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of the 28,23+ students, 26,060 were French and 1,399 foreigners. These figures include 817 women, of whom 559 were French and 258 foreign.
The number of students at the State institutions, distributed according to faculties or schools, was as follows (Jan. 15, 1901): Protestant Theology
29,901 In private institutions of higher instruction there were at this date (Jan. 15, 1901) 1,487 students, making a total of 31,388 university students in France.
France has numerous other schools-of mining, engineering, art, music, etc., whose reputation is world-wide.
The surplus was partly due to the Exposition traffic. In March, 1901, the receipts from indirect taxes fell off 20,000,000 francs.
The bicycle tax brought into the Treasury in 1900 the sum of 5,474,975 francs. The number of bicycles in France increased from 203,026. in 1894 to 987,130 in 1900.
The French Chamber of Deputies met Jan. 8, 1901, and re-elected M. Deschanel President, In the first speech of the session the aged Bonapartist deputy, M. Rauline, alluded to the government bill on religious communities. M. Falliéres was for the third time elected Presi. dent of the Senate.
There was a warm debate on the Associations Bill in the Chamber of Deputies Jan. 14, in which the various phases of the old question of Church and State were discussed. It would be more accurately described as a bill against the religious orders, which are numerous in France and control thousands of schools, convents, etc. Says a Paris correspondent: “They envelop as in a net all the productive forces of the country, and form what might be called a universal syndicate of Clericalism, the object of which is to serve the ends of the vast international association of the Catholic Church." The second clause of the bill, which shows the hostile spirit of the measure, is as follows: "Any association founded on a cause, or for an illicit end, contrary to the laws, to public order, to good manners, to the national unity, and to the form of the government of the Republic, is null and void.” The third clause specifies the associations that cannot be formed without authorization: “The associations of which the majority of the members are foreigners, and those having foreign directors, or their seat in a foreign country, the acts of which are of a nature to pervert the normal conditions of the markets for public securities or merchandise
may be disa solved by a decree of the President of the Republic drawn up in a Cabinet Council.” The fourth clause is intended to secure full pub. licity of religious associations in France, and thus to bring them more completely under the law. The tenth clause regulates gifts and bea quests to associations, requiring personal property to be invested in bonds bearing the name of the owner. Donations of real estate cannot be received, except under stringent conditions.
The bill was severely condemned by the offi. cial organ of the Vatican, and denounced by Leo XIII, as unjust and barbarous.
A statistical volume issued in January reported that the real value of property of religious communities was 1,071,000,000 francs, instead of 486,000,000 francs (the valuation returned to the fiscal department). This statement was challenged by a speaker in the Chamber (Jan. 21), who declared that the returns and income were grossly exaggerated. After a discussion of several weeks the bill passed the Chamber (March 29) by a majority of 303 to 224. “The real interest of the debates," says the Paris correspondent of the London Times (April 1, 1901), “is that they have been but a further stage in that struggle between civil society and the Church, which has lasted since the time of Louis XI. I have my doubts whether the new bill will put an end to this conflict.”
RECENT HISTORY.-Besides the Paris Exposition no event occurred in 1900 that marked the year as especially memorable in French history. The part that France played in the Chinese expedition was comparatively unimportant.
The octroi duties on wine, beer, and cider ceased Jan. 1, 1901, and the expected loss of about 42,000,000 francs this year will be met by new taxes on the rental of shops, champagne, oranges and lemons, etc. The Paris octrois in 1900 produced 172,990.575 francs, a surplus of 6,990,575 francs on the estimates. The Paris debt is 2,387,000,000 francs, being increased in 1900 by 173,000,000 francs due to the loan for the Metropolitan Railway.
The indirect taxes for 1900 yielded 2,950,753,000 francs, which was nearly 45,000,000 francs more than in 1899 and 77,000,000 francs more than the estimate. Death and transfer duties increased by 29,000,000 francs over those of the previous year; posts, telegraphs, and telephones by 13,000,000 francs; excise duties by 19,000,000 francs. There were deficits in stamps (4,000,000 francs), sugar (15,000,000 francs), and customs (5,000,000 francs).
