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yer notes that the Peace Commission "treated several inillions of civilized Christians like a herd of cattle to be purchased with the ranch," and goes on to say that "Under Article VIII, they guaranteed the religious orders the possession of estates already taken from them," and "Under Article IX, they gave the expelled Friars the right to return and exercise their profession." "More important still," Mr. Sawyer observes in another place, “was it to take care that the Tagel insurrection should not have been in vain. That rebellion probably cost fifty thousand human lives, immense loss of property, and untold misery. It was fought against the Friars and was at last triumphant. The Spanish Friars had been expelled and their lands confiscated.” It appears to be true that
more British than the British themselves and worth the reading only for the facts of the campaign they disclose in part. Mr. Winston Spencer Churchill is fairer, and the tale of his escape from Pretoria more interesting. He has published two books, "London to Ladysmith via Pretoria," and "Ian Hamilton's March," affording a continuous narrative brightly written and limited to a recital of fact.
Mr. Richard Harding Davis, in his “With Both Armies in South Africa,” shows partisanship, at first on the British side and, later, on the side of the Boers. He found the British account of their adversaries so little borne out by his own observations with the Boer commandoes that he changed his point of view completely-additional proof that ex parte testimony will not suffice for the foundation of accurate history. The best book written from the Dutch point of view is “The Boers in War” of Mr. Howard C. Hillegas, an American who was on the ground. It displays no bitterness of feeling against the British and notes that there was no such bitterness among the Boers.
A partial history of one of the minor wars which are part of the price Great Britain is paying year by year for absorbing the lands of others is embodied in "The Siege of Kumassi,” by Lady Hodgson, wife of the British Governor of the Gold Coast. The Ashantis took occasion to declare their independence of British rule in the spring of 1900, while Lady Hodgson was with her husband in attendance upon a pala ver with the chiefs of the nation at Kumassi. The attack was unexpected, and the British found themselves besieged in a small fort from April 25 until they retired on June 23, leaving a small force in possession to be reinforced later. With politics Lady Hodgson has little to do, but her account of the siege is vivacious, and an aid to understanding the tremendous responsibilities Britain is shouldering the world around.
The lack of interest on the part of the American reading public in the war in the Philippines is shown by the fact that only three books dealing with the subject have been published during the months from January to June inclusive. Yet it is certain that our national duty to those distant islands and their inhabitants cannot be discharged without a quickening of the national conscience regarding it. The three books are all important and deserving of close study by those who do not wish the experiment in governing an alien race without constitutional safeguards to prove a failure.
Just as the fairest writing concerning the South African war has come from Americans, just so the most important of these books is from an Englishman, Mr. Frederic H. Sawyer, a resident in the archipelago for fourteen years, who has travelled extensively during his sojourn. "The Inhabitants of the Philippines" shows the author's entire approval of the American design to give the Filipinos an efficient, economical, and peaceful administration of domestic affairs; but it has much to say of the blunders which have already been committed by American authorities. Especially severe are the strictures against Articles VIII and IX of the Treaty of Paris, by which the Friars in the islands have been secured in their possessions and ecclesiastical rights. Mr. Saw
CHARLES G. D. ROBERTS.
the Friars now present the one local problem in the Philippines which the American Government has failed to solve, wholly or in part. Judge Taft's attempts to deal with them have been met by an appeal to the Treaty, and the American administration finds its hands tied by its provisions. Archbishop Chapelle, of New Orleans, acting both for the President of the United States and the Pope of Rome, has recently returned from the archipelago without accomplishing the object of his mission, which was to establish a modus vivendi between the three parties concerned, the Spanish I'riars, the Filipino clergy and laity, and the American authorities. Mr. Sawyer points out that the abuses of which the Filipinos complain, the attempts to rectify which cost them so much suffering, are the abuses which led in Europe to the Lutheran Reformation; but in the Philippines these are not met with a denial of authority or the establishment of hostile sects, the natives loving the Church not less but their native clergy more. Mr. Sawyer believes that it was the friendliness of General Otis for the Friars that led to the original revolt in February, 1899, and he thinks that no peaceful solution of existing difficulties can be made while the Friars remain in power in the islands.
