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THE CURRENT ENCYCLOPEDIA
NO. 1.. JULY 15, 1901
AFGHANISTAN, a country of Asia, lying to the rumors of a threatened invasion. The storm, north of India and east of Persia. Its bound however, blew over-Russia securing the longaries are not accurately defined, and its area desired outlet to the ocean through the Persian has been estimated from 215,400 square miles to Gulf. Thereafter the Chinese trouble diverted about 250,000 square miles or more. It is divided attention to the Far East. The death of the into four provinces—Cabul, Herat, Turkestan, and Ameer would bring the Afghan question to the Kandahar-having a population of 4,000,000. front again. Cabul is the capital.
Afghanistan has been described as “one of the Since July, 1880, the reigning Ameer of waste places of the world.” Its meager products Afghanistan has been Abdur Rahman Khan supply the inhabitants with a bare subsistence. (born in 1830). He succeeded his cousin Yakub It has a small trade with the outside world. The Khan, who abdicated in 1879. The government Ameer's policy of isolation, allowing no railways is monarchical, and the Ameer is a despotio in his dominions, hinders the development of ruler, whose word is law. Many acts of cruelty commerce. are related of him. In the internal wars by which he established his absolute despotism it is said that he wiped out whole tribes and left hardly a member of the old Afghan nobility alire. A sort of feudal system prevails, and his nobles are hard masters. The inhabitants of Afghanistan are a hardy people, fearless and vindictive. A large number of them are practically slaves or villeins, while the mass of the hired laborers are mercilessly taxed.
In religion they are Mohammedans. The Afghan tribes can scarcely be called a nation, for they are kept united only by the iron rule of the Ameer.
Abdur Rahman is a man of unusual ability and a successful general. He is well read and familiar with the history of other lands, but is eccentric and suspicious of foreigners. His patriotism cannot be doubted, for he has always kept in view the good of his people and country. He maintains a standing army of 50,000 soldiers, well supplied with rifles and cannon. The Ameer's recently published autobiography is an interesting book, giving a fair idea of his remarkable career, although its omissions leave on the reader's mind the impression that he is a far more enlightened and progressive monarch than the facts warrant.
ABDUR RAHMAN. Situated between India and Russian Turkestan,
Ameer of Afghanistan. Afghanistan has for many years been a buffer state between British India and Russia in Asia. The British evidently regard the Ameer's friend Its chief exports are fruits, nuts, spices, and ship worth having, for be receives from them a assafoetida. Of imports, sugar, tea, indigo, and yearly subsidy of $800,000, besides gifts of arms cotton goods are the principal articles. and ammunition. The aim of this policy is not only to keep him friendly with the Indian gov AGUINALDO, EMILIO, Filipino leader in the in ernment, but to prevent his becoming an ally of surrection against Spain and afterward against Russia. While professing loyalty to England and the United States; born in the province of Cavite, defying the Czar, it is well known that he receives Luzon, March 22, 1869. The story of his life reads secret embassies and secret subsidies from Russia. like a romance, and many conflicting statements More than once he has manifested hostility to have appeared in print concerning him. He beWestern powers in the East, and has at times longs to the tribe of Tagals. His father was a exchanged messages with the Sultan of Turkey, planter, who gave his son unusual advantages. the Shah of Persia and other Mohammedan He was for a while a student in the University of rulers as to the chances of Islam's overthrowing St. Tomas in Manila. He made slow progress Christendom.
with books, and was obliged to leave school at In the spring of 1900 the massing of Russian the death of his father. He is said to have been troops near the frontier of Afghanistan led to at one time a schoolmaster and afterward a clerk
in the navy yard at Manila. When a young man ish yoke, they were eager to co-operate with our he came under the influence of the patriot, Dr. forces. A meeting was arranged between Rizal, who organized the Philippine League later Aguinaldo and the American consul at Singaknown as the Katipunan. Aguinaldo was a pore, Spencer Pratt, April 24, 1898, and an agreemember of this secret order, and became its ment was drawn up to be later submitted to acknowledged leader in the revolt of 1896. (For Commodore Dewey and the authorities at Washthe causes of this rebellion see the article on the ington. According to John Foreman, this agreePhilippines.) As a result of this determined in- ment or rather “understanding” provided for surrection it was found necessary to increase the Philippine independence and a Federal Republic Spanish army in the Philippines from 3,000 to under American protection. 5,000 in October, 1896. In December the Spanish A week later Dewey entered Manila Bay and troops numbered 11,000 and afterward fresh destroyed the Spanish feet. Statements vary as forces came, yet the war dragged on more than a to the time of Aguinaldo's return in the Ameriyear. At the death of Bonifacio, the first presi- can dispatch boat “McCulloch.” Foreman says dent of the Tagal Republic (proclaimed in Oc- he arrived May 19, and his well-known proclamatober, 1896), Aguinaldo was the unanimous choice tion to the Filipinos was issued at Cavite May 24. of soldiers and leaders for his successor. His He was received by the natives with enthusiasm kindness and sympathy made l m a general and soon found himself at the head of considerfavorite with his men.