As a result of the Associations Bill there has law in February, introduces the progressive been a widespread exodus of French religious system of taxing legacies according to the orders-the Benedictines leaving Havre to set- amount--1 per cent. for an inheritance in the tle in the Isle of Wight, while the monks of the direct line not exceeding 2,000 francs, and Grande Chartreuse will emigrate to Tarragona larger rates for greater sums up to 214 per cent. in Spain. The St. Omar Carmelites are to set- for amounts over 250,000 francs. The rates on tle in Belgium. The Eudists are to quit Be- legacies from husband or wife range from 312 sancon, closing their College of Saint Fran- to 7 per cent.; and are still higher on inheriçois Xavier. The Order of the Dominicans tances from distant relatives. and others sent in requests for authorization, There was a strike on the Metropolitan Railwhich puts them under the supervision of gov- way in the latter part of January because of ernment officials. Some of the Dominican the dismissal of 50 men by the company. nuns went to Holland. Most of the Jesuits Later the weavers and sawyers of Merville and Assumptionists scattered before the three were on strike and committing acts of violence. months of grace (July to October) expired. The long strike of lacemakers at Calais ended The disposition of their property is a problem Feb. 7. The strikers in the ladies' tailors' workrequiring tact and judgment on the part of the shops demanded the abolition of piecework, courts.
an eight hours' day, and a minimum wage of The conversion to Roman Catholicism of the 10 francs a day. A serious collision took place famous critic, M. Ferdinand Brunetiere, which between the military and the strikers of the was announced in March, produced a sensa- iron works at Chalon-sur-Saône (in February); tion. His accession to the Catholic Church is arrests were made and soldiers were attacked regarded as the most important since the con- with stones. Other strikes-of coal miners, version of Newman.
dockers, etc.-were declared. The Marseilles M. Maurice Block, a well-known economist strike of dockers crippled several manufacturand statistician, died Jan. 9, aged 85. He pub- ing companies and greatly interfered with shiplished several statistical and political works. ping. Work was assumed under the protection The mathematician, Charles Hermite, died, of hussars and gendarmes and rioting followed. Jan. 14. France lost several other notable It was reported March 29 that more than 3,600 men this year: Zenobe T. Gramme, of elec- dockers went to work. trical fame, who died Jan. 20; Paul A. Sylves- A session of the Chamber of Deputies (March tre, the poet, died Feb. 20; J. C. Cazin, the dis- 8) was devoted to a discussion of the strikes, tinguished painter, died March 27;. Charles and various reforms were suggested, such as Boysset, the politician, died May 23.
eight hours for the miners' working day and The eminent orator and statesman, Duc de other changes. Broglie, died in Paris Jan. 19, aged 80. He The slow progress of the labor movement was eulogised by M. Melchior de Vogüé at a in France was dwelt upon by M. Barthou in an meeting of the French Academy Jan. 24.
article in the Nourelle Rerue (April 1), in which The death of Queen Victoria called forth he advocated compulsory membership of many expressions of praise and sympathy by trades unions. Out of nearly 5,000,000 emthe French press. There were demonstrations ployes in factories and shops, he claimed that of respect in both Chamber and Senate Jan. 24. only 492,000 belong to labor organizations.
A long article on King Edward VII. and the The miners' congress at Lens (April 13) rea relations of France and England appeared in solved on a general strike if within six months the Paris Débats for Jan. 26. French colonial the government does not secure for them the policy, the writer asserted, ought to be one not eight hours' day, a minimum rate of wages, of new acquisitions, but of the exploitation of and pensions of 2 francs a day after 25 years' territory already held. Peace between France labor. Of the 162,000 men employed in French and England was for the interests of both na- mines only 47,134 voted on the strike question. tions. The same subject was touched on in a The vote for a general strike was 28,038; speech by Thomas Barclay before the French against, 18,096. As a result of the referendum, Arbitration Society (March 25), in which he the strike at the Montceau coal mines came to favored "obligatory arbitration on all matters an end May 6, having lasted 105 days. The which may be a cause of dispute between Chamber of Deputies voted 100,000 francs to France and Great Britain.” The British Cham- aid the families of the strikers. ber of Commerce in Paris also approved a gen- The Paris correspondent of the London eral treaty of arbitration between the two Economist (July 20, 1900), makes some suggestcountries.
