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proving of the other items. A majority in each house of all the members elected thereto is necessary to override the Governor's veto. In case of death, resignation, or removal of the Governor, his office devolves upon the president of the Senate, and next upon the speaker of the House of Assembly.
The tax system of the state is peculiar in several respects. The general property tax on real and personal property is used in raising revenue only for local and municipal purposes. There is no state tax levied upon general property for state purposes except a state school tax, nine-tenths of which is returned to the counties in which the same is raised, the remaining tenth being apportioned by the State Board of Education according to its discretion. Taxes derived from corporations supply prac. tically all the revenue required by the state government.
tion, inasmuch as New Jersey has a greater railway mileage in proportion to its area than any other state. It is also due to the proximity of great markets. Prominent among the mau. ufactures of the state are silk, machinery, hats, pottery, and glass. In Newark alone there are over 2,500 industrial establishments.
The judicial and administrative system of the State is remarkable in several respects. The old English distinction between courts of law and equity is maintained. Until the adoption of a new constitution in 1844, the Governor was elected by the legislature, and held at the same time the office of Chancellor, or head of the Equity Court. By the new constitution the Governor is elected by popular vote, is ineligible for two successive terms, and appoints the Chancellor as well as all other judges of the higher courts. The system of a popularly elected judiciary has never prevailed, and to this fact is to be traced in large part the hig! reputation of its bench and bar. The Chancellor, Vice-Chancellors, and Judges of the Supreme Court are appointed for seven years, and are commonly reappointed at the expiry of their terms of office. Appeals in the last resort go to the Court of Errors and Appeals. composed of the Chancellor, the justices of the Supreme Court, and six lay judges specially appointed to serve in this capacity. The Court of Chancery originally consisted of the Chancellor, but five Vice-Chancellors have since been added to assist. The Supreme Court consists of the Chief Justice and eight Associate Justices. The Chief Justice and the Associate Justices also go on circuit throughout the counties of the state. In criminal trials “Jersey justice” has become proverbial. In an early case Chief Justice Hornblower decided that in the selection of jurors no challenge should be allowed because of an opinion expressed before the trial, unless the “opinion expressed was out of ill-will or malice toward the party" accused. He also settled the law in the State that in trials for murder, insanity was no defence unless the defendant at the time was "unconscious that he ought not to do it," and that otherwise partial insanity was no ground for acquittal. The Court of Pardons in the State is composed of the Governor, the Chancellor, and the lay judges of the Court of Errors and Appeals.
The Governor, Treasurer, and Comptroller of the state hold office for three years. The Secretary of State, Attorney-General, and Adjutant-General for five years. The State Senate is composed of one member from each of the twenty-one counties of the state. The term of office is three years, one-third of the body being elected annually. There are sixty members of the Assembly, all annually elected. Trenton was made the capital in 1790. By the state constitution the legislature is forbidden to pass any special act conferring corporate powers, or to loan the credit of the State, or to incur a state debt in excess of $100,000, except for purposes of war, or to repel invasion, or to suppress insurrection, or under other peculiar circumstances, in which latter case the assent of the people by popular vote must be secured. The Governor is vested with the veto power, and may single out for disapproval. single items of appropriation bills, while ap
For purposes of taxation corporations are classified as (1) railway and canal, and (2) miscellaneous corporations. The first class is taxed as follows: The State Board of Asses. sors, appointed by the Governor, assesses (10 the “main stem" (i. e. roadway and canal bed); (2) the value of other property owned by the companies, such as docks, wharves, and terminals; (3) tangible personal property, such as rolling-stock and canal boats. Each railroad or canal company is required to pay to the state a tax of one-half of one per cent upon the total valuation; and in addition thereto, upon the value of such property as docks, wharves and terminals a tax at the rate prevailing in the locality where such property is situate, but not to exceed one per cent of the value of such: property. This second tax is remitted by the State Comptroller to the local taxing districts. Miscellaneous corporations are taxed upon various bases. Manufacturing corporations, in addition to the taxes paid locally upon real and personal property minus debts owed within the state, are taxed by the State Board of As
one-tenth of one per cent all amounts of their capital stock outstanding. This is an annual license fee or franchise tax. Upon their capital stock in excess of $3,000,000 but not more than $5,000,000 this tax is only one-twentieth of one per cent; and upon stock issued in excess of $5,000,000 fifty dollars for every $1,000,000. The greater number of conipanies subject to this tax are companies operating mainly in other states, but incorporated under the laws of New Jersey. Certain abatements are allowed to manufacturing corporations whose capital is mostly invested and employed within the state.
