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vii. 16. ch. ii. 43: v. 5,

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of that house naked and wounded. 17 And this was known
to all the Jews and Greeks also dwelling at Ephesus; and
' fear fell on them all, and the name of the Lord Jesus r Luke i. 85 :
was magnified. 18 And many that believed came, and 11.
s confessed, and shewed their deeds. 19 Many of them s Matt. iii. 6.
also which used curious arts brought their books together,
and burned them before all men : and they counted the
price of them, and found it fifty thousand pieces of silver.
20 * So mightily grew the word of God and prevailed.

21 u After these things were ended, * Paul purposed in Rome...?.
the spirit, when he had passed through Macedonia and
Achaia, to go to Jerusalem, saying, After I have been
there, y I must also see Rome. 22 So he sent into Mace- ych. xviii. 21:
donia two of a them that ministered unto him, Timotheus Rom, xv.
and a Erastus; but he himself stayed in Asia for a season. A (kee Rom.
23 And the same time there arose no small stir about Tim. iv. 20.

24 For a certain man named Demetrius, a

tch. vi. 7, 12,

24.

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xxiii. 11.

z ch. xiii. 5.

b 2 Cor. i.8.

i that way.

i render, the : see ch. ix. 2.

occasion : and St. Luke has retained the
word as it stood in the record furnished to
him. Whether any similar occurrence
happened to the rest, we are not informed :
this one is selected as most notorious.
18.] The natural effect of such an occur-
rence was to induce a horror of magical
arts, &c., which some were still continuing
to countenanceor practise secretly, together
with a profession of Christianity. Such
persons now came forward and confessed
their error. The deeds mentioned in this
verse were probably the association with
such practices: the next verse treats of
the magicians themselves. 19. their
books] These books consisted of magical
formula, or receipt-books, or written amu-
lets. These last were celebrated by the
name of Ephesian scrolls. They were
copies of the mystic words engraved on
the image of the Ephesian Artemis (Diana).

fifty thousand pieces of silver]
50,000 drachmæ, i. e. denarii : for the
drachma of the Augustan and following
ages was the Roman denarius-about 8 d.
of our money : which makes the entire
value about £1770. 21. these things]
The occurrences of vv. 19, 20. in
the spirit] An expression mostly used by
St. Paul, see Rom. i. 9; viii. 16; xii. 11 :
1 Cor. ii. 4; v. 3, 4; xiv. 14, and other
places. I must also see Rome] As he
was sent to the Gentiles, he saw that the
great metropolis of the Gentile world was

the legitimate centre of his apostolic working. Or perhaps he speaks under some divine intimation that ultimately he should be brought to Rome. If so, his words were literally fulfilled. He did see Rome, when he had been at Jerusalem this next time : but after considerable delay, and as a prisoner. Compare the same design as expressed by him, Rom. i. 15 : xv. 23–28; and Paley's remarks in the Hora Paulinæ. 22.] He intended himself to follow, after Pentecost, 1 Cor. xvi. 8. This mission of Timothy is alluded to 1 Cor. iv. 17 (see also 1 Cor. i. 1); xvi. 10. The object of it was to bring these churches in Macedonia and Achaia into remembrance of the ways and teaching of Paul. It occurred shortly before the writing of 1 Cor. He was (1 Cor. xvi. 11) soon to return :- but considerable uncertainty hangs over this journey. We find him again with Paul in Macedonia, 2 Cor. i. 1: but apparently he had not reached Corinth. See 1 Cor. xvi., as above: and 2 Cor. xii. 18, where he would probably have been mentioned, had he done so.-On the difficult question respecting a journey of Paul himself to Corinth during this period, see notes, 2 Cor. xii. 14; xiii. 1,and Introduction to 1 Cor. $ 5. Erastus) This Erastus can hardly be identical with the Erastus of Rom. xvi. 23, who must have been resident at Corinth : see there : and therefore hardly either with the Erastus

c Ps. civ. 4.

Isa. xliv.

silversmith, which made silver shrines for Diana, brought no small again unto the craftsmen ; 25 whom he called together with the workmen of like occupation, and said, Sirs, ye know that by this I craft we have our wealth. 26 Moreover ye see and hear, that not alone at Ephesus, but almost throughout all Asia, this Paul hath persuaded

and turned away much people, saying that they be no 10:20. Jer. gods, which are made with hands : 27 so that not only

this our craft is in danger to be set at nought; but also that the temple of the great goddess Diana should be despised, and m her magnificence should be destroyed, whom all Asia and the world worshippeth. 28 And when they heard [n these sayings] they were full of wrath, and cried

out, saying, Great is k Diana of the Ephesians. d Rom. xvi. 23. the [o whole] city was filled with confusion : and having

caught Gaius and Aristarchus, men of Macedonia, Paul's companions in travel, they rushed with one accord

29 And

1 Cor. i. 14. ech. XX. 4:

xxvii. 2. Col.
iv. 10.
Philem. 24.

k The Greek is Artěmis.