Without so much consideration of the past, but with more detailed knowledge of the present, Mr. Albert G. Robinson goes far toward corroborating Mr. Sawyer's statements in "The Philippines: The War and the People.” “I do not care to go into details concerning the charges of gross immorality, wrong, and oppression, that are brought against the Orders [of Friars] as organized bodies and against the members of the Orders as individuals, from the archbishop [Xozaleda, Dominican] down)ward," Mr. Robinson writes. Then he adds, significantly, "The charges are brought openly, and there can be no question that many of them are capable of the fullest substantiation." Mr. Robinson, it may be observed, was the correspondent of the New York Evening Post from July, 1899, until February, 1900, and his volume is made up of his letters, as published first in that paper and later revised in the light of more exact knewledge. He shows that Archbishop Chappelle fell into the error committed by General Otis, by identifying himself with Archbishop Nozaleda, whom the Filipinos regard as the murderer of their national hero, José Rizal, and prophetically regards the questions arising out of the Friars' domination as infinitely troublesome and completely beyond the scope of this Government's experience and training, from the beginning of the Republic.
The third book is of another sort. In his "Ten Months a Captive Among Filipinos," Mr. Albert Sonnichsen not only tells the interesting story of his life during an enforced march over half the length of the island of Luzon, but af. fords an opportunity to see the natives of the island, then fighting for independence under General Aguinaldo, through the eyes of an average American citizen. He was humanely treated by his captors, and finally released through the connivance of their commanding officer. Captured just before the outbreak of hostilities while in the Filipino lines without authority, he attempted to pass himself off as a British subject without success. Throughout the book Mr. Sonnichsen unwittingly shows that faults he does not know he possesses are subjects of animadversion when manifested by his captors, and his attitude is never one of sympathy, but always of entire superiorityand this without reference to any standard of morality or intellect.
The publication of the third volume of Edgar Stanton Maclay's "History of the United States Navy, 1775-1900” is chiefly remarkable for the bitter attack it contains upon the conduct of Commodore (now Admiral) Winfield Scott Schley during the war with Spain. This, the fourth book of the sort written by men hostile to Schley, exceeds its predecessors in the violence of its language and contempt for the facts of history, and has led up to an investigation which will probably have an excellent effect in relieving the Navy Department
of the garbled records which have added so little to its reputation for honesty.
Admiral Robley D. Evans, in his "Sailor's Log" has told an interesting story of his life in the American Navy, and his account of his conduct in Chile during the misunderstanding with that country in 1891 and of his work in northern waters while protecting seals from poachers the following year makes an important contribution to half-forgotten events of recent history.
"The Autobiography of a Journalist," written by the late William J. Stillman and published a little before his death, contains some chapters in conclusion which deal with the history of Italy while Stillman was correspondent of the London "Times" in Rome, of value in shedding light in a place none too bright.
Few books better worth consideration have been published in recent years than Mr. Poultney Bigelow's "The Children of the Nations," It is, as its sub-title announces, "A Study of Colonization and Its Problems," and is based so largely on personal experience and so little on preconceived ideas of what the facts should be that all its conclusions are worth taking into account, however far they depart from those ordinarily accepted. Practically the entire world, outside of Europe and Eastern Asia, falls within the scope of the book, and the behavior of the various native races under foreign rule and the reaction of colonial government upon the spirit of the mother country afford examples of searching analysis. Mr. Bigelow is a believer in the leadership of the so-called Anglo-Saxon race, but is still more a believer in humanity and good government. This fails him only in his consideration of the future of the Negro, whom he regards as the inevitable inferior of the white man,
TRAVEL.-Books of travel, not concerned with contemporaneous history, are comparatively few in number. Of these, the contributions of Englishmen are much the more important. Americans have been satisfied with minor journeys, and these in lands sufficiently well known, affording rather works intended for amusement primarily, with instruction as secondary consideration. But most of the real travel has been in the countries which are furnishing the history of our times: China, South Africa and the Philippines. These, it is evident, fall under the head of history, and have been considered in that place.