At this time he was on friendly Unable to suppress the revolt by force, the terms with Admiral Dewey, who supplied the Spanish general, Primo de Rivera, made conces- insurgents with field-pieces, rifles and ammuni
tion. Filipinos serving in the Spanish colonial army deserted and flocked to Aguinaldo's standard. About this time he assumed the title of Dictator and acted as commander-in-chief of the large force now gathered. He attacked the Spanish posts around Manila, May 31, and drove the Spaniards into the city. It is probable that the insurgents could have captured Manila then, but by arrangement with Admiral Dewey they remained outside the city. In June they had taken some 4,000 prisoners, and in July they rendered material aid in the military operations of our land forces, which were delayed in reaching the scene of action. There was no formal alliance, but an understanding existed as to the part that each was to play, and at the capture of Manila (August 13) the natives hemmed in the city and prevented the escape of the enemy. Aguinaldo then withdrew his forces and established his headquarters at Malolos, a village twenty-five miles northwest of Manila.
In the meanwhile the relations of Aguinaldo with Generals Anderson and Merritt had become strained, and there was mutual mistrust and misunderstanding as to the object of the revolutionary government of which he was the head. In the first article of the constitution of the provisional government, proclaimed June 23, 1898,
the insurgent leader declared that their purpose EMILIO AGUINALDO.
was "to struggle for the independence of the Philippines, until all nations, including Spain,
shall expressly recognize it, and to prepare the sions to the natives and promised reforms, with country for the establishment of a real Repubthe offer of money to be paid as an indemnity to lic.” In September the Philippine Republic was the leaders of the rebellion and lesser insurgents. formally organized and a Congress assembled. In return Aguinaldo and thirty-four other leaders Aguinaldo was declared the First President (Sept. were to lay down their arms and leave the Philip- 29), and Pedro Patermo was President of the Napine Islands. By the terms of this treaty, the tional Assembly. Pact of Biac-na-bato, signed Dec. 14, 1897, the Only a meager outline can be given of the representative of the Spanish government was to events that followed. The Paris treaty of peace distribute the sum of $1,700,000 among the in- was signed Dec. 10, 1898, by the terms of which surgents. Of this sum only $400,000 was ever Spain ceded the Philippine archipelago to the paid to the rebel chiefs, and the promises of United States. President McKinley's proclamareforms were never fulfilled. The struggle for tion (Dec. 30) made known the intention of the liberty was therefore renewed or rather con- United States. Soon afterward (Jan. 6, 1899) tinued. The $400,000 paid to the rebel leaders Aguinaldo issued a proclamation, announcing the was kept in a bank in Hong Kong and afterward breaking-off of friendly relations with our govused to defray the expenses of the uprising of ernent and threatening war if the American forces 1898.
intended forcible aggression. It is believed by The outbreak of hostilities between Spain and some that war could have been avoided, although the United States was the opportunity of the preparations for an expected conflict had been Filipinos, and they improved it. Hoping with made for months on both sides. The long-lookedthe help of the Americans to throw off the Span- for clash between the natives and the Americans
came on the evening of Feb. 4, when one of our sentries, Private W. W. Grayson (Company D., 1st Nebraska volunteers) fired the first shot at a party of Filipino soldiers forcing their way across his beat. It has been claimed and denied that there was a concerted movement on the part of the natives. Fighting continued Feb. 5 and 6, and on Feb. 6 the Paris treaty of peace was ratified by the Senate. (For account of military operations see article on the Philippines.)
