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were furnished by the German Emperor, and in 1897 a circular was issued beginning:
"His Majesty the Emperor, having been graciously pleased to grant, by edict dated 10th May, 1899, funds for the publication of a DicTIONARY OF THE EGYPTIAN LANGUAGE, the Royal Academy of Sciences at Berlin, the Royal Society of Sciences at Götting the Royal Society of Sciences at Leipzig, and the Royal Academy of Sciences at Munich have appointed a Commission consisting of the undersigned for the conduct of the work."
"It is intended that the DICTIONARY OF THE EGYPTIAN LANGUAGE shall comprise all words preserved in texts written in hieroglyphics (including hieratic): references to Demotic and Coptic texts will be introduced only when essential to the elucidation of words found in hieroglyphics."
The "undersigned" scholars whom the four Royal Academies had chosen, were Erman, Ebers, Pietschmann and Steindorff, forming a joint commission of which Erman was elected president. The above circular then proceeded to describe the method of work and to urge all museums or individuals possessing inscriptions or papyri to place them at the disposal of the great enterprise. The method is simple and easily understood. Every inscription is divided into coherent paragraphs of not more than thirty words each. Each paragraph is then written with autographic ink upon card (see cut), the original occupying one end and the provisional translation the other. The printer then mechanically reproduces not less than thirty copies of this card. These thirty thus furnish one card for each word in the paragraph, and said words having been underlined in red, one on each card, the same word is written
by hand in the blank in the upper right-hand corner (as cue-word), when the card is ready for filing in the proper box. By this method the entire context of each word is filed with it, and the exact shade of meaning in every occur. rence of the word is thus always indicated. The work of writing these carus and of making the accompanying translation is now under way and has been going on about four years. It is done by the scholars engaged, at their homes, thus avoiding interference with their official duties, as nearly all of them are professors in different German universities. As the writing of the cards progresses, they are sent to Berlin, where they are printed as above described; the successive words are underlined and the cue-words inserted, when they are ready for filing in the long rows of cabinets. This central work in Berlin, and the distribution of material for preparation among the collaborators, is all under the immediate supervision of the president of the commission, Prof. Erman.
Two great difficulties confront a work which, like this, attempts to be exhaustive. First, a large mass of Egyptian documents is as yet unpublished; second, the great bulk of those published were done at a time when the standard of accuracy and completeness was far below that of to-day, and they must be exhaustively corrected from the originals or entirely recopied. Dr. Ludwig Borchardt, the scientific attaché of the German legation in Cairo, is for these purposes slowly pushing his way through the vast mass of materials still in Egypt. Last winter he completed the inscriptions upon the walls of the famous temple of Sete I at Abydos. The present writer, after collaborating on the dictionary for a year in Berlin, was appointed to carry out a similar mission in the museums of Europe, and beginning Oct. 1, 1900, completed the copying of all the inscriptions in the museums of Bologna, Florence, Rome, Pisa, Turin, Geneva, Marseilles, Lyons, Paris (Louvre, Bibliothéque Nationale, Musée Guimeti, Leyden and London. Outside of the German museums, which will be taken care of from Berlin, this completes all the European collections, except St. Petersburg and Athens, and a few unimportant provincial collections. The writer found the heads of all museums much interested in the enterprise and ready to extend to him every courtesy and assistance. It is to be hoped that the authorities in all American museums containing Egyptian inscriptions may be equally liberal.
The work of many years is thus steadily moving on, and in another decade we may hope to hold in our hands the completed volumes which are to unfold to us so much of the life and thought of early men. JAMES HENRY BREASTED, Ph. D.,
The Unirersity of Chicago. ELEVATOR, THE MODERN.-In the past five years a revolution has taken place in the form and construction of terminal elevators for the storage of grain. The changing character of grain transportation at such points as Duluth, Buffalo and Minneapolis has, in company with cost of insurance, hastened the erection of the new type of elevators. The cities mentioned are transshipping points and grain
about a foot and a half in depth. These wonderful Tasmanian caves are similar to all caverns found in limestone formation, with the exception that their roofs and sides literally shine with the light emitted by the millions of glowworms that inhabit them.