ive observations on the increasing number of In January a bill calculated to check duelling strikes in France and the results. "Strikes in was submitted to the Chamber, forbidding the France," he says, “have increased during the publication of reports of duels under severe last four years in an alarming proportion, notpenalties.
withstanding the frequent legislative measures An important bill, requiring seats for each for the amelioration of the situation of the saleswoman in shops, went into effect Feb. 1. working classes, or perhaps because of such In line with this sort of legislation are the sani- measures, which invariably tend to strengthen tary regulations recommended by the Labor the power of trade unions of workmen and Council of the Ministry of Commerce, provid- weaken the authority of employers. A report ing for the separation of the sexes in shop dor- issued by the Labor Bureau in France show's mitories, also for a sufficient cubic space of air. that the number of strikes in 1900 was 902. A further enactment prohibits the employment comprising 222,714 hands, male or female, and of persons under eighteen years of age to sell involving a loss of 3,760,577 days' labor. The goods at stalls outside of shops.
similar returns for 1899 gave only 740 strikes, The new scale of death duties, which became 176,826 hands, and 3,550,734 days' work. In
1898, the number of strikes were only 368, in which 82,065 hands took part; and in 1897, 365 and 68,875. The average number of the years 1897 and 1898 more than doubled in 1899, and nearly tripled in 1900. The results of the strikes in 1900 were that in less than 25 per cent., or 205, with 24,216 hands, the strikers were successful; 360, with 140,358 hands, ended by a compromise; and in 337 cases, interesting 50,140 workers, they were defeated. Of the 932 strikes, 631 concerned only a single firm, company, or manufactory. Those that tended to two to 100 establishments numbered 263; the most widespread, leading to the suspension of work in more than 100 establishments, were those of the bakers at Toulon, carriers at Bordeaux, carriage painters in Paris, tulle makers at ('alais, shoemakers, bakers, and carmen at Marseilles, and laundresses in Paris and the environs. In 580 strikes the motive was a demand for increase of pay, and of these 113 were successful; 249 compromised, and 218 failed. Of those strikes 138 were in textile trades, 109 in building, 105 in transports, and 51 in metal trades. Of 66 strikes against reductions of wages, 13 failed. The Labor Department was not in possession of information as to the loss of wages from all the strikes, but in the cases of 508 the pay not earned amounted to 9,520,953 francs, from which it infers that the total loss amounted to about 15,000,000 francs. Prosecutions for acts of violence took place on the occasion of 53 strikes, and led to 422 condemnations to fines or imprisonment."
The Budget for 1902, submitted to the Chamber March 29, is called "the greatest of all budgets,” amounting to $720,000,000, an increase of $15,000,000 over that of 1901 and of $26,000,000 over that of 1900. The estimated increase of expenditure is 43,000,000 francs, and the estimated increase of revenue is 35,000,000 francs, leaving a deficit to be provided for. The situation is one calling for serious thought and careful management of national and municipal finances. The receipts from indirect taxes during the first six months of the year fell short of the Budget estimate by $10,700,000. It is expected that the expense for the Chinese expedition, some $ 16,000,000, will be wiped out by the indemnity.
Before the adjournment for the Easter recess (March 30-May 14) the Minister of Public Works presented plans “of a vast scheme of improvements and constructions in the inland navigable canals and rivers and the seaports." The greater part of the total cost, 61,000,000 francs, is for canals. One is to connect the Loire with the Rhone, and one from the Rhone to Marseilles, The works will not be completed for fifteen years.