poration. The revenue which the State has derived from corporations has induced certain other states to temper the stringency of their laws towards industrial corporations, partly in the hope of diverting some part of this stream of revenue into their own coffers. New York, Connecticut, Delaware, and West Virginia have all of late offered inducements of a similar character to would-be incorporators.
TOPOGRAPHY AND STATISTICS.-New Jersey lies between the thirty-ninth and forty-first paraliels of north latitude, and between meridians 73° 53' 51", and 75° 33' 2" west from Greenwich. The general trend of the State is from northeast to southwest, its greatest length being 168 miles, and its maximum breadth 59 miles (minimum 32 miles). Its gross area is 7.815 square miles, and its land area 7,725 square miles, or 4,816,000 acres. Three ranges of mountains of moderate height traverse the northern part of the State, their greatest altitude being 1,527 feet. They merge on the east into the Catskills and the highlands of the Hudson. On the west they are separated from the Alleghany range
by the Delaware. Throughout the rest of the state the land slopes up gently from the Atlantic to the Delaware. Its average elevation above sea level is 160 feet. Beginning at the northeast the following rivers empty into the Atlantic: the Passaic, Raritan, Toms, Little Egg Harbor, and Big Egg Harbor. On the south and west the Delaware drains the state.
The population of the state in 1900 1.883,669. The population of the five largest cities (1900) was as follows: Newark
Telegraph, telephone, cable, express, gas, electric iight, oil and pipe line companies are taxed upon their gross receipts. Stock and bonds of domestic corporations, except banks and trust companies, are generally non-taxable in the hands of the individual holders. The sez curities of foreign companies in the hands of the individual holder are also generally nontaxable. The receipts from corporation taxes in 1900 were as follows: Miscellaneous corporations .$1,494,719.70 Railroads (exclusive of $203,619.39
remitted to local taxing units).. 908,830.10 From corporations taking out
charters in New Jersey under
the general corporation act 388,727.25 From all other sources (including
$177,074.54 collateral inheritance tax)
.$3,453,295.71 By a recent act (1900) known as the Voorhees Franchise Tax, a tax of two per cent. is levied upon the gross receipts of companies operating upon the public highways. This tax is in addition to the general property tax, and goes ultimately to the local taxing districts.
The predilection which industrial concerns, including many of the trusts, so-called, show for New Jersey when they take out charters of incorporation is a matter of common fame. Most of the greater combinations effected in the United States within the past decade are legally domiciled in New Jersey. The reasons for this preference are several in number. The earlier anti-trust legislation of certain other states, combined with judicial decisions declaring the older forms of trust agreements to be in restraint of trade, and the action of corporations uniting therein ultra rires, drove certain industrial interests to take refuge in New Jersey. Here combinations could be effected by the State's tacit assent (afterwards, in 1893, confirmed by statute) to one corpora. tion's holding the stock, bonds, or property of other corporations. Many large combinations of capital thus became organized as New Jersey corporations. Inasmuch as the control of interstate commerce is denied to the commonwealths, these companies found their New Jersey charters sufficient to enable them to do business throughout the country. Other reasons for their choosing this state as their legal domicile were the certainty and moderateness of the amual franchise tax, the conservative policy of the courts and the legislature towards incorporated capital, and the slight fee for registering and issuing the articles of incor
.2 16,070 Jersey City
. 105,171 Camden
73,307 Between 1880 and 1890 the number of farms in the State decreased from 34,307 to 30,828; and the farm acreage from 2,929,773 acres to 2,662,009 acres. Farm valuatious declined in the same period from 190,000,000 of dollars to 160,000,000. The number of manufacturing establishments reported increased from 7,128 to 9,225; and the value of the product from $254,000,000 to $354,000,000. The individual products of highest value in order in 1890 were silk and silk goods, machine shop products, petroleum, packed meat and malt liquors. Tie mines of the state in 1890 produced metals valued at over $8,000,000, and the fisheries products in excess of $3,000,000.