Diana is the Roman name.
1 render both times, employment.
m read, she should be deposed from her greatness.
o not expressed in the original.

o omit.

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of 2 Tim. iv. 20: see note there. 24. was restored with increased magnificente, silver shrines] These were small models of and accounted one of the wonders of tbe the celebrated temple of the Ephesian ancient world. Its dimensions were 425 Artemis (Diana), with her statue, which it by 220 feet, and it was surrounded by 127 was the custom to carry on journeys, and columns, 60 feet high. It was standing in place in houses, as a charm. We may find all its grandeur at this time. See Cony beare an exact parallel in the usages of that and Howson, ch. xvi. vol. ii. pp. 84 ff. corrupt form of Christianity, which, what- 29. having caught] It is not implied that ever it may pretend to teach, in practice they seized Gaius and Aristarchus before honours similarly the great goddess" of they rushed into the theatre : but rather its imagination. 25. of like occu- that the two acts were simultaneous. pation] i. e. manufacturers of all sorts of Gaius] A different person from the Gains memorials or amulets connected with the of ch. xx. 4, who was of Derbe, and from worship of Artemis (Diana). -Mr. Howson the Gaius of Rom. xvi. 23, and 1 Cor. i. 15, (ii. p. 98) suggests that possibly Alexander who was evidently a Corinthian. Aristhe coppersmith may have been one of tarchus is mentioned ch. XX. 4; xxvii. 2; these craftsmen : see 2 Tim. iv. 14.

Col. iv. 10; Philem. 24. He was a natire 26.] The people believed that the images of Thessalonica. into the theatre themselves were gods : see ch. xvii. 29, and The resort of the populace on occasions of the citation from Plutarch in my Greek excitement. “Of the site of the theatre, Test.-And so it is invariably, wherever the scene of the tumult raised by Demeimages are employed professedly as media trius, there can be no doubt, its ruins of worship. 27.) but that eventually being a wreck of immense grandeur. I even the temple itself of the great goddess think it must have been larger than the Artemis will be counted for nothing. one at Miletus; and that exceeds any I Greatwas the usual epithet of the have elsewhere seen..... Its form alone Ephesian Artemis.— The temple of Artemis can now be spoken of, for every seat is at Ephesus, having been burnt to the removed, and the proscenium is a heap of ground by Herostratus on the night of the ruins.' Fellows, Asia Minor, p. 274. "The birth of Alexander the Great (B.c. 355), theatre of Ephesus is said to be the largest

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into the theatre. 30 And when Paul would have entered
in unto the people, the disciples suffered him not. 31 And
certain of the 4 chief of Asia, which were his friends, sent
unto him, desiring him that he would not adventure
himself into the theatre. 32 Some therefore cried one
thing, and some another : for the assembly was confused;
and the more part knew not wherefore they were come
together. 33 And r they drew Alexander out of the mul-
titude, the Jews putting him forward. And 'Alexander f(see 1 Tim. i.
8 beckoned with the hand, and would have made his iv. 147
defence unto the people. 34 But when they knew that he
was a Jew, all with one voice about the space of two
hours cried out, Great is k Diana of the Ephesians. 35 And
when the townclerk had appeased the s people, he said, Ye
men of Ephesus, what man is there that knoweth not how
that the city of the Ephesians is a t worshipper of the
great goddess Diana, and of the image which fell down
from Jupiter ? 36 Seeing then that these things cannot be
spoken against, ye ought to be quiet, and to do nothing
rashly. 37 For ye have brought hither these men, which

9 see note.
r render, some of the multitude drew forth Alexander.
s render, multitude.
t literally, a temple-keeper : see note.