An important work is the Through Siberia" of Mr. J. Stadling. The author is a Swede, well known both as a sociologist and explorer in his own country, and his expedition was undertaken under the auspices of the Swedish Anthropological and Geographical Society, the late Baron Adolphe Eric Nordenskjöld at its head. The immediate object of Mr. Stadling's journey was the investigation of the coast line of Siberia as it borders upon the Arctic Ocean. Yet the moving cause lay in the hope of finding some trace of the unfortunate aeronaut, Andrée, with whom the explorer had been associated. Obtaining the necessary concessions from the Russian Government, the party left St. Peters. burg May 1, 1898. Within the month the city of Schiga lova, on the upper Lena, 3,000 miles from the river's mouth, was reached. The Lena was traversed by boat, and on its delta the
real work of the party began, the intention being to return westward along the Siberian coast to the mouth of the Yenesei. Winter fell before Mr. Stadling was out of the great delta of the Lena, however, and the rigorous season was passed on the island of Kangelak, not far from the place where the unfortunate survivors of the Jeannette expedition met their fate. At the dawn of spring the journey over the tundra was taken up and the original plan made good. Passing the Anabara and Khatanga Rivers, and rounding the Taimur peninsula, the frozen surface of the Yenesei served as a highway for sledges on the homeward reach, civilization being finally attained, after 15,500 miles of the roughest possible travel, at the close of the year 1899. Mr. Stadling's position as a sociologist adds greatly to the interest of his book, his characterization of Russian maladministration in Asiatic Siberia being most severe, but still hardly too scathing for the horrors he describes. The convict system stands condemned before the facts, and a country designed for the reformation of criminals in theory appears to be a spot where every sort of misery and iniquity, culminating in cannibalisin, Gourishes without protest.
An interesting addition to our knowledge of a most interesting country has been made by Mr. Herbert Vivian, M. A., whose "Abyssinia" is a delightfully entertaining and instructive work, sustaining the author's high reputation as a teller of tales. Passing through British Somaliland, where he describes imperial rule at its best, Mr. Vivian interviewed King Menelek in his palace and returned the way he came, taking ship again at Aden. He holds it to have been a serious error in imperial diplomacy to have surrendered any portion of disputed territory to the Abyssinians, Italy's experience not serving as a warning.
Most of our modern knowledge of Morocco is due to Mr. Budgett Meakin, who has systematized and certified the work of previous tra velers. Obligations due to his earlier books are increased by “The Land of the Moors," a copious work divided into three parts.
Of these, the first is devoted to the physical aspect of the country, and the map discloses great tracts of land in northwestern Africa which still await an explorer. The second part deals with political considerations, and the last with the traveler's own journeys over the face of the country. The whole is embellished, like all modern travel-books, with numerous illustrations from photographs.
Neighboring upon Mr. Meakin's book, is Mr. Anthony Wilkin's “Among the Berbers of Algeria,” a pleasant volume arising from an expedition undertaken for the purpose of demonstrating the identity of the Berbers with the most ancient races of Egypt, the modern science of anthropology furnishing the methods successfully relied upon by the investigator. The Berbers remained unconquered until modern days, the French accomplishing what Rome and Morocco had failed in. Mr. Wilkin pays à high tribute to the good qualities of this little known people, adding greatly to our knowledge of them in the process.
Professor Maxwell Sommerville, of the University of Pennsylvania, incorporates an account of several months of wandering through
Algeria, Tunis, and Tripoli in his “Sands of Sahara," seeking amulets from the natives of many sorts for glyptological purposes. He met many Berbers and Bedouins; but his book is formal and dry.