The total railway mileage in 1899 was 2,242, and the number of miles of line per 100 square miles was 30.07—the highest average for any state. The principal railroads are the Pennsylvania, the Central New Jersey, the Lehigh Valley, the Philadelphia and Reading, the Delaware, Lackawanna and Western, the Erie, the New York, Susquehanna
and Western, the New York and Long Branch, the New Jersey and New York, the West Jersey and Seashore, and the West Shore.
The State is practically free from debt, $70,000 of the Civil War debt being the sole item of interest-bearing debt. This matures January 1, 1902. The cash balance in the state treasury January 1, 1901, was $2,005,222.16.
The free school system was introduced in 1871. In 1898 the population of school age (5 to 18) was 466,714; the enrolment in the public schools was 304,680; in private schools 50,000 (est.); the average daily attendance upon the public schools was 200,278; and the average number of days schools were in session was 185. The total school expenditure for this year (1898) was $5,770,928. There are over serenty public high schools in the State, and about the same number of private secondary schools. The institutions of higher learning are Prince. ton University (founded 1746), Rutgers College at New Brunswick, Stevens Institute of Technology at Hoboken, St. Benedict's College (R. C.) at Newark, and Seton Hall (R. C.) at South Orange. There are theological seminaries at Princeton (Presbyterian), New Brunswick (Reformed), Bloomfield (German Reformed), and Madison Methodist Episcopal).
The electoral vote of the State from 1877 to 1897 was cast for the Democratic candidates. Since 1897 it has been cast for the Republican candidates. The Governor, and a majority of both branches of the legislature are Republican. The United States Senators are William J. Sewell (R.) of Camden, and John Kean (R.) of Elizabeth. The State has eight representatives in the federal House of Representatives, but will be entitled to ten under the new apportionment. The present delegation is as follows: Henry C. Loudenslager (R.), John J. Gardner (R.), Benjamin F. Howell (R.), Joshua S. Salmon (D.), James Fleming Stewart (R.), Richard W. Parker (R.), Allan L. McDermott (D.), Charles N. Fowler (R.).
The state officers are:
Superintendent of Public Instruction, Charles H. Baxter.
Commissioner of Banking and Insurance. William Bettle.
The state judiciary:
Associate Justices, Jonathan Dixon, Bennet Van Syckel, Charles G. Garrison, William S. Gummere, George C. Ludlow, Gilbert Collins.
Lay Judges of the Court of Errors and Appeals, John W. Bogert, Gottfried Krueger, Charles E. Hendrickson, Frederic Adams, Will. iam H. Vredenburgh, Peter V. Voorhees.
W. M. DANIELS, A. M., Professor of Political Economy, Princeton Uni.
NORDENSKJÖLD, NILS ADOLPH Erik, died Aug. 13, 1901, at Stockholm, Sweden. This famous explorer and naturalist was to have been the scientitic leader of the Antarctic exploring expedition which was preparing to start for the southern seas in August.
Baron Nordenskjöld was born at Helsingfors. Finland, November 18th, 1832. His father was the chief of the Finland mining department and from early life the boy devoted himself to scientific pursuits, especially mineralogy. Having in
curred the suspicion of the Russian authorities by attending students' meetings he was compelled to leave the country. He made his home in Sweden, and in 1858 started on his arctic travels by accompanying Torrell to Spitzbergen. Returning to Stockholm he was appointed director of the Mineralogical department. Three years later he went north again and made a map of the southern portion of Spitzbergen.
In 1868 he made another northern trip reaching the high latitude of 81 degrees and 42 minutes. In 1872 he sailed again and although his ship was held in ice for a long time, he succeeded in surveying a portion of Northeast Land.
He then turned his attention to Siberian exploration and in 1875 sailed through the Kara Sea to the Yenisei; he ascended the river in a small boat returning home overland. This was the first time that any ship from the Atlantic had succeeded in penetrating to the great Siberian rivers. After a flying visit to Philadelphia in the following year, he introduced to Siberia the first merchandise which was carried there by sea.