HARRISON, MARY ST. LEGER, nom de plume, “Lucas Malet." Nothing in the earlier work of Mrs. Harrison gave notice to the critic of the strength to be found in her new novel, "Sir Richard Calmody," or of the influence it seems bound to exert on English literary conventions. There was grace of diction and felicity of invention in several of her previous books, but nothing more than a sense that she had keen literary judgment and an eye for the novel and striking in everyday life coupled
is in consequence often held in storage for change in price. The local elevators along railroad lines used for the collection of grain from the growers are still built of wood.
The first steel elevator built in the world was erected in the city of Buffalo in the year 1897 for the Great Northern Railroad. This elevator had the tremendous capacity of 3,000,000 bushels. It was built of cylindrical bins covered over by a steel-framed shed much like the old type elevator in form. It was found, however, that the steel sweated when filled with wheat, creating a moisture that tended to damage the wheat. To offset this various experiments have been tried, but more particularly in the form of cement and tile elevators. These are said to keep grain sweet and free from moisture. In the city of Duluth was constructed a year ago an elevator built of cement for the Peavey Elevator Company. Its cost was very great, still the company felt justified in putting in the money, for if the elevator was a success the insurance carried on grain storage could be eliminated altogether. The elevator was used a little too soon, for one of the great tanks bursted when filled with grain, but this is in no sense an argument against the cement elevator. Within the year there has been erected in Minneapolis an elevator of tile and steel by the Barnett-Record Company of that city for the St. Anthony Elevator Company. The cost of this elevator is $200,000, and when completed will have a grain storage capacity of 500,000 bushels of wheat. To avoid the expense of cement construction the elevator is built of tile and steel. A foundation of unusual strength is firsť put down, then on this is erected layers of tile held in place by bands of steel, which fit in grooves in the tiles. The tiles are laid in cement in double layers, the steel band resting between them. The advantage of this type is its cheapness of construction, quickness of building and low cost of maintenance. The engineers have adopted in nearly every instance the cylindrical form of bin, on account of its greater strength. In a building near by is the machinery for filling or unloading the bins. Some form of the cement or tile elevator bids fair to become the dominant type for the grain business.
FRANK L. McVEY, Ph. D., Professor of Economics, University of Minnesota.
GLOWWORM CAVERN.—The greatest wonder of the antipodes is the celebrated glowworm cavern, in the heart of the Tasmanian wilderness. The cavern, or caverns (there appear to be a series of such caverns in the vicinity, each separate and distinct), are situated near the town of Southport, Tasmania, in a limestone bluff, about four miles from Ida Bay. The appearance of the main cavern is that of an underground river, the entire floor of the subterranean passage being covered with water
THE MODERN ELEVATOR. Recently erected at Minneapolis.
with a tinge of mysticism which lent piquancy to her pages. But she now bursts forth with a work which will continue to rank as the literary sensation of the year long after most of its fellows have been relegated to a not wholly quiet oblivion.
Mrs. Harrison is the youngest daughter of the late Reverend Charles Kingsley, and niece of Henry Kingsley. Her mother, too, Françes, the daughter of Pascoe Grenfell, M. P., was one of four sisters who married men of high distinction. It would be strange if something should not come from such stock as that! Mrs. Harrison is the widow, moreover, of the late Reverend William Harrison, who was the rector of Clovelly, and her married life was passed in the house where her father spent six years of his boyhood during his own father's rectorship of that parish. She knows England, high and low, as few Englishwomen can ever know it, and her picture of it in her book is one of the most vivid that has been set on paper for us to read in consequence. Especially noteworthy is the fact that never, for all the intimacy it shows with the lives of the
British aristocracy, does she permit anything of luxury and pride to go as a matter of course. Every page makes it clear that nothing is too common or unclean in that life to be taken for granted. Step by step one is made to realize to the full what the surroundings of her characters must be. Though a palpable believer in heredity, and though the book pushes the point to the brink of superstition, the influence of the environment never goes unremarked.
The story opens with the deliciously complete wedded happiness of Sir Richard Calmody and Katherine Ormiston, his bride. They are in his ancestral home of Brockhurst, with their honeymoon not yet waning and the glory of their passion enshrining them. But a shadow hangs over the family, an old legend telling that no one of the name shall come to old age, but all go down to death by violence through the curse pronounced by an unwedded mother upon her newly wedded betrayer, then head of his house. Through many generations this evil fortune had followed the Calmodys and it was not to desert them now. Hardly had Lady Katherine informed her husband of the child that was to be born to them than he was brought home mortally hurt, his horse having thrown and kicked him. In the hope of prolonging his life. Sir Richard's legs were amputated. And, when the fullness of her time was come, and another Sir Richard brought into the world, it became Katherine's final misery to learn that the child, too, was without his lower legs, the foot appearings where the knee should be. With the fortunes of this Sir Richard Calmody the book is henceforth concerned.
