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chiefly with Nepal, Cashmir and the Shan States, amounted to 20 millions of imports and 17 millions of exports.
RAILWAYS in operation March, 1900, had a mileage of 23,763. The capital expended on these lines up to the end of 1899 was as follows, in millions of U. S. dollars: State Railways
.603 State Lines leased to companies. 150 Guaranteed Railways
174 Assisted Companies
51 Native States
52 Foreign Lines
1,038 The net earnings realized were 51 millions, which gives an average return on the capital of 5.36 per cent.
Posts AND TELEGRAPHS.-In 1899 there were 29,122 postoffices and boxes, and the number of letters, postcards and money orders carried was 431,012.691. The number of telegraph offices was 1,719, of miles of line was 51,769, and of trlegrams 5,118,600.
SAVINGS BANKS at the close of 1899 showed 774,559 depositors, and over 36 million dollars in deposit.
FINANCE.—The total estimated revenue in millions of U. S. dollars for 1900-1 was 350.7, the
expenditure 349.9. The chief items in the revenue were from land 90.4, from salt 29.2, from opium 22.8, from excise 19.1. The chief items of expenditure were for the army 81.3, for the civil service 55.4, for collection 32.1, for buildings and roads 21.0, for famine relief and insurance 16.8. In the permanently settled tracts, the land revenue represents on an average about one-fifth of the rental, or about one twenty-fourth of the gross value of the produce. In the temporarily settled tracts, it represents something less than one-half of the rental, and is about one-tenth of the gross value of the produce. The total debt of British India is 822.4 millions in U. S. dollars.
THE ARMY comprised in 1897-8 infantry 53,088, artillery 13,407, cavalry 5,670, etc.; in all 74,288 British soldiers. The Native army comprised infantry 111,925, cavalry 22,932, sappers and miners 3,695, artillery 2.088. The native forces, and especially the artillery, are kept in smaller proportion to British than before the Sepoy mutiny. The grand total, British and Native, is 214,928. The coast and inland defences and strategic roads are now complete. The death rate, which before the Mutiny was 6.9 per cent. for British and 2. for Natives, has been reduced, by better sanitation ana barracks, and by residence of the British at hill-stations, to 1.6 and 1.0 respectively. In 1888 the Government elaborated a plan for the training and
equipment of native contingents, with the purpose of enabling the Princes to share in the defence of the Empire. These contingents, known as Imperial Service Troops, now number 17,664 men.
THE NAVY is limited to coast defense, and includes only two ironclads, ninė torpedo boats, a mining flotilla, etc.
HISTORY, during the last decade, includes the following events: In June, 1893, the Government stopped the free coinage of silver, in order to introduce the gold standard, which had been prior to 1835 in force, supplemented by silver, and prior to 1818 in force alone. This change was the final and disastrous blow to the use of silver as a measure of value and as money of full debt-paying power; and relegated it to use as a token-metal.
In 1895 the Amir of Afghanistan and the Indian Government agreed upon a boundary line from Wakhan to the Persian border, which assigned Asmar and the valley above it as far
had not been shown to be necessary, or to be demanded by the people, that the growth of the poppy and the manufacture of opium in British India should be prohibited. The existing treaties with China, in regard to the importation of Indian opium with that country, had been admitted by the Chinese Government to contain all they desired. The evidence led the commissioners to the conclusion that the common use of opium in India is moderate, and its prohibition is strongly opposed by the great mass of native opinion."
Failure of rains, especially in the northwestern and central districts, was followed by the inevitable famine, to meet which the Government provided relief works. In December, 1896, these gave employment to 561,800 persons; in March, 1899, to over three millions, and in June to over four millions. The additional charitable contributions for famine relief were officially reported at $8,750,000.
The bubonic plague, which was bred in the
as Chanak to the Amir, and Swat, Bajaur and Chitral including the Arnawai or Bashgal valley to the Indian Government. Disturbances in Chitral occasioned British interference and ended in British control. “The Government of India do not intend to undertake themselves the management of the internal affairs of Chitral, their concern being with the foreign relations of the State, and with its general welfare.
Ordinarily the entire country will be governed in accordance with their (the native rulers) experience and judgment; but nevertheless the Assistant British Agent, if he thinks it necessary to do so, may at any time, ask the Mehtar to delay action recommended by his three advisers until the opinion of the British Agent at Gilgit has been obtained, whose decision shall be final and authoritative.” The sale of slaves for export to Chinese Turkestan was at once declared illegal.
In the same year an all but unanimous report of the Opium Commission stated that "it
Chinese province of Yunnan, reached Bombay in 1896, and spread thence to Karachi and the Punjab. By the end of 1899 the mortality from plague throughout India since its beginning was estimated at 250,000. Bombay suffered by far the most heavily. Great difficulty was experienced in attempting to segregate or inoculate the superstitious natives. Haffkine's prophylactic is now being used in Bombay with remarkable success. The French bacteriolo. gist, Yersin, has moreover discovered a cure.