Nordenskjöld was convinced after this that he could accomplish the northeast passage. The King of Sweden and other's gave aid to the project and in 1878 the cool-headed explorer started in the lega.
This was the first vessel to double Cape Tcheliuskin or Northeast Cape which is the most northern point of the Old World. The Vega wintered near Bering Straits and freed from the ice in July, 1879, reached Japan on Sept. 2.
On his return to Europe, Nordenskjöld was laden with honors. The King of Sweden made him a Baron and also Commander of the Order of the North Star.
In 1883 he made his second voyage to the interior of Greenland and succeeded in taking his ship through the dangerous ice barrier along the east coast of that country south of the polar circle, a feat which up to that time had never been accomplished.
Baron Nordenskjöld was the author of sev. eral valuable works pertaining to the subjects and the points which thus came under his own observation. He was also active in Swedish politics and for some years he represented a Stockholm district in the Swedish Chamber.
He is said to have died comparatively poor, although he was one of the most competent geologists and naturalists of his generation, besides being a famous explorer.
PAN-AMERICAN EXPOSITION, EXHIBIT OF FINE ART.- The artistic element of the PanAmerican Exposition (see page 116), at the same time most conspicuous and most admirable, was not any single work exhibited there, but the tout en semble. This prime quality of every work of art had been most carefully planned from the very outset, and marked an advance upon every preceding exposition. In particular a departure was made from the otherwise superb attainments of the "White City" at Chi. cago in 1893. That White City was not more than an imitation in fragile “staff" of enduring marble, it only reproduced here and there archi. tectural forms of remote ages and strange lands. This was certainly a fine achievement
and a much needed lesson to peoples from the "wild and woolly West;" but none the less was there a "more excellent way," which is just one with more specitic reference to its purpose. This purpose indicated, for the Pan-American Exposition, a modern style of architecture known as "free Renaissance" modified with red tile, sloping roofs and projecting eaves at a uniform height of 50 feet from the ground. But within these limits the greatest variety of architectural detail was achieved by the various architects employed. The intent of these traits was to express the independent, modern, temporary, gay, festive, adventurous nature proper to an American fair, as contrasted with a Greek temple, a Gothic cathedral, or a modern city hall, with their grand and sedate beauties. Yet American balance guarded this tendency from running to the sometimes queer and freakish efforts seen at the Paris Exposition of last year, where likewise the proper principle was followed.
This festal character proper to a fair was
tures, pavilions, domes and pinnacles bore red, green and blue, boldly treated near the entrance, but steadily refined until passing into the ivory and gold of the Tower surmounted by its crown of white light. Hence the appropriate title “Rainbow City," as contrasted with the "White City" at Chicago in 1893. Moreover this artistic color scheme roughly corresponded to the use of the buildings, its crude colors symbolizing agriculture and primitive man, and its refined ones symbolizing progressive civilization. Not only drawings but models of the entire group of structures were col. ored in trial of this novel color scheme before application to the buildings themselves, as had also been done to secure proper scale and place for the structures.
Turning to the specific art collection of the Pan-American Exposition, one sees that it completely performed the function proper to an exposition; that is, it included more good American art, both old and new, than had ever before been seen together. Of course, this "more"
AGE OF ENLIGHTENMENT, BY HERBERT ADAMS.
