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New Jersey
New Mexico.
New York.
North Carolina.
North Dakota..
Ohio.
Oklahoma.
Oregon.
Pennsylvania.
Rhode Island.
South Carolina
South Dakota.
Tennessee
Texas.
Utah.
Vermont.
Virginia..
Washington
West Virginia
Wisconsin
Wyoming-
Hawaii
Phflippine Islands.
Porto Rico..

23, 000 2, 210 1, 375

3, 350 1, 144 1,034 71,000 31, 676 15, 978 24,000 10, 267

7, 862 9, 600 4, 634 4, 297 43, 200 | 15, 438 10, 091 19, 600

15, 165 | 11, 223 7, 900 3, 797 2, 381 57, 110 20, 885 16, 280

3, 600 474 369 13, 100 3, 933 2, 868

8, 100 2, 968 2, 378 17,000 8, 548 7, 615 37, 500 12, 901

8,429 4,521 595 395 3,070

603 17,000 5, 968 4, 455 11, 606 5, 390 3, 873 14, 800 4, 256 3,874 21, 600 9, 777

6, 903
3, 200 800 640

1.700 722 525
27,000
5,000 1, 006 950

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6 1,983 983

1,772 1, 346 33 36, 903 19, 887

10, 648 8, 152

3, 971 3, 573 15, 701 11, 148 14, 206 8, 894 4, 079

3, 079 44 22, 594 16, 740

514 459 3, 940 2, 355 2, 703 1,933

8, 489 7, 228
38 23, 252 | 14, 155

1, 900 1, 337
1, 421

635
14 7, 742 5, 856
5, 951

4, 457 16

6, 635 4, 922 14 10, 733 7, 349 1, 364

1, 039 682 425

4.3 40.2 28.0 33.9 37.2 25.8 45.4 38.9 29.3 12.8 17.9 23.9 42.5 37.7 29.6 20.7 34. 4 38.4 33.3 34.0 32,5 25.0

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6 24 15 12 28 3 8 22 44 38 31

4 11 21 34 13

9 18 14 19

815

2,3

616 616 1, 111

1,000

20.0

Read table as follows: In Alabama there were 15,800 teachers, principals, supervisors, and administrative officers in public elementary and secondary schools in 1926–27. In this State 15 institutions conduct summer schools. A complete report was obtained from all 15 of these institutions as to summer school enrollment in 1927. These 15 institutions reported a total summer school enrollment of 10,913. Of this total 8,883 were enrolled in teacher training or education courses. In Alabama the ratio of summer school enrollment in education courses to number of teachers in the State is 56.2 per cent. This per cent gives Alabama a rank of 2 in this regard.

In interpreting the figures of this table it should be kept in mind that some States offer fewer and less attractive opportunities for summer-school work than others. Consequently many teachers attend summer schools outside the States of their service. This and other factors probably combine to give a few States a considerably higher rank than is deserved and correspondingly reduces the rank of others. Many teachers now gain their professional advance in extension courses during the regular year. This table takes no account of such work.

Considered as a whole the table indicates a healthy desire on the part of teachers throughout the nation to improve their professional preparation.

Membership in professional and technical organizations

(From the Journal of the National Education Association, December, 1927—Prepared by the research

division of the National Education Association)

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7. 23

4, 450

1, 339

1, 813

2, 225

2, 531

671

1, 702

6, 800

Alabama.
Arizona.
Arkansas
California
Colorado
Connecticut.
Delaware.
District of Columbia
Florida.
Georgia.
Idaho.
Illinois.
Indiana.
Iowa.
Kansas.
Kentucky.
Louisiana
Maine,
Maryland.
Massachusetts
Michigan
Minnesota
Mississippi.
Missouri
Montana.
Nebraska.
Nevada
New Hampshire.
New Jersey -
New Mexico
New York
North Carolina
North Dakota..
Ohio.
Oklahoma.
Oregon.
Pennsylvania
Rhode Island
South Carolina.
South Dakota.
Tennessee.
Texas.
Utah.
Vermont.
Virginia.
Washington.
West Virginia..
Wisconsin.
Wyoming-
Alaska.
Canal Zone.
Guam.
Hawaii..
Philippine Islands.
Porto Rico..
Virgin Islands.