In 1897 Burmah was raised in status as a British dependency, though remaining under the Indian Government. Its chief commissioner became lieutenant-governor, and a legislative council was planned.
More frontier wars occurred in 1897-8, first with the Waziris, then, at the incitation of a Mohammedan fanatic known as “the mad mullah,” with tribes of the Swat Valley, and subsequently with their neighboring tribes. The countries of these tribes were traversed by punitive expeditions of five to fifteen thou.
sand men, and "fines of money and arms" of local coöperation by enlisting for the defence were collected. Finally, the Afridis, who had of their own country but in the service of the been subsidized to guard the important Khyber British Government, the wild yet not wholly Pass from India to Afghanistan, suddenly rose intractable inhabitants of the border." Lord in arms and destroyed the Khyber posts. The Curzon has also fostered personal friendship suppression of this revolt occupied General Sir with the chieftains of this borderland by enWilliam Lockhart and 44,000 men some six tertainment of them in Calcutta. He had himmonths. Ultimately the Afridis, too, "paid self visited them on his prior travels. large fines in money and arms, and friendly To the same purpose of border-defence was relations have since been restored.”
directed another reform, the creation Feb., In Sept., 1898, the Right Hon. George N. 1901, of a Frontier Province to include PeshaCurzon, lately Under-Secretary of State for war, Kohat, Bannu and Dera Ismail Khan Foreign Affairs, succeeded the Earl of Elgin as with the tribes upon their borders; and also Viceroy and Governor-General of India. In the the existing political agencies of Dir, Swat, following month, he was raised to the peerage Chitral, the Khaibar, the Kuram, Tochi and as Baron Curzon of Kedleston. Lord Curzon Wana. This territory of nearly 10,700 square was especially fitted to deal with the problem miles contains population of over 1,300,000 of the N. W. frontier, which looks toward Rus- "turbulent devils," as a frontier officer desia, by his travel through Persia, Central Asia scribes them. The incumbent's status will be · and Afghanistan, as well as by his prior serv- analagous to that of Colonel Yate, the chiefice in the British Foreign Office, and in India. commissioner and agent in Beluchistan. He acquired a special interest in American Another admirable feature of Lord Curzon's
policy has been his discouragement of wasted lives and lavish expenditures by the 600 princes that still rule 70 millions of people in India. Lord Curzon instils democratic ideas into these despots, in this wise: “The native chief must learn that his revenues are not secured to him for his own selfish gratification, but for the good of his subjects; that his internal administration is exempt from correction only in proportion as it is honest; and that his gadi is not intended to be a divan of indulgence, but the stern seat of duty."
Lord Curzon has shown great firmness and courage in dealing
even-handed justice to Englishman and Indian alike when they come into conflict; which has happened more fre
quently of late years, owing to SACRIFICING A KID IN THE TEMPLE OF KALI AT CALCUTTA. English arrogance according to
the Native Press, but to Naeyes by his marriage in 1895 to Miss Mary V. tive insolence according to the English Press. Leiter of Washington, who now as Vicereine Finally, Lord Curzon distinguished himself of India shares her husband's honors at Cal- again in dispatching British troops to South cutta or Simla.
Africa on his own responsibility for the safe Lord Curzon's border policy has consisted of conduct of India during their absence; and two related changes from previous practice. also by promoting the service of Indian troops The extension of trans-frontier railways, which in China during the late Boxer rising. The threatened to arouse warlike natives, has been latter was a complete innovation, and excited abandoned for extension of cis-frontier rail- great emulation among Indian princes for an ways in a network behind the already ad- opportunity to serve the Government. vanced base; and the substitution for the regu- In 1899-1900 India suffered from a recurrence lar British garrisons, maintained in scattered of drought and famine far more severe than forts beyond India's border, of tribal militia the one of 1896-7. Lord Curzon's report conmixed of trans-border and cis-border clans. tains the following salient facts: The agriculThis militia will be drilled and commanded by tural production was from a quarter to a third British officers, and earn about the same pay below the normal, which involved a loss of as the Sepoy, are in fact irregular contingents 250 million dollars. To this loss must be adof the Native Army. “These measures are in- ded that of some millions of cattle, making the tended to extricate from advanced positions the famine the greatest on record. The liberality large number of regular troops stationed there of Government and friends rose in equal defor some years past; to consolidate instead of gree. “There is no parallel in the history of dispersing our military strength upon the bor- India or any country in the world to the total der; and to set up, as it were, the sentiment of six million persons, who, in British India