In April and May representatives of the Filipinos met the members of the Schurman commission, then in Manila, but nothing came of their consultations. The conciliatory propositions of the commissioners were not acceptable to Aguinaldo, who was reported to have declined an offer of $5,000 a year for restoring peace among the Tagals. So the war went on, in which the Filipinos suffered many losses, and the so-called capital of the Philippine Republic was frequently removed. The power and influence of Aguinaldo gradually declined and his following fell off. One by one his ministers and generals were taken prisoners and he had several narrow escapes from falling into the hands of our soldiers. There was a prospect that the chase for the wily and elusive chieftain might last several years, and the world was surprised at his capture by General Frederick Funston, March 23, 1901. Aguinaldo was taken in his camp in Isabella Province, Luzon, by an adroit ruse. Funston and four American officers posed as prisoners in the hands of natives, and by them were brought to the unsuspecting leader, who was seized and hurried off to Manila. After his capture he was kept in close custody
April 2 he took the oath of allegiance to the United States. Later (April 19) he issued a manifesto to the Filipinos, advising submission.
"I believe I am not in error,says Aguinaldo in opening his manifesto, “in presuming that the unhappy fate to which my adverse fortune has led me is not a surprise to those who have been familiar with the progress of the war.
"The lessons taught with a full meaning, and which have recently come to my knowledge, suggest with irresistible force that a complete termination of hostilities and lasting peace are not only desirable, but absolutely essential to the welfare of the Philippine Islands. "The Filipinos have never been dismayed at their weakness nor have they faltered in following the path pointed out by their fortitude and courage. The time has come, however, in which they find their advance along this path to be impeded by an irresistible force, which, while it restrains them, yet enlightens their minds and opens to them another course, presenting them the cause of peace.
"This cause has been joyfully embraced by the majority of my fellow countrymen, who have already united around the glorious sovereign banner of the United States.
“In this banner they repose their trust and belief that under its protection the Filipino people will attain all those promised liberties which they are beginning to enjoy.
“The country has declared unmistakably in favor of peace. So be it. There has been enough blood, enough tears, and enough desolation.
“This wish cannot be ignored by the men still in arms if they are animated by a desire to serve our noble people, which has thus clearly manifested its will. So do I respect this will now that it is known to me.
"After mature deliberation I resolutely proclaim to the world that I cannot refuse to heed the voice of the people longing for peace, nor the lamentations of thousands of families yearning to see their dear ones enjoying the liberty and the promised generosity of the great American nation.
"By acknowledging and accepting the sovereignty of the United States throughout the Philippine archipelago, as I now do and without any reservation whatsoever, I believe that I am serving thee, my beloved country. May happiness be thine."
ALLEN, ALEXANDER VIETS GRISWOLD, author and professor in the Episcopal Theological School, Cambridge, Mass, was born at Otis, Mass., May 4, 1841. In connection with his work as a lecturer on ecclesiastical history, Professor Allen has written several volumes—"Continuity of Christian Thought” (1884), “Religious Progress” (1894), and Christian Institutions" (1897). The latter work belongs to the International Theological Library. He also contributed a striking sketch of Jonathan Edwards to the American Religious Leaders Series. But his best contribution to literature, ranking second, perhaps, to the “Life and Letters of Huxley” among recent biographies, is his “Life and Letters of Phillips Brooks,” published in two volumes, which must be considered the standard memoir of the great American preacher, whose loss is still keenly felt.
The career and personality of the late Bishop Brooks afford a noble subject, to which his reverent and admiring friend has done full justice in these ample volumes. It is the man that is portrayed, as well as the preacher. He was truly a grand leader, one who impressed himself on the men of his generation and country as have but few pulpit orators of our time. He was a veritable giant, intellectually and spiritually as well as physically. Dr. Allen has faithfully portrayed
Phillips Brooks as he was in his fruitful pastor ASTRONOMY, RECENT. -THE PLANET EROS. – ates in Philadelphia and Boston.