It will be seen at once how striking a situation is created. Surrounded by every care that enormous wealth and scrupulous care can give him, Sir Richard grows to be one of the most beautiful of children in both mind and body except-always except-his heart-breaking deformity. Some of his illusions in regard to it are kindly dispelled by his friends; but more than one cruelty stings him from the thoughtlessness of his acquaintance. It is in cousin, little Helen Ormiston, who strikes him hardest when he slips from his seat one day to guide her about the great house which is his home. She shrieks with delight when she sees his dwarfed and contemptible figure and calls him “monster." Katherine, rising and running to her son's aid, pushes Helen so that she falls against a table, and she swears a vengeance against both mother and son. Richard is taught to ride and to drive, and takes on the duties of an English country gentleman and magistrate as he grows older, living always in his ancestral home and happy in his beautiful mother's love and sympathy. But Helen comes back to him, after her marriage to a French nobleman, and with ready mischief engages his affections.
Soon after the family goes to London for the season, and there Richard seeks marriage. He offers himself to the youngest daughter of a neighboring nobleman who has been thrust in his way by her kinsfolk, and, under their pressure, she accepts him. But her elder brother and Richard's second cousin, Honoria St. Quentin, learn that she is in love with another and
about to be sacrificed, and the engagement is broken. This is the picture of Richard as he appeared at that time: “At the far end of the hall, a bright light streamed out from the open doorway. And in the full glare of it stood a young man-his head, with its cap of closecropped curls proudly distinguished as that of some classic hero, his features the beautiful features of Katherine Calmody, his height but two-thirds the height a man of his make should be, his arms hanging down straight at his sides, his hands only just not touching the marble quarries of the floor on either side of him."
It is then, with his deformity brought home to him by his failure to marry, that the young man proceeds to go down and drink of the dregs of the earth. For four years he wanders through all the dissipations which wealth and ingenuity can bring him. At last his cousin, Helen, she whom he had loved so long, betrays him into his most heinous sin and takes a fearful vengeance upon him when he shows himself.disillusioned. Stricken almost to death by the disgrace, his mother nurses him back to life and he returns to Brockhurst to meet and learn to know Honoria better. And they together are left to work out their wedded lives when the book comes to an end-all too speedily in spite of its greath length.
Mrs. Harrison has shown a disregard of English literary conventions which is startling. She calls things by their right names, even though that sort of thing comes into the book far more often than is usually the case in English. Frank to a degree without precedent in recent writing, she surrounds all her characters with so perfect a knowledge of her literary art that, in spite of her transgression of Greek canons in selecting such a hero, the reader finds a satisfaction and gratification not to be gained from any writing since George Eliot's. The central theme, of a beautiful soul imprisoned in an evil body, and coming to its own at last through the grace of profound suffering, is not new; but its application here is novel to the point of astonishment.
Critical Staff, “The Dial." HAY-PAUNCEFOTE TREATY.-The Har. Pauncefote treaty was made at Washington and signed Feb. 5, 1900. By its terms it was practically a renewal of the Clayton-Bulwer treaty, negotiated in 1850. (See article NICARAGUA CANAL, pp. 244, 245.) The two nations, the United States and Great Britain, through their representatives, John Hay, Secretary of State, and Sir Julian Pauncefote, Her Majesty's ambassador, agreed to the following articles respecting a ship canal to connect the Atlantic and Pacific oceans:
“Article I. It is agreed that the canal may be constructed under the auspices of the government of the United States, either directly at its own cost, or by gift or loan of money to individuals or corporations, or through subscription to or purchase of stock or shares; and that, subject to the provisions of the present convention, the said government shall have and enjoy all the rights incident to such construction, as well as the exclusive right of providing for the regulation and management of the canal,
"Art. II. The high contracting parties desiring to preserve and maintain the 'general principle of neutralization, the following rules, substantially as embodied in the convention between Great Britain and certain other powers, signed at Constantinople, Oct. 29, 1888, for the free navigation of the Suez Maritime Canal - that is to say:
"1. The canal shall be free and open, in time of war as in time of peace, to vessels of commerce and of war of all nations, on terms of entire equality, so that there shall be no discrimination against any nation or its citizens or subjects in respect of the conditions or charges of traffic or otherwise.