The quinquennial census was taken March 23. The result showed that the population of France has been nearly stationary the last five years. The increase in Algeria has been 415.000 since 1896. Marseilles has increased in population by 47,000; Nice, 19,000; Havre, 11,000; and Brest, 9,000. Lyons has lost 63,000. Paris (with suburbs) grew from 2,411,000 to 2,660,000. Outside of the department of the Seine the augmentation of inhabitants was small (only 38.000). Provisional returns of the (ensus give 38,641.333 as the total population,
an increase of only 123,358 since 1896. During the last half-century the population has increased (in round numbers) from 35,000,000 to 38,000,000, while neighboring countries have grown rapidly.
The rareness of marriage, the rareness of large families, the expensive habits of French women in dress, and other causes are assigned as explanations of the slow growth of the population. The discouragement of foreign immigration is also a factor. The mass of the peasants are industrious and thrifty, and yet it is said that they cannot support families of more than two children. The son inherits the paternal holding, while the daughter gets her dowry. These conditions make for slow numerical increase.
On April 9 President Loubet visited Nice on his way to attend the Toulon festivities. Here he met the Russian Admiral Birileff and Prince Ferdinand of Bulgaria. He was received with hearty demonstrations at Toulon (April 10), and salutes were fired by the Italian warships present. The naval spectacle was grand. At the banquet toasts were proposed by President Loubet and the Duke of Genoa. The occasion led to a great deal of speculation respecting the cordial understanding of France with Italy and Russia and its bearing on the Dreibund. (See article on AUSTRIA, p. 306, and ITALY, p. 353.) The Italian ships departed April 14, and President Loubet set out for Paris April 15.
A remarkable speech was delivered (June 6) by the Italian ambassador, Count Tornielli, on the affinities of France and Italy, which seem destined, he held, “to co-operate in the economic future of the world. Prejudices had disappeared as by enchantment on perception of the reality of interests, and the two nations were now acting together on the broad highway on which they met other nations, all advancing in different ways by the sole means of peace and civilization toward the common goal."
On April 18 the eminent critic and professor, M. Emile Faguet, was received as a member of the French Academy in the place of the late M. Cherbuliez. The great chemist, M. Berthelot, who is secretary of the Academy of Sciences, was received into the French Academy to succeed M. Bertrand.
On May 26 the learned historian, M. Fagniez of the Sorbonne, was elected a member of the Academy of Moral Sciences in place of the late Duc de Broglie,
The Marquis de Vogué was elected (May 30) to the French Academy to succeed the Duc de Broglie. (See page 51.) M. Rostand, the dramatist, succeeded the late Henri de Bornier.
The International Association of Learned Societies met in Paris April 16-23. Delegates from eighteen scientific bodies were present.
The Paris Salon was opened April 21 with great crowds of visitors. The works of Edwin Abbey and other American artists attracted much attention.
On April 28 the former Premier, M. Méline, made a speech attacking the policy of the present Ministry. The Waldeck-Rousseau Cabinet. now in power, has survived since the summer of 1899, a period much longer than the existence of any other Ministry in the history of the Republic.
THE CZAR'S VISIT TO FRANCE, SCENES AT COMPIEGNE.
The bed-room of Empress Eugénie.
The principal facade of the Château.
The third annual Socialist Congress was two countries known as the Franco-Russian opened at Lyons May 26. Next year's Con alliance. gress will meet at Tours.
The next day President Loubet and his The ex-Queen Ranavalo, of Madagascar, guests went by train to Reims, where they witreached Paris May 30 to remain a month. She . nessed the maneuvers of the French army. was not permitted to call on President Loubet In the evening they returned to Compiègne, or meet him until the last day of her visit. where the Czar and Czarina occupied the faAfter a round of sight-seeing, she left Mar mous chateau of Napoleon III. Here they seilles (July 29) for Algeria, her place of ban rested the next day, and on Sept. 21 the imishment.
perial company took the train for Kiel. The Moorish envoys arrived at Marseilles Much as the papers made of the Czar's visit, June 15 and were hospitably entertained. Later its significance was probably not exaggerated. they were received with marks of respect by Some writers go so far as to say that the President Loubet, and after complimentary French Republic exists by the grace of the speeches they stayed to luncheon.