and the native states for weeks on end have dia, in the seventh century; and that, accordbeen dependent upon the charity of the Gov ing to their statements, the site of Kapila vastu ernment. The famine cost ten crores (over must be about seven miles to the west of it. 33,000,000 dollars) in direct expenditure, while A. Führer, of the Lucknow Museum, was then 238 lakhs (about 8,000,000 dollars) were given dispatched by the Gov. of India to examine to landholders and cultivators on loans and ad the site, and easily identified it by the numervances, besides loans to Native States." The ous ruins of stupas, monasteries and villages. excess of mortality in British India during the He also found another Asoka pillar, and idenfamine was half a million. “To say that the tified it as that of the Lumbini Park. It greater part of these died of starvation or even also had been described by Hiouen-thsang, of destitution would be an unjustifiable exag who mentioned that it was already broken into geration, since many other contributary causes two, a statement confirmed by Dr. Führer. Its have been at work." The charitable help re inscription declared that “King Asoka, beloved ceived from all sources amounted to nearly of the gods, having been anointed twenty years, five million dollars, which was one million less himself came and worshiped, saying, Here than in 1896-7. Natives gave less than might Buddha Sakya-mun was born, and he caused reasonably have been expected. The English a stone pillar to be erected, which declares, colony at the Straits Settlements gave more
'Here the Venerable was born.'” The Terai than the Punjab. Ceylon, Hongkong, Austral
of Nepal had ruined by the floods from asia, Germany, the United States, and of course
its torrential rivers, and hidden by its mud Great Britain, though the last-named less than these priceless monuments of history, to be was expected, contributed generously.
restored in these later days. In 1901 drought and famine again prevailed, For further steps in this interesting remostly in the Bombay Presidency, and in Feb. a total of 214,000 were in receipt of relief.
ARCHEOLOGY.—By far the most important event of the decade in India has lain in this recondite field; for that is nothing less than monumental identification of the birthplace of Gautama the Buddha, the founder of Buddhism. The story, as told by the late Prof. F. Max Müller, in Blackwood's Magazine, 1898, runs as follows: According to the Buddhist scriptures, Kapila vastu
the capital of Sakya princes, and in the sixth centuary B. C. of the one who became father of Gautama. But Kapila vastu, and the large Lumbini Park near it, in which Gautama was said to have been born, had never been identiied, in spite of much research by modern scholars. In 1896 Major L. A. Waddell
WORSHIP OF PARASHURAMA BY A SMARTA BRAHMAN. of the Government of India published his conviction that Kapila vastu search, we must consult the record, in the Jour. would be
found near a pillar discovered nal of the Royal Asiatic Society for 1898, of in 1893 in the Nepal Terai by a Nepalese offi Mr. W. C. Peppé, a British landowner living cer whose name is unknown. (Major Waddell near Kapila vastu, but across the British fronstates, in Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society tier. He turned his attention to the many for 1898, at p. 203, that the digging by Nepalese mounds scattered for miles around, and finally officers was done in response to his letter to excavated the most prominent one, lying near the Government of India.) The Major had rec the village of Piprahwa, and subsequently ognized the pillar as one of the many erected named from it. Having dug far enough to learn by King Asoka in the third century B. C., that it covered a Buddhist stupa, a dome-like when he visited the sacred places of Buddhism. structure for commemoration of any event, he It was found near the village of Nigliva in the summoned Mr. Vincent A. Smith, Chief SecGorakhpur district of the Northwestern retary to the Government of the Northwestern Provinces. Its inscription declared that King Provinces and Oudh, and an expert archeoloAsoka in the fourteenth year after his con gist, who directed the further excavation of a secration enlarged the stupa of Buddha Konak well ten feet square down the center of the amana (one of the many titles of the Buddha) stupa. for the second time and came himself to wor After digging through ten feet of earth and ship it. Major Waddell then pointed out that eighteen feet of solid brickwork set in clay, this pillar in commemoration of Konakamana a massive sandstone coffer, about 4x3x2 feet, was the same which Fahian, the Chinese pil was revealed. It had been hollowed from a grim in the fifth century A. D., mentions, and solid block of superior stone, at a cost of va'st Hiouen-thsang, another Chinese pilgrim to In labor and expense, and weighs with its lid
1,537 pounds. This coffer contained two hostilities in Africa, the Indian Press, with vases, a bowl, and a box, all in soapstone, and one accord, forgot its disagreements with the a crystal bowl 314 incnes in diameter and 34 British and prayed for the speedy arrival of inches high (which is exceptionally large for the victory it never doubted would come, crystal) and polished to perfection. These ves while denunciation of Russia became more sels contained pieces of bone, gold ornaments, frequent than ever. The only complaint made beads, gold leaves variously stamped, stars, was that Indian troops were not allowed to symbols, etc., several hundreds in all. The share the dangers and eventual triumph of the smaller bowl bears scratched upon it an in campaign. Concerning the famine, all allow scription in Pali, which is translated as fol that the Government has made efforts on the lows by