“2. The canal shall never be blockaded, nor shall any right of war be exercised nor any act of hostility be committed within it.
"3. Vessels of war of a belligerent shall not revictual nor take any stores in the canal except so far as may be strictly necessary, and the transit of such vessels through the canal shall be effected with the least possible delay, in accordance with the regulations in force, and with only such intermission as may result from the necessities of the service. Prizes shall be in all respects subject to the same rules as vessels of war of the belligerents.
"4. No belligerent shall embark or disembark troops, munitions of war, or warlike materials in the canal, except in case of accidental hindrance of the transit, and in such case the transit shall be resumed with all possible dispatch.
*5. The provisions of this article shall apply to waters adjacent to the canal, within three marine miles of either end. Vessels of war of a belligerent shall not remain in such waters longer than twenty-four hours at any one time except in case of distress, and in such case shall depart as soon as possible, but a vessel of war of one belligerent shall not depart within twenty-four hours from the departure of a vessel of war of the other belligerent.
*6. The plant, establishments, buildings and all works necessary to the construction, maintenance and operation of the canal shall be deemed to be part thereof, for the purposes of this convention, and in time of war,
as in times of peace, shall enjoy complete immunity from attack or injury by belligerents and from acts calculated to impair their usefulness as part of the canal.
“7. No fortifications shall be erected commanding the canal or the waters adjacent. The United States, however, shall be at liberty to maintain such military police along the canal as may be necessary to protect it against lawlessness and disorder.
"Art. III. The high contracting parties will, immediately upon the exchange of the ratifications of this convention, bring it to the notice of the other powers and invite them to adhere to it.
"Art. IV. The present convention shall be ratified by the President of the United States, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate thereof, and by Her Britannic Majesty; and the ratifications shall be exchanged at Washington or at London within six months from the date hereof, or earlier if possible.”
The Senate Committee on Foreign Relations reported on the treaty March 9, 1900, offering
what is known as the Davis amendment. The Senate passed the treaty with this amendment (December 13, 1900), by a vote of 65 to 17. The Davis amendment provides that none of sections 1-5 of Article II “shall apply to measures which the United States may find it necessary to take for securing, by its own forces, the defence of the United States and the maintenance of public order."
Another amendment passed by the Senate abrogates all the provisions of the old ClaytonBulwer convention that were not directly and necessarily superseded by the new treaty. (See article, NICARAGUA CANAL, pp. 244, 245.) On this point Senator Mason (Illinois) spoke emphatically in favor of a fortified canal, with the United States in control.
The third amendment strikes out the clause requiring the contracting parties to lay the treaty before the other civilized powers and to secure their adhesion thereto. Some of the senators objected to this clause because of alleged conflict with the Monroe Doctrine. It would afford European nations, in time of war, too great an opportunity to violate the provisions of the treaty, to the marked disadvantage of the United States. In short, the senators wished to make the isthmian canal an American, rather than any international, highway in time of war, because of its close proximity to our shores. Our interests should be paramount, and the interests of European powers secondary.
The treaty as amended was ratified by the Senate, but the effect of the amendments is to change its original character, nullify the provisions intended to insure the absolute neutrality of the canal. The amended treaty not being acceptable to Great Britain, it was not ratified by the British government. (See article CONGRESS, p. 195.)
Later Secretary Hay and Lord Pauncefote undertook to negotiate another treaty that would be satisfactory to both contracting parties. Although no official declaration has been made, it is reported that they have reached an understanding with reference to the control of the canal. The new treaty is radically different from the first. It is stated on good authority. that the new treaty provides:
1. For abrogation of the old Clayton-Bulwer treaty in toto.
2. For a neutral isthmian canal, in case one be constructed by the United States, open in time of peace to the ships of all nations upon equal terms.
3. This neutrality is guaranteed by the l'nited States alone, and other maritime powers are not invited to participate in such guarantee. Great Britain is inferentially one of the guarantors, because she is a party to this treaty.
4. In case of war the United States reserves the right to take such steps for its own protection as it may deem proper.
Senator Cullom (Illinois), in a recent interview "expressed the belief that Great Britain would advance no objection to the abrogation of the Clayton-Bulwer treaty, and that this abrogation would be unequivocally set forth in the new Hay-Pauncefote treaty to be submitted to the Senate during the coming session." He is further quoted as saying: "I believe Secre
tary Hay has negotiated a treaty that will be in 1895, a mingling of curious lore picked up acceptable to us and will be agreed to by Great during his sojourn under bluer skies and a Britain.