2, 284 1,612 70.57
378

222 58. 73
2, 212 1, 180 53.35
8,363 4, 203 50. 26
1, 837 1,068 58. 14
1,884 1, 229 65. 23
256 148 57.81

549 30. 28 1, 452 700 48. 21 3, 122 1, 784 57. 14

416 239 57. 45 10, 743 7,020 65. 35 4, 251 2, 67162.83 3, 378 2, 362 69.92 2, 364 1, 556 65. 82 3, 041/ 1,850) 60.84 1, 991 1, 248) 62. 68 1,037

785 75.70 2, 313) 1, 259 54. 43 6, 187 4,248 68. 66 4,837 2,983 61. 67 2, 823 2,053 72. 73

976 57. 34 5, 806 3,270 56.32

525 269 51. 24 1, 869 1, 227 65.65

129 91 70. 54 601 489 81. 37 3,567 2, 240 62.80

365 260 71.23 17, 671 10, 885 61. 60 2, 281 1,686 73. 92

4851 394 81.24 8, 113 5, 240 64. 59 2, 524 1, 553 61.53 1, 176 551 46.85 11, 1407, 502 67.34

771 423 54.86 1,317 861 65. 38

604 343 56.79 3, 128 1, 571 50.22 6,063 3, 479 57.38

5051 357 70. 69

537 353 65.74 2, 534 1, 846 72. 85 1, 781 1, 132 63. 56 1,753 1, 020 58. 19 2, 826 2,054 72.68 255) 149 58. 43

56 21 37.50 127 110 86.62

123, 162 24, 751 20.10 891, 555 170,053 19.07
11
1,416
206 14. 55 45 15,800

1, 142

44 31 443 114 25.73 16 3,000 2,095 69.83 45 1, 338 315 23. 54 24 13,500 765 5. 67 47 48 6, 745 1,323 19.62 34 36, 000 17,924 49, 791 35 1, 539 619 40.22 2 10,000

44. 50 12
21
390 29. 13 8

9, 900
1,986

20.06 24 36 171 75 43. 86 1

1, 450

802 55. 31 53 2, 415 656 27. 16 14 2, 650 1,449 54. 68 50 1, 137 363 31. 93 6 9, 500

23. 42 21 40 323 12. 76 50 17, 800

3. 77 51 37 652

87 13. 34 49 4, 500 950 21. 11 22 20 8, 843 1,981 22. 40 25 46, 500 9, 303 20.01 25 24 3, 307 540 16. 33 4025, 800 6, 439

24. 96 20 13 2, 494 538 21. 57 30 27, 400 3, 313

12.09 37 16 1, 676 401 23.93 22 19, 600

2, 696

13. 76
30 2, 382
350 14. 69 44 16, 500

1, 244

7.54 43 26 1, 206

344 28. 53 9| 12, 900 906 7. 02 45 801 166 20. 73 327,000

1, 782

25. 46 19 44 2,118 472 22. 29 26 8, 900 1, 371 15. 401 30 14 4,954 1, 364 27.53 13 26, 500

5, 415 20. 43 23 273, 037 839 27.63 12 30, 800

10, 311

33. 48 16 2,613 620 23. 73 23 23,000

3, 800 16. 52 28 39

1, 158 122 10. 54 52 16, 600 312 1.88 42 4,506 797 17.69 38 24, 600

3, 186

12.95 33 47 875 131) 14.97 43

313

4. 60 50 18 1, 528

393 25. 72 17 14, 400 2, 602 18. 07 27 12 230 82 35.65 4 825 684 82.91

379 91 24.01 21 3, 400 460 13. 53 32 .25 3, 918 560 14.29 46 24, 100

6, 488

26.92 18 342 113 33. 04 5

3, 350
286 8. 54

41 28 18,473 3,005 16.27 41| 72, 200

9, 278

12. 85 34 1,585 311 19. 62 35 24,000 634 2. 64 52

629 192 30. 53 7 9,600 508 5. 29 48 22 6,485) 1, 216 18.75 36 43, 200 14, 587 33.77 15 29 2,818

385) 13. 66 48 19,800 1, 565 7.90 42 51 1, 424 201 14. 12 47 7, 900

2,877

36. 42 13 15 6,784 1, 469 21. 65 29- 56, 500 17,650 31. 24 17 43 515 143 27.77 11

3, 900

474 12. 15 36 19 989 169 17.09 39 13, 200 614 4.65 49 41 700 180 25.72 18

9, 600

1, 188 12. 38 35 49 2,040

328| 16.08 42 16, 900 1, 126 6.66 46 38 5,323 624 11. 72 51 38, 400 3, 726 9. 70 39 10 527 138 26. 19 15 4,650