Three American missionaries incorporate their experiences in the region beyond Jordan in a book bearing the title, “Forbidden Paths in the Land of Og." They visited Golan, Gadara, Mizpah, and Jerash, this last the site of the anciently glorious city of Gerasa. The book is one of much value to the student of the Scriptures.
Though not long in the land of the Mikado, Mr. Osman Edwards' “Japanese Play and Playfellows" affords information concerning social conditions of a certain sort which are hardly touched upon by the author's predecessors. In addition to an excellent and sympathetic, if somewhat superficial, account of Japanese popular verses and the tendencies manifest in drama during what is manifestly a transition stage, Mr. Edwards discusses the geisha and her more unfortunate sisters with unflinching candor wholly free from animadversion.
The sojourn of Mr. Hesketh Prichard in the republic of Hayti results in a large and inclusive work, called “Where Black Rules White." Mr. Prichard, though an Englishman, shows little more sympathy for the negro in power than an American, and his views are highly colored by his prejudices. He sees no future to a country where something little better than anarchy already prevails, yet admits that every dark-skinned hand in the nation would be raised against any attempt of a white race to bring it under subjection.
Sir Martin Conway, chief of mountain-climbers among Englishmen, has added to laurels already gleaned in far countries by surmounting two hitherto virginal peaks in the region which gives title to his book, "The Bolivian Andes." Illimani, 22,000 feet above the level of the sea, surrendered on September 10, 1898, and Anohuma, of almost equal height, month later. Sorata, however, remains unconquered. The book contains much information of great value, the author's function as explorer never being permitted to fall into disuse.
The recent journeys around the world by means of the newly opened Trans-Siberian Railway give value to "A New Way Around an Old World,” by the Rev. Dr. Francis E. Clark. He was, perhaps, the first civilian to make use of this new link in civilization.
Mr. Archibald Little's "Mount Omi and Beyond" is interesting as containing an account of a journey in China made in 1892, which recent conditions have made impossible of repetition. Mr. Little entered the Tibetan frontier, and bears witness to the vast differences between the Lamaism of that country, and the more conventional Buddhism of the Chinese. Passing over the same ground in part at the close of the century he found a bitter prejudice existing against foreigners which was lacking before, and he attributes this largely to the unintentional sinning against religious ideas held by the natives by European and American missionaries.
WALLACE RICE, Of the Critical staff of “The Dial."
command of the First Brigade of General Lawton's division, and at El Caney distinguished himself by personal bravery. General Ludlow led in the charge on El Caney.
On September 1, 1898, President McKinley appointed him Major-general of Volunteers and assigned him to command the Second Division of the First Army Corps. In December, 1898, he was appointed Military and Civil Governor of Havana.
After his return from Havana he was made president of the war college board at Washington, and last January was ordered to the Philippines with other officers assigned to duty at Manila.
General Ludlow was married in 1866 to Genevieve Almira Sprigg of St. Louis, a cousin of Mrs. Winfield S. Hancock. Mrs. Ludlow and one daughter, who is the wife of Clement Acton Griscom, Jr., of New York, survive him.
LITTLEJOHN, ABRAM NEWKIRK, Bishop of the Episcopal diocese of Long Island, died Aug. 4, 1901, at Williamstown, Mass.
The Right Rev. Abram Newkirk Littlejohn was bishop of th Long Island Episcopal diocese for a period of thirty-two years, having been consecrated as its bishop on January 27, 1869. The diocese came into being on November 1, 1868, when it was organized by the Triennial Convention, and was composed of the churches of Kings, Queens and Suffolk counties. Bishop Littlejohn was unanimously elected bishop of the new diocese on November 19, 1868.
Bishop Littlejohn was born in Florida, Montgomery county, N. Y., on December 13, 1824. He was graduated from Union College in 1845, and on March 18, 1818, was admitted to the dea(onate at Auburn by the Right Rev. William H. Delancey, D. D., Bishop of Western New York.
Bishop Littlejohn was the author of several books on theological subjects, among them being "Discourses on Individualism," "Christian Dogma Essential" and "The Christian Ministry at the Close of the Nineteenth Century."