The campaign of parallex measurement, in
which astronomers made use of the planet Eros, ARABI AHMED PASHA, 'who was recently has come to an end, and the results are now bepardoned by Egyptian authority, was the son ing published. This planet was discovered by of a small peasant Sheykh who lived near photography at Berlin, nearly three years ago. Zagazig in the Eastern Delta. His father gave Its rapid motion at once revealed the fact that it him a good Arabic education and as a young man was no ordinary minor planet; when its orbit was he entered the Egyptian army in the time of computed it was found that about half of the orbit Saïd Pasha. He gradually rose on account of lay between those of Mars and the Earth. Here merit to the rank of lieutenant-colonel, and the was something quite unexpected, as previously command of a regiment. The years from 1870 to discovered asteroids had traversed paths lying 1879 were fraught with terrible suffering for between the orbits of Mars and Jupiter; only a the fellahin. The Khedive, Ismail, after having very few had ventured a short distance inside of obtained all the available wealth of the country, the orbit of Mars, when near their perihelia. But had contracted a foreign debt of 95,000,000 Eros had boldly attempted to get a nearer view pounds sterling to European “speculators, and of the Earth. It was soon discovered that in the these men, supported by their governments had fall of 1900 and the winter of 1900-1901 Eros extorted the last piastre from the peasant popu would come pretty near to the earth, so that lation. When Arabi arose to advocate the cause measures of its distance from us could be made of resistance, the fellah's last possession, his land, advantageously. From such measures, by means was passing into the grasp of the usurers who of well known mathematical formulæ, the disheld the people by the throat. Ismail, was gone tances of all the planets from the sun could be but in his place there was a Pasha of the worst obtained more accurately than ever before. type who was possessed with absolute authority Therefore almost all the large observatories of the and was moreover sustained by the Anglo-French world combined in such an attack upon Eros as control.
few celestial bodies have ever experienced. ForArrests and deportation without trial were the tunately the weather was generally favorable, order of the day and it was the attempted arrest and a very large number of valuable measures of Arabi which brought him into full notice as were made. For their full discussion two years leader of the national movement. He had organ or more must be allowed. ized a secret society among the fellah officers There was a most interesting by-product of the of the Egyptian army, and in 1881 the move observations, which gives to Eros a fresh claim ment had become powerful enough to compel the to be considered as an extraordinary planet. Khedive to recognize and respect their demands. Several astronomers, while making their obser
After a year of determined effort in the face of vations, noticed that on some nights Eros looked all obstacles, the fellah struggle was finally brighter than they had expected, and on others crowned with success on the 9th of February, fainter. Their suspicions being aroused, ac1882.
curate measures of the planet's brightness were The Khedive signed a decree granting a con made. These showed that Eros varied one and stitution on European models, and Arabi and a half magnitudes in 5h. 16m. Within this time others of the fellah party were called to office the fluctuation was curiously irregular. First as a cabinet, responsible no longer to the for lh. 20m. the brightness decreased; then it Khedive alone, but to the popularly elected began to increase, and after 1h. 18m. had reached Chamber of Delegates. Arabi was raised to the a maximum, from which it descended to another rank of a Pasha and his influence in the army minimum in 1h. 31m. ; next it rose more rapidly was supreme. There was rejoicing in Egypt, and in 1h. 6m. had again reached a maximum. such as had not been known for centuries, but This cycle of variations was repeated time and the English and French controllers set them
time again. selves to work to prejudice European opinion These variations can be explained upon the against the fellah ministry, and they at last suc hypothesis that Eros is really a double planet. ceeded in detaching the Khedive from his alle the two revolving swiftly about their common giance to the constitution which he had granted. center of gravity, in a plane passing approxi
They defamed the fellah ministers to the Euro mately through the earth. According to this pean press and finally obtained the dispatch of heory one of the bodies is a half larger than the à fleet to Alexandria and the delivery of an ulti other, and each is a very elongated ellipsoid. matum demanding the dismissal of the consti Instead of being quite a distance apart, as in the tutional cabinet and the restoration of the case of the earth-moon system, these two bodies Khedive's absolute power.
must nearly touch each other. While this theory Bribes and threats proving utterly unavailing is to be looked at with considerable reserve, we with Arabi and the other fellah leaders, 30,000 may follow it out a little. Owing to the moveBritish troops were sent to Egyptian soil, and ments of Eros and the Earth in their respective the English' bombarded Alexandria on July 11, orbits, the plane of revolution of the two com1882. War followed, and the British troops under ponents of Eros would not continually pass Sir Garnet Wolseley finally defeated Arabi at through the Earth, and we should view the douTel-el-Kebir on Sept. 3. Arabi was captured and ble planet from different directions, as the sentenced to banishment for life on the island of months rolled on. The amount of variation in Ceylon. He was then 41 years old and is now 61. brightness ought therefore to change. In case a
On May 22, 1901, the Khedive, doubtless act line from the earth to Eros became perpendicuing upon the advice of Lord Cromer, the British lar to the plane in which the two components of diplomatic agent, pardoned Arabi Pasha and Eros moved about their common center of gravMustapha Fehmi, his second in command, who ity, the variation of light would temporarily had been with him sentenced to banishment for
Just this effect has been noticed; for life. They return to Egypt.
Professor E. C. Pickering, of the Harvard Obser