2, 093

45. 01 11 17 344 86 25.00 19 3, 200 330 10. 31 38

1,981 441 22. 26 27 17, 900 1, 717 9. 59 40 23 2, 237

461 20.61 33 11, 900 5, 465 45.92 10 34 1, 326 292 22.02 28 15,000

2, 729 18. 19 26 1, 978

493 24. 93 2023, 2001 3, 826 16. 49 29 32 268 107 39.93 3 3, 200 1, 133

35. 41 14 52 80 171 21. 25 31 200 163 81. 50

120

95 79. 17

168

90
33 173 4928. 32 10 1, 700 2, 506

147.41 1 54

27,000

59 22 55 46 390 69 17.69 37 5,000 64 1, 28 54

120 108 90.00

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This table compares the membership in professional and technical organizations as indicated by the following: Per cent of physicians members of American Medical Association, per cent of lawyers members of American Bar Association, and per cent of teachers members of National Education Association.

In the United States as a whole there are 148,644 physicians. Of this number 91,792, or 61.75 per cent, are members of the American Medical Association, Of the 123,162 lawyers in the United States 24,751, or 20.10 per cent are members of the American Bar Association. Of the 891,555 teachers in the United States 170,053, or 19.07 per cent, are members of the National Education Association. You may obtain the figures for your State by reading table as follows: Of the 2,284 physicians in Alabama, 1,612, or 70.57 per cent, are members of American Medical Association. This per cent gives Alabama a rank of 11 in this regard. Of the 1,416 lawyers in Alabama, 206, or 14.55 per cent, are members of American Bar Association. This per cent gives Alabama a rank of 45. Of the 15,800 teachers in Alabama, 1,142, or 7.23 per cent, are members of National Education Association. This per cent gives Alabama a rank of 44 in this regard.

The figures for number of physicians and membership in American Medical Association were obtained through the courtesy of the American Medical Association. Figures as to number of lawyers are taken from the Federal Census of Occupations for 1920; they include lawyers, judges, and justices. Figures for years later than 1920 are not available. Membership in American Bar Association is taken from membership record of the American Bar Association. The figures as to number of teachers and membership in National Education Association are from The Journal of the National Education Association, April, 1927. Preserve you files of The Journal. These tables and many other original features can be had nowhere else.

Teachers' salary trends and buying power

(From the Journal of the National Education, January, 1928-prepared by the research division of the

National Education Association]

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1,321

95 122 102

United States.. $512 $871 $1, 252 $512 $418 $713 Alabama.

320 484 65 320 232 375 Arizona..

677 1, 279 1, 523 677 613 867 Arkansas.

330 477 632 330 229 360 California

1, 153

1, 272 1, 854 1, 153 610 1,055 Colorado.

599 929 1, 296 599 446 738 Connecticut 578

1, 124 1, 606 578 539 914 Delaware. 381 848

381 407 752 Florida.

292 518

743

292 248 423 Georgia.

323 426 743 323 204 423 Idaho.

584 932 1, 186 584 447 675 Illinois.

662 1,081 1, 530 662 518 871 Indiana.

547 964

1, 272

547 462 724 Iowa..

460 827 1, 064 460 397 606 Kansas

534 761

1, 112 534 365 633 Kentucky

359

752 359 198 428 Louisiana.

373
723

856 373 347 487
Maine.
393 603 842 393 289

749 Maryland.

533 902 1,318 533 433 750 Massachusetts.. 667 1, 262 1, 680

667 605 956 Michigan..

520 911 1, 441 520 437 820 Minnesota.

460

882
1, 251

460
423

712 Mississippi.

234 291 448 234 140 255 Missouri

490 797

1, 123

490 382 639 Montana.

657 958 1, 104 657 459 628 Nebraska..

520 765 1, 078 520 367 614 Nevada.

635 1, 163 1. 451 635 558 826 New Hampshire. 418 759 1,034 418 364 589 New Jersey 816 1, 282 1, 884

816 615 1,072 New Mexico. 398 803 1,004 398 385 571 New York. 936 | 1, 256 1, 986 936 602 1, 130 North Carolina.. 243 464 752 243 223 428

100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100

413

73 91 69 53 74 93 107 85 63 77 78 84 86 68 55 93 74 81 91 84 92 60 78 70 71 88 87 75 97 64 92

117
128
109

92
123
158
197
145
131
116
132
132
132
119
119
131
122
141
143
158
155
109
130

96 118 130 141 131 143 121 176

43

7 39

1
14
16
35
45
42
15

9
17
25. 5
18
37
36
33.5
19

8
21.5
25.5
48
24
10
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11
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68 67 105 134 115 100 36 90 88 86 116 83

1

150

2 47

80 159 60

44.5

39.5

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1 Figures for territories not available for 1913, consequently the data given for territories are not complete.