LUDLOW, WILLIAM, died August 30, 1901, at Morristown, N. J.
General Ludlow, U. S. A., was a gallant soldier and the veteran of two wars. The cause of his death was tubercular consumption, which was contracted while military governor of Havana. Five weeks before his death he came to the home of his son-in-law, C. A. Griscom, Jr., having been invalided home from the Philippines. He seemed to improve for a time, but a sudden hemorrhage brought the end.
General William Ludlow was born at Islip, Long Island, N. Y., November 27, 1843, the son of William Handy Ludlow, who was a majorgeneral in the civil war. He was graduated from West Point in June, 1864, and was appointed First Lieutenant of Engineers.
Exactly nine months later he was brevetted Lieutenant-Colonel for gallantry in action.
Young Ludlow's first duty in the civil war was as chief engineer of the Twentieth Army Corps. He went through the campaign in Georgia and was brevetted Captain for gallantry at the defense of Altoona Pass. ticipated in the siege of Atlanta and was in charge of the construction of the defenses of Rome, Ga. He was brevetted Major on December 21, 1864, and on March 13, 1865, was brevetted Lieutenant-colonel for "gallant and meritorious conduct in the campaign of the Carolinas." From March 20 to April 26, 1865, he was assistant chief engineer to General Sherman's army on the “march to the sea.”'
After the close of the Civil War he was engaged in engineering and afterward became military attaché to the London embassy; while in this position he was sent to Nicaragua to report on the feasibility of the Nicaragua Canal, and his report, which was made in 1895, added largely to his reputation as an engineer.
When the war with Spain was declared in 1898 he was in charge of fortifications at New York. He was appointed brigadier-general of volunteers and sent to Cuba with General Shafter: In the attack on Santiago he was in
MACHINISTS' STRIKES OF 1900 AND 1901, THE.-That industrial prosperity carries with it no guarantee of industrial peace has been strikingly demonstrated by the open warfare which has characterized the relations of labor and capital in several of the most important trades during the past two years. Of the various strikes occurring during this time much the most important were those affecting the machinists' trade and that of the iron and steel workers. The strike in the latter has not yet been concluded, and it is therefore too early to attempt its consideration. The chinists' strike, however, is now at an end, and we are in a position to look back over the events giving rise to it and marking its course and attempt their summing up.
In the consideration of any general strike it is important to determine not only the facts surrounding it as an isolated event, but its significance as one step in the great labor movement which is tending so profoundly to modify industrial conditions. It is viewed in this latter light that the machinists' strikes of 1900 and 1901 are among the most important that have occurred in this country since the great Chicago strike of 1894. It is impossible to understand the one strike without a knowledge of the other, and it is for that reason that our contribution is made to include the two.
The central aim of the trade union move. ment is the organization of all the workmen in each trade into a national association which shall be in a position to protect the interests of its members throughout the United States. The problem before the men is thus the double one of effecting an organization and of compelling its recognition by the employers. The first element was accomplished by the creation in 1888 of the International Association of Machinists. Gradually this organization increased in strength and membership, and as it did so, it more and more made its influence felt in the determination of the conditions of the labor contract in the different machine shops of the country. In 1900 it believed that the time had come when by a general movement it could compel its recognition generally by the employers of the country. Chicago was selected as the city in which the first move should be made. Organizers were sent there, and rapidly the machinists of the city were
enrolled in local unions. The plans being duly made, a general demand was made upon the employers for a recognition of the union, a nine-hour day and certain other concessions of less importance.
The men, in presenting their demands, had fixed on March 1, 1900, as the date on which they should go into force, and promptly on that day, their demands having been met by a refusal, the strike was inaugurated by 2,000 men laying down their tools. On the following day 1,000 more men left work, and by March 6 it was estimated that some 6,000 men were out. Of these the machinists claimed that 4,000 were members of the union. The Chicago movement in favor of the recognition of the union and a nine-hour day rapidly spread to other cities, and it is estimated that as many as 1,500 machinists struck in Cleveland, O., from 500 to 800 in Patterson, N. J., 550 in Columbus, O., and 500 in Philadelphia.