East Esplanade. greatly promoted by the lavish use of external was not all, nor was this "good" in all cases sculpture, and by the quite novel application of the best. Such perfection of exposition recolor to the exteriors of buildings. This sculp- mains still open to competition by St. Louis or ture on bridges, fountains and pylons was any successor in our current whirl of fairs. made symbolic of the object or building near This collection marks nothing less than the rise which it stood. Thus, before the Agricultural of an American school of art, being in that reBuilding were placed the fountains of Nature. spect to America what the Paris Exposition of Kronos and Ceres, while near the Building of last year was to Europeans. Previous to the Ethnology stood the fountains of Man, Her. Centennial Exposition in 1876, what scanty cules and Prometheus. To this diversified American art there was followed inferior Engayety of plastic beauty was added that of glish tradition. The Paris Exposition of 1889 color. The unity of design, indispensable here showed American art produced chiefly by Ameras in form, was secured by entrusting the en- icans resident in Europe; but at the one in tire scheme to one artist, Mr. C. Y. Turner of 1900 artists resident both in Europe and AmerNew York. The sloping roofs of red tile above ica made a display so fine that it was awarded and the green shrubbery below already sup- prizes second only to those given Frenchmen, plied a strong and uniform color framework. and so distinctive in qualities that one could The intermediate walls were colored so as to speak of an American school. Finally, in the conform to the architectural culmination in the Pan-American Exposition we see the demonElectric Tower, namely, they bore nearest the stration confirmed and expanded. This quality main entrance a ground color of yellow, fur- of Pan-American art may be summarized as ther along paler tints, and on the tower a first eclectic, then organizing into marked in creamy white; while panels, pillars, entabla- dividuality, and finally versatile with abounding
Turning to minor art-collections, one sees that the water-colors are excellent, though of course far smaller in number than those in oils. An exceptionally large and fine exhibit is made here of 20 magnificent water-colors by Winslow Homer representing scenes in the Bahamas and Bermudas.
Another minor collection, that of etchings and engravings is of course a brilliant one, since Mr. Whistler, the greatest etcher since Rembrandt, is represented in it by some score pieces. F. Duveneck and J. Pennell present notable work. The engravings form a remarkable body of work, without any such distinguished examples as the etchings, but none the less characteristic and worthy of America. This craft, however, has ruin staring it in the face, for while little original engraving is or has ever been in demand, its hitherto invaluable service in reproduction to illustrate books and magazines has been displaced by the photo-etching or half-tone which physics and chemistry have re
cently put at man's disposal. At least the average attainments of this process-work are vastly better, as well as cheaper, than those of the human hand; and, as consequence, the wretched woodcuts, that often at the same time caricatured the original and disfigured the page, have yielded to the correctness and beauty of the delicately modeled mechanical print.
The sculpture collection could be small, because the architectural variety was so abundantly distributed upon the buildings where it properly belongs. This latter was of sufficient intrinsic beauty, but deserves especial credit for . attainment of its proper purpose which is, of course, harmony with the building it is meant to adorn. Two of these outdoor works, however, had independent value, namely Augustus St. Gauden's General Sherman, and D. C.
MINERAL WEALTH, BY CHAS. H. NIEHAUS,
In Front of Mines Building.
vitality. The American has, no doubt, gleaned in many fields, primarily in France, but also in Italy, Spain, Germany and England; but has unified this varied experience, under his native force and freedom, into something personal, resulting in a great variety of styles among various American artists; and, finally, he has combined freshness, spontaneity, earnestness, purity and dignity with a properly artistic motive, "art for art's sake,” and with a technique unrivaled outside France.
This American freedom from a following of tradition was especially manifest in the figure pictures, while in the landscapes it was happily tempered by adoption of the lesson taught so well by the "men of thirty," the Frenchmen, especially Rousseau and Corot, who have so profoundly influenced the art of the entire world since their time. This influence was felt by the three great American landscapists whose career has already closed, George Inness, H. D. Martin and A. H. Wyant, all having abandoned for tbis imaginatively naturalistic art the more analytic one known as the Hudson River School. This type of landscape art has prevailed in America ever since, modified of course by the subsequent notable art-insight known as impressionism, but more properly to be called luminism, because the new impressions made upon the artists, Manet, Monet, Degas and others, were chiefly impressions of light; that is objects were painted as they are certainly often seen, namely in open air and light, outside the after all very partially illuminated room or studio. Here again, however, American artists have been careful not to swallow whole everything that a French leader offered, and have adopted luminism without expelling older members of the art-family. No American artist has missed this recent blessing that accrues to beauty from more light, but neither has he lost beauty in chasing light.
This' favorable yerdict due the American artist cannot be extended to his confrère in Canada, at least so far as exhibited here. With few exceptions, trite sentiment and mediocre technique render these Canadian pictures uninteresting.