With the treaty disposed of, brighter sun than England's and that taken there should be no delay in enacting such legis from his own special department of learning. lation as is necessary to start the canal project The same year saw "The Masque of Dead Floritself."
entines," in which he seems to be feeling his HEWLETT, MAURICE (HENRY).—Tbe appear
way toward suitable literary expression withance of a new book from Mr. Hewlett's hard
out quite attaining it. In 1896 Mr. Hewlett suchas come to be a literary event of importance
ceeded his father as Keeper of Land Revenue and in the "New Canterbury Tales" there will
Records and Emoluments, passing his civil be found no falling from the high standard
service examination with brilliancy. His duties which this young man has established in his
are concerned with the lands belonging to the previous writings. He was born at Shaw Hill,
British Crown, making continual demands upon Addington, Kent, on January 22, 1861, the eldest
his knowledge of mediæval times and customs, son of Mr. Henry Gay Hewlett, an antiquary
so that his very work does not run counter to
his inclinations, as in only too many cases. In of repute and himself the son and grandson of men who busied themselyes with the things of
1897 appeared the “Songs and Meditations," a mediæval times—it was Maurice Hewlett's
book of verses which display considerable skill great-grandfather who left his home in Somer
and feeling, and always to be reckoned with in set and settled in London as an exponent of
any estimate of his literary status. Next to be early English, or blackletter, law. The heir to
written was “Pan and the Young Shepherd,” in 1898, a pastoral in two acts, interesting not only for its intrinsic merit, but because it shows by its dramatic form how earnestly the young man was still seeking for suitable expression. Though the earlier written, this was subordinated in point of publication to “The Forest Lovers," a book of the purest and most delightful mediæval romance; with it the artist attained his métier at last, and stood fairly upon the summit of a gratified ambition. Published in 1898, just before the pastoral, it was followed by "Little Novels of Italy," 1899, “Richard Yea-and-Nay," 1900, and now by the “New Canterbury Tales," a collection of six stories with a prologue, the same being told during a pilgrimage from Winchester to the shrine of St. Thomas à Becket at Canterbury, beginning on Mayday in the year 1450 and lasting, as the reader will become aware, altogether too short a time. The apparatus of the work is borrowed from Chaucer. There is a brief prologue which unfolds a little romance among the persons of the drama themselves of an interest quite its own, though strictly subordinated to that in the tales which follow. These, like Chaucer's own stories in the “Tale of Melibæus" and "The Personnes Tale," are in prose. But it is to be
noted that while the first three of his prose MAURICE HEWLETT.
works are rather lacking in the vivifying ele
ment of poetical thought and rhythmical phrasall this curious learning was educated at the ing, somewhat obviously saved for the single London International College and at Oxford. book of verse, all those written since are inThe university was left without a degree being stinct with the spirit of poetry, the two earlier taken, and Mr. Hewlett admits that he passed manners being fused, as it were, for the prohis time there in dreams of great literary un duction of the last and best. All of the six dertakings, efforts to attain things that were tales have found publication in one or another still miles away from his unformed powers. of the monthly or weekly journals of the day Following the family custom, he read for the with a single exception, the second in order. bar and was called as a barrister in 1891. The Scrivener's "Tale of the Countess Alys” is Three years before he had married Hilda Beat first in the book, and has to do with the noble rice Herbert, the daughter of a clergyman of Countess of Salisbury and her liege lord, Edthe established church. His health was some ward III., the incident upon which the Order of what shaken by his devotion to his studies, the Garter was founded being included. The and a long journey through Italy was required second, hitherto unpublished, is Dan Costard's to set him on his feet again. After drinking "Tale of Peridore and Paravail," a touching deeply of Italian lore he returned to London, bit of love and religious feeling, a whole world took up his search after knowledge of the Mid removed from modernity. Dan Costard, it may dle Ages once more, and lectured on Mediæval be worth while telling, is the father confessor Times in South Kensington and at the Univer of the Prioress of Ambresbury, under whose sity College. His first book, so distinctively leadership this particular pilgrimage is going Italian in its feeling and subject matter, was Captain Salomon Brazenhead, an old warnamed "Earthwork Out of Tuscany,” published rior who asserts his service under Sir John