The employers seem to have been more or less taken by surprise. The Chicago manufacturers, however, immediately effected organization under the name of the "Chicago Association of Machinery Manufacturers," and entered into negotiations with the Machinists' Union. Whatever their motive, this organization deserves great credit for the conciliatory attitude that it adopted and the efforts that it made to bring about a satisfactory adjustment of the difficulty. Probably the most important feature of the machinists' demands was that there were certain parts of the labor contract, as for example, those relating to hours of labor, overtime, etc., that were of such a character that they should be fixed for the whole trade instead of being left for determination by the individual employers and the local union.
It is evident that compliance with this requirement necessitated the existence of strong general organization of all the employers on the one hand and of the machinists on the other. The machinists had theirs, as we have seen, in the International Association of Machinists. The employers were at first without a national organization competent to act in respect to such matters. Their general organization, the “National Metal Trades Association," was one merely for the general protection and fostering of the machinery industry, such as is found in almost all industries. It, however, furnished a body which could easily be made use of for the new purposes which the strike necessitated.
On March 9 the Chicago Association of Machinery Manufacturers made the proposition to the machinists that if the strike would be declared off, all of the employers would agree to the fullest extent possible to join the National Metal Trades Association, to which all matters in dispute should be referred for settlement by arbitration with the International Association. At first the men were unwilling to return to work until some of their demands had been granted, but finally, after repeated meetings, the proposition to refer the matters in dispute to the two national associations was accepted, and on March 31 the strike was declared at an end.
This outcome of the strike was one of the most remarkable examples of recourse to conciliation or arbitration on a national scale that
erer took place, and it therefore marks this strike as one that will always be referred to as having had a profound influence on the labor movement in this country. The agreement by which the conclusion was arrived at is known as the “Chicago Agreement." Did space permit it would be exceedingly interesting to reproduce it in full. As it is, we can only reproduce the most important section, which reads as follows: ·
"Whereas, the past experience of the National Metal Trades Association and the International Association of Machinists justifies the opinion that mutual agreements conducing to greater harmony in their relations as employers and employes will be of advantage; therefore, be it
"Resolved, That this committee of conference endorse the principle of national arbitration in the settlement of trade disputes, and recom: mend the same for adoption by the members of the National Metal Trades Association and the International Association of Machinists. Be it further
“Resolved, That in all pending disputes and disputes hereafter to arise between members of the respective organizations, i. e., an employer and his employes, every reasonable effort shall be made by the said parties to effect a satisfactory adjustment of the difficulty, failing in which, either party shall have the right to ask its reference to a committee of arbitration, which shall consist of the Presidents of the National Metal Trades Association and of the International Association of Machinists, or their representatives, and two other representatives from each association appointed by the respective presidents. The findings of this committee of arbitration by a majority vote shall be considered final as regards the case at issue, and as marking a precedent for the future action of the respective organizations. Pending adjudication by the committee of arbitration there shall be no cessation of work at the instance of either party to the dispute.”
As showing the importance attached to this document, the following extract is taken from the comment of the official journal of the International Association of Machinists:
"Too much stress cannot be put on the importance of the Chicago Agreement. It is national in its scope and one of the most important developments in the industrial history of the country. If this idea-the board of arbitration-is carried out in a spirit of fairness and equity. mutual concessions being made, and everything being done with honesty and truthfulness, there need never be any more strikes and lockouts as far as the machinists' trade is concerned."
The Chicago Agreement was but a prelimi. nary arrangement by which it was stipulated that the conditions of the labor contract would be fixed by the joint action of the two organizations. The actual determination of these terms remained to be accomplished. Both organizations accepted the Chicago Agreement and appointed their representatives on the joint committee. This committee held its first meeting in New York, May 10 to 18, 1900, and subsequent meetings were held later in the year. The outcome of these meetings was the formal