You can obtain the figures for your State as follows: In Colorado the average annual salary of teachers was $599 in 1913; $929 in 1920; and $1,296 in 1925. Due to the rapid loss in purchasing power of the dollar between 1913 and 1920, the 1920 average salary ($929) purchased the same as $446 bought in 1913. This amount ($446) is 74 per cent of, or 26 per cent less than, $599, the average salary in 1913. The 1925 average ($1,296) purchased the same as $738 bought in 1913. This amount ($738) is 123 per cent of $599, the average salary in 1913. Colorado ranked fourteenth among the States as to average salary of teachers in 1913, sixteenth in 1920, and sixteenth in 1925. In 1925 the average salary of Colorado teachers was 104 per cent of the average for the United States.

In studying the table note that: First, in all States the average salary increased between 1913 and 1920 (compare columns 2 and 3); second, the buying power of 1920 salaries was less than that of 1913 in all States except Delaware and Wyoming (compare columns 5 and 6; also note column 9); third, between 1920 and 1925 salaries increased in every Śtate in the Union (compare columns 3 and 4); fourth, the average salary in all States except California, Montana, and North Dakota was greater both in amount and in buying power in 1925 than in 1913 (compare columns 5 and 7; also note column 10); fifth, some States lost in rank even though their average salaries increased both in dollars and in purchasing power between 1913 and 1925, due to the fact that the gain in these States was less than that in most States; sixth, the States differ greatly in average salary; Mississippi's average in 1925 ($448) was 36 per cent of that of the United States ($1,252), while New York's average ($1,986) was 159 per cent of the Nation's average.

Sources of data: Figures as to average salaries in columns 2, 3, and 4 are from bulletins of United States Bureau of Education. The index numbers used in calculating the figures of columns 5, 6, and 7, to adjust those of columns 2, 3, and 4 for changes in purchasing power of the dollar, are from Monthly Labor Review, United States Bureau of Labor Statistics, February, 1927. In the calculations to correct for changes in purchasing power of the dollar, it is assumed that the changes in all States were the same, namely, that for the United States as a whole.

Economic resources and school costs, by States, in 1926

(From the Journal of the National Education Association, February, 1928—Prepared by the research division of the National Education Association]

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United States.

$367, 900,000,000

0.55

2. 25

8. 18

29. 42

32. 39

52, 414, 824

50
55
46
78
70
53
52

Alabama.
Arizona.
Arkansas.
California.
Colorado
Connecticut.
Delaware
District of Columbia..
Florida
Georgia.
Idaho.
Illinois.
Indiana.
Iowa.
Kansas.
Kentucky
Louisiana.
Maine.
Maryland.
Massachusetts.
Michigan.----
Minnesota
Mississippi.
Missouri.
Montana.
Nebraska.
Nevada.
New Hampshire.
New Jersey
New Mexico
New York.

.47

3, 495, 050, 000
1,545, 180, 000
3,053, 570,000
17, 585, 620, 000
3,789, 370,000
6, 180, 720,000

699, 010, 000
1,986, 660, 000
2,832, 830, 000

561, 960,000
1, 802, 710, 000
25, 973, 740, 000
10. 337, 990,000
12, 287, 860, 000
7,321, 210, 000
4,194,060, 000
3, 973, 320,000
2,354, 560, 000
4, 672, 330, 000
15, 157, 480,000
13, 317, 980,000
10,006, 880,000
2, 538, 510, 000
11, 662, 430, 000
2, 612, 090, 000
6, 217, 510, 000

625, 430,000 1,618, 760, 000 13, 796, 250, 000

993, 330, 000 43, 301, 830, 000

$89, 682,000,000 $24, 696, 192,000 $6, 870,000,000 $6, 239, 860,000 $2,020, 812, 685
977, 533, 800 102, 408,000 69,097, 200

17, 304, 956
313,887, 000 25, 229, 000 18, 150, 977* 18,095, 594 8, 506, 677

771, 265, 200 70, 311, 000 25, 673, 500 40, 559, 090 13, 965, 866
4, 188, 149, 400 1, 679, 146,000 296, 812, 681*! 379, 383, 488 136, 988, 396