34.

known of any that have remained to us victim to the fury of the mob : or perhaps
from antiquity. Cony beare and Howson, one of themselves, put forward to clear
ii. p. 83, note 3. 31. certain of the them of blame on the occasion.
chief of Asia] Literally, of the Asiarchs. when they knew that he was a Jew] They
These Asiarchs were officers elected by the would hear nothing from a Jew, as being
cities of the province of Asia to preside an enemy of image-worship. 35.] The
over their games and religious festivals. townclerk is the nearest English office
Of these it would be natural that the one corresponding to that here mentioned in
who for the time presided would bear the the original. He was the keeper of the
title of the Asiarch :but no more is archives, and public reader of decrees, &c.,
known of such presidency. The Asiarch in the assemblies. The word here
Philip at Smyrna is mentioned by Eusebius rendered worshipper probably means a
as presiding in the amphitheatre at the virger, or adorner of the temple : here used
martyrdom of Polycarp. These Ephesian as implying that Ephesus had the charge
games in honour of Artemis took place in and keeping of the temple. The title is
May, which whole month (another sin- found on inscriptions as belonging to
gular coincidence with the practices of Ephesus; and seems to have been specially
idolatrous Christendom) was sacred to, and granted by the emperors to particular
named Artemisian after, the goddess. cities. of the image which fell down
33. drew forth] e. urged forward, from Jupiter] To give peculiar sanctity to
through the crowd; the Jews pushing him various images, it was given out that they
on from behind.-Alexander does not seem had fallen from heaven. See examples in
to be mentioned elsewhere (but see on my Greek Test. This artifice also has been
2 Tim. iv. 14). He appears to have been imitated by the paganized Christianity of
a Christian convert from Judaism, whom the wretched Church of Rome.
the Jews were willing to expose as From this verse it appears that Paul had

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37.]

a

1 Tim. i. 3.

b

bch. ix. 23:

xxiii. 12: XXV. 3. 2 Cor. xi. 26.

are neither robbers of x churches, nor yet blasphemers of your goddess. 38 Wherefore if Demetrius, and the craftsmen which are with him, have a matter against any man, y the law is open, and there are deputies : let them implead one another. 39 But if ye enquire any thing concerning other matters, it shall be determined in za lawful assembly. 40 For we are in danger to be called in question for this day's uproar, there being no cause whereby we may give an account of this concourse. 41 And when he had thus spoken, he dismissed the assembly.

XX. 1 And after the uproar was ceased, Paul called a 1 Cor. xvi. 8. unto him the disciples, & and embraced them, and a departed

for to go into Macedonia. 2 And when he had gone over those parts, and had given them much exhortation, he came into Greece, 3 and there abode three months. And

when the Jews laid wait for him, as he was about to sail into Syria, he purposed to return through Macedonia.

4 And there accompanied him into Asia b Sopater of Berra; I better, temples.

y render, court-days are held. z render, the. a read, and exhorted them, and bade them farewell. b

read, Sopater [the son] of Pyrrhus, a Berean. proceeded at Ephesus with the able to give an account, i. e. 'no ground caution as at Athens, and had not held up whereon to build the possibility of our to contempt the worship of Artemis, any giving an account.' further than unavoidably the truths which CHAP. XX. 1-XXI. 16.) JOTEXEY OF he preached would render it contemptible. PAUL TO MACEDONIA AND GREECE, AND This is also manifest from his having THENCE TO JERUSALEM. 2.] Notices friends among the Asiarchs, ver. 31. Chry. of this journey may be found 2 Cor. ii. 12. sostom, however, treats this assertion of 13; viii. 5, 6. He delayed on the way the town-clerk merely as a device to ap- some time at Troas, waiting for Tituspease the people: “this,” he says, “was a - broke off his preaching there, though lie, and was said only for the populace.” prosperous, in distress of mind at his non

38. court-days are held] The sen. arrival, 2 Cor. ii. 12, 13,--and sailed for tence implies that they were then actually Macedonia, where Titus met him, 2 Cor. going on. They were the periodical assizes vii. 6. That Epistle was written during it, of the district, held by the proconsul and from Macedonia (see 2 Cor. ix. 2, I am his assessors (see below). depaties] boasting '). He seems to have gone to the i. e.,-see on ch. xiii. 7,-proconsuls: the confines at least of Illyria, Rom. xv. 19. fit officers before whom to bring these them] The Macedonian brethren.

So the Commentators generally. Greece] Achaia : see ch. xix. 21. But perhaps the assessors of the proconsul 3. there abode] This stay was may have themselves popularly borne the made at Corinth, most probably : see

let them implead one another] 1 Cor. xvi. 6, 7: and was during the i.e. let them (the plaintiffs and defendants) winter; see below on ver. 6. During it plead against one another. 39.] The the Epistle to the Romans was written : definite article points out the regularly see Introduction to Rom. $ 4. as he recurring assembly, of which they all knew. was about to sail] This purpose, of going

40.] He here assumes that this from Corinth to Palestine by sea, is implied assembly was an unlawful one. The ch. xix. 21, and 1 Cor. xvi. 3–7. meaning is, There being no ground why 4. into (as far as) Asia] It is not hereby (i. e. in consequence of which) we shall be implied that they went no further than to

same

causes.

name.

