, with plan, in the Gospel has not been related, but is left Mr. Lewin's Life and Epistles of St. Paul, to be implied from ver. 26. Again, Meyer's i. 344 ff. and left them there: but] ground for referring the action to Aquila - I should understand this to mean, that the that his name is here placed after that of Jewish synagogue was outside the town, his wife,-is untenable, seeing that, for and that Priscilla and Aquila were left in some reason, probably the superior cha- the town. 21.] The omission of the racter or office in the church, of Priscilla, words here inserted in the common text,