Prof. G. Bühler, the German Sans whole as successful as they are gigantic and kritist: “This relic-shrine of divine Buddha (is unprecedented; but many, perhaps most, prothe donation) of the Sakya-Sukiti-brothers, test that the causes of famine are not to be associated with their sisters, sons, and wives." sought solely in the caprice of the seasons, but Prof. Bühler adds, “As regards the importance partly in the over-assessment or rack-renting of the inscription, it clearly proves that Sak by the Government of its ryots or land tenyas resided near Kapila.vastu after Buddha's ants, who generally hold permanent occupancy death, in accordance with the statement of rights. The Britisher can, however, retort the Parinibbana Sutta, which mentions the that only in Native States has there occurred Sakyas among the claimants for Buddha's rel any actual failure to feed the hungry, and ics and as builders of a stupa. The inscription that famines were vastly more disastrous beis the first Sakya document found, and it con fore railways had improved transportation. nects the Sakyas of the tradition with an in There was, moreover, no effort to fight famine disputably historical sub-Himalayan race. I in those days. It was a divine visitation, and may add that, in my opinion, the inscription is the stricken yielded. This view of famine and older than the time of Asoka.” This explicit its commonly sequent plague has still its supstatement was directed by Prof. Bühler against porters among the Indian Press. Thus the certain scholars-Senart and Kern-who sup reputable Indian Mirror of Calcutta writes: port a theory of the merely mythological ori "Science, sanitary and medical, has had a free gin of Gautama Buddha from a sun myth. hand in Bombay; a million of money has been
Finally, we may add on the authority of spent, and the plague is more virulent than Mr. V. A. Smith, that the position of Kapila ever. The Westerners, ever reliant on their vastu may be now defined as approximately science, have been compelled to reach the con27 degrees 37 minutes N. latitude, and 83 de clusion that God alone can send rain to fergrees 8 minutes E. longitude. The Piprahwa tilize the fields, and God alone can take away stupa stands about half a mile from the Brit the plague. When we find material efforts to ish frontier and within Nepal. The building alleviate suffering unavailing, we must turn east of the stupa is a monastery. "The exact from the physical to the moral and spiritual age of the inscription cannot as yet be settled plane. Our ancient Rishis foresaw these evils. with certainty. The record is probably older and their cause, the wickedness of man, and than the reign of Asoka, which, I am inclined they prescribed the remedies." to think, must be placed rather earlier than Innumerable articles are devoted to the the current chronology allows.... The Sakyas plague, of course. The Indu-Prakash of Bomof Kapila vastu, ‘as the relations of Buddha,' bay supplies a typical instance in its plea for obtained a share of the relics of the Master "the thorough establishment of the isolationat the time of the cremation. It is possible at-home and trust-in-people system of plague that the Piprahwa stupa, which is only 11 administration," which had been introduced miles from Kapilavastu, may be that erected elsewhere in India. The method had indeed by the Sakya brethren immediately after the proved at once practicable, acceptable and death of Gautama." In support of this view, more efficacious than compulsory segregation. Prof. Rhys Davids, the famous Pali scholar, To meet the recurrence of famine, the Hindu adds an alternative rendering of the inscrip of Madras, like many another Indian paper, tion on the bowl, as follows: "This shrine for advises that, “The Government should annurelics of the Buddha, the August One, is that ally contribute toward the formation of a famof the Sakyas, the brethren of the Distin ine fund of twenty millions or so, from which guished One, in association with their sisters, to meet the expenses of famine when it or and with their children and their wives."
curs." The Amrita Bazaar Patrika writes: "If These instructive relics are now preserved any Governor-General of India is ever des. in the Indian Museum at Calcutta, except that tined to fulfil that solemn and sacred pledge the bone-relics were offered by the Govern of the British nation, namely, that no man. ment of India to H. M. the King of Siam as woman or child would be allowed to die of the sole remaining Buddhist monarch.
starvation, and thus to earn the choicest blessTHE NATIVE INDIAN PREss, and not the more ings of Heaven, it is perhaps Lord Curzon." expensive, and for all but a few unreadable, Personal references are less frequent than Anglo-Indian Press, serves as exponent for a in the English and American Press, and there vast population that now approximates 300 is no disposition whatever to pry into the primillions. In general it shows great ability, vate life of public characters. The Viceroy and often an independent judgment; and, though the Secretary of State, of course, receive the critical, is only in rare exceptions disloyal to lion's share of attention. Indian editors ig. India's foreign rulers. Some intimacy with its nore reports on English sports as tiresome matviews on leading Indian topics will throw a new ter, but can occasionally be drawn out to a and strong light upon them. Though taking protest like this from the Indian Mirror: "The a mild pro-Boer view of the events leading to English are passionately fond of horses and