. 2. Col. iv. 10.

2 Tim. iv. 12.

and of the Thessalonians, Aristarchus and Secundus; and ceh. nis, 29: a Gaius of Derbe, and e Timotheus; and of Asia, 'Tychicus a ch. xix. 20. and & Trophimus. 5 These going before tarried for us at Eph. vi

,

? 21. Troas. 6 And C we sailed away from Philippi, after h the tit. mi. 12. days of unleavened bread, and came unto them i to Tim. ir 20. Troas in five days; where we abode seven days. 7 And ich. Min. B. 16. upon k the first day of the week, when d the disciples came

2 Cor. ii. 12.

2 Tim. iv. 13. k 1 Cor. xvi. 2.

Rev. i. 10.

e render, we ourselves.
d

read, with all our ancient authorities, we.

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Asia : Trophimus (ch. xxi. 29) and Aristar- ch. xvi. 10 (where see note), that the chus (ch. xxvii. 2), and probably others, as anonymous narrator was in very intimate the bearers of the alms from Macedonia connexion with Paul; and on this occasion and Corinth (1 Cor. xvi. 3, 4), accompanied we find him remaining with him when the him to Jerusalem. Sopater (the son] rest went forward. going before of Pyrrhus, a Berean] This mention of his &c. . .] For what reason, is not said: but father is perhaps made to distinguish him we may well conceive, that if they bore the (?) from Sosipater, who was with Paul at contributions of the churches, a better opCorinth (Rom. xvi. 21). The name Pyrrhus portunity, or safer ship, may have deterhas in our copies been erased as that of an mined Paul to send them on, he himself unknown person, and because the mention having work to do at Philippi; or perhaps, of the father is unusual in the N. T.:-no again, as Meyer suggests, Paul may have possible reason can be given for its inser- remained behind to keep the days of untion by copyists. Aristarchus] See leavened bread. But then why should not ch. xix. 29; xxvii. 2; Col. iv. 10; Philem. they have remained too? The same motive 24.- Secundus is altogether unknown.- may not have operated with them : but in The Gaius here is not the Gaius of ch. xix. that case no reason can be given why they 29, who was a Macedonian.

The epithet should have been sent on except as above. of Derbe is inserted for distinction's sake. It is not impossible that both may have Timotheus was from Lystra, which pro- been combined :- before the end of the days bably gives occasion to his being mentioned of unleavened bread, a favourable opporhere in close company with Gaius of Derbe. tunity occurs of sailing to Troas, of which The name Caius (Gaius) was far too com- they, with their charge, avail themselves : mon to create any difficulty in there Paul and Luke waiting till the end of being two, or three (see note, ch. xix. 29) the feast, and taking the risk of a less companions of Paul so called. of Asia, desirable conveyance. That the feast had Tychicus and Trophimus] Tychicus is something to do with it, the mention of mentioned Eph. vi. 21, as sent (to Ephesus after the days of unleavened bread seems from Rome) with that Epistle. He bore to imply : such notices being not inserted also that to the Colossians, Col. iv. 7, at ordinarily_by Luke for the sake of the same time. See also 2 Tim. iv. 12; dates. The assumption made by some Tit. iii. 12.— Trophimus, an Ephesian, was that the rest of the company sailed at once in Jerusalem with Paul, ch. xxi. 29 : and for Troas from Corinth, while Paul and had been, shortly before 2 Tim. was written, Luke went by land to Philippi, is inconleft sick at Miletus. (See Introduction to sistent with the words used in the opening 2 Tim. § 1. 5.) 5. These] The per- of ver. 4.- From the notice here, we learn sons mentioned in ver. 4: not only Tychi- that Paul's stay in Europe on this occasion cus and Trophimus. The mention of was about three-quarters of a year : viz. Timotheus in this list, distinguished from from shortly after Pentecost, when he left those included under the word us, has Ephesus (see on ch. xix. 10), to the next created an insuperable difficulty to those Easter. 6. in five days] The wind who suppose Timotheus himself to be the must have been adverse : for the voyage narrator of what follows : which certainly from Troas to Philippi (Neapolis) in ch. cannot be got over (as De Wette) by sup. xvi. 11, seems to have been made in two posing that Timotheus might have inserted days. It appears that they arrived on a himself in the list, and then tacitly ex- Monday.- Compare notes, 2 Cor. ii. 12 ff. cepted himself by the us afterwards. The 7. upon the first day of the week] truth is apparent here, as well as before, we have here an intimation of the con

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