869, 915, 400 107, 014, 000 36, 249, 945* 56, 158, 740 26, 549, 547 1, 416, 975, 600 739, 038, 000 102, 500, 600 98, 589, 788 32, 765, 727

206, 268, 600 53, 634, 000 7,342, 500 11, 231, 748 3, 632, 661
582, 933, 000 80, 204,000 88, 155, 800 48, 670, 908 9, 290, 353

538, 092, 000 178, 488,000 247, 503, 200 44, 303, 006 30,089, 478
1, 372, 134, 600 150, 597, 000 78, 534, 200 73,006, 362 17, 357, 622
340, 791, 600 27, 793, 000 18, 098, 968* 19, 967, 552

9, 022, 507
6, 806, 863, 800 1,385, 377,000 658, 548, 100 527, 268, 170 138, 350, 684
2, 268, 954, 600 388, 116, 000 131, 201, 600 151, 004, 612 61, 229, 094
1, 838, 481,000 515, 221, 000 60, 395, 800 137, 276, 920 57, 280, 065
1, 390, 071, 000 126, 263, 000 49, 233, 500 81, 118, 180 35, 603, 036
1, 246, 579, 800 179, 677,000 73, 117, 500 69, 262, 446 17, 599, 363
1,013, 406, 600 133, 985, 000 87, 545, 100 64, 270, 558 19, 741, 168

600, 869, 400 284, 380, 000 22, 275, 600 35, 567, 202 10, 243, 404
1, 345, 230, 000 399, 889,000 101,989, 800 86, 110, 068

21, 665, 229
4, 412, 354, 400 2, 275, 704, 000 255, 054, 500 305, 129, 154 77, 162, 431
3, 506, 566, 200 1,028, 545,000 355, 831, 400 245, 226, 498 99, 447, 319
1, 811, 576, 400 531, 918,000 78, 827, 600 127, 293, 144 51, 929, 667
690, 551, 400 92, 660, 000 33, 832, 100

33, 071, 258 12, 599, 596
2, 546, 968, 800 384, 755, 000 209, 782, 900 183, 451, 884 53, 217, 104

448, 410, 000 58, 933, 000 21, 375, 506* 27, 455, 384 11, 566, 647 977, 533, 800 208, 334, 000 35, 264, 400 72, 382, 376 29, 348, 812 89, 682, 000 19, 365, 000 1, 872, 307* 6, 239, 860

1, 957, 226 376, 664, 400 201, 723, 000

9, 592, 500 22, 463,496

6, 905, 290 3, 282, 361, 200 1, 127, 334, 000 293, 003, 300 205, 291, 394

92, 280, 267 224, 205,000

7, 485, 000 9, 153, 501* 10, 607, 762

5, 253, 899 13, 048, 731, 000 6, 918, 682, 000 1, 545, 510, 000 1, 060, 152, 214 245, 105, 731

1. 77
2. 71
1.81
3. 27
3. 05
2. 31
1. 76
1. 59
5. 59
1. 27
2. 65
2. 03
2. 70
3. 12
2. 56
1.41
1.95
1. 70
1. 61
1.75
2. 84
2. 87
1.82
2.09
2. 58
3. 00
2. 18
1.83
2.81
2. 34
1. 88

1. 06

38
50
53
59
47
. 49
42
50
44
46
51
75
52
50
46
44
47
31
43
67
53
57

16. 90
33. 72
19.86

8. 16
24. 81
4. 43
6. 77
11. 58
16. 86
11. 53
32. 46

9.99
15. 78
11. 12
28. 20

9. 80
14. 73
3. 60
5. 42
3. 39
9. 67
9. 76
13. 60
13. 83
19. 63
14.09
10.11
3. 42
8. 19
70. 19
4. 14

25. 04
46. 87
54. 40
46. 15
73, 24
31. 97
49. 47
10. 54
12. 16
22. 10
49.85
21.01
46. 67
94. 84
72. 31
24. 07
22. 55
45.98
21. 24
30. 25
27.95
65. 88
37. 24
25. 37
54. 11
83. 23
104. 54
71, 99
31. 49
57. 40
15. 86

33. 02
47.01
34. 43
36. 11
47. 28
33. 23
32. 34
19. 09
57. 92
23. 78
45. 19
26. 24
40. 55
41.73
43, 89
25. 41
30. 72
28. 80
25. 16
25. 29
40. 55
40.80
38. 10
29.01
42. 13
40. 55
31. 37
30. 74
44. 95
49. 53
23. 12

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