Russian ruler. Time will disclose the extent Soon after the meeting of the French Parlia of his influence on French public policy. ment in May the Workmen's Pensions Bill was The vintage for 1901 is estimated at 55.000,introduced, which occasioned considerable dis 000 hectoliters, against 67,000,000 in 1900 and cussion, leading to no detinite conclusion for 98,000,000 in 1899. The wheat crop for 1901 lack of data as to the outlay needed and the is estimated at 106,204,600 hectoliters, against requisite sum to be allowed for a pension. 109,025,960 hectoliters in 1900; exclusive of AlLabor questions occupied the attention of the geria, the crop cannot exceed 95,000,000 hecdeputies and the senators until they adjourned toliters (261,315,000 bushels). It is thought (July 6).
that France will have to buy 60,000,000 bushels There was a lively session of the Chamber of foreign wheat. June 14, when the Arab rising in Algeria was For details respecting the Turko-French disdiscussed. The Algerian deputy, M. Drumont, pute, see article on TURKEY, page 513. was censured for using offensive language. Articles on the French Colonies will appear
The intention of the Minister of Finance to later. comprise an income-tax in the estimates for
BIBLIOGRAPHY.-J. E. C. Bodley, “France" 1902 aroused so much opposition that he aban (revised ed., 1899); E. H. Sears, "An Outline doned the idea for the present. The receipts of Political Growth in the Nineteenth Century" from indirect taxes for the first six months (1900); A. L. Lowell, “Governments and Parof 1901 showed a loss of 53,125,200 francs on ties in ('ontinental Europe," Vol. I.; No. 2619, the estimates. The decrease in customs duties Annual Series, British Diplomatic and Conamounted to 30,164,000 francs; in excise, 20, sular Reports, “Finances of France for the 037,000 francs. Out of a revenue of 3,423,000, Year 1901;" U. S. Consular Reports, January, 000 francs, only 575,000,000 francs is raised by. February, March, May; July, 1901; New York direct taxation.
"Weekly Journal of Commerce and Commer-
of both President Roosevelt and Secretary Hay
to the Presidency. The French people were deeply stirred by Mr. Gage was born in Deruyter, X. Y., June the news of President McKinley's assassina
28, 1836. He comes of English parentage, being tion, and there were many expressions of sin
a descendant of Thomas Gage, who came from cere sympathy.
England about 1010 and settled Massachus President Loubet, accompanied by his setts. Prime Minister, M. Waldeck-Rousseau, left He was the son of Eli and Mary Judson Paris on the morning of Sept. 17 for Dunkirk, Gage. They removed to Rome, N. Y., in 1848. to await the coming of the ('zar and ('zarina The boy of fourteen here received academic adof Russia. The town was brilliantly deco vantages, but in four years he left school to rated and filled with a great crowd of sight avail himself of a position in the postoffice at seers. The next morning the President and Rome. In 1854 he became a clerk in the some of his ministers set out from Dunkirk on Oneida Central Bank of Rome, and a year later board a gunboat to meet the Russian Imperial went to Chicago, where he at first worked in Yacht. They were cordially received by the a lumber yard. He drifted a round a little after ('zar and a naval review followed. After land this, but in 1838 he obtained permanent employing, a luncheon was given and a welcoming ment in the Merchants' Saving Loan and Trust speech delivered by President Loubet, who de ('o. He was afterward promoted by degrees parted with his royal guests by special train until he became the cashier of that institution, for Compiègne, where they arrived at 8 o'clock In 1868 he became identified with the First in the evening. The words spoken by the National Bank of Chicago, as its cashier, afterheads of the two nations conveyed more than ward becoming vice-president and general manmere compliments; they expressed only the irger and in 1891 was elected president of the simple truth concerning the close union of the bank.