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Mr. MORGAN. Not one. Mr. Chairman, that is all I have, but if any of the committee desire to ask any questions I will be glad to answer them.

Mr. LEATHERWOOD. How have you obtained the views of the teaching profession?

Mr. MORGAN. The National Education Association at its summer meeting draws together a representative assembly. That assembly is composed of delegates elected by State and local associations, who are sent by their associations and report back to them, and that is the body which determines the policy of the association, and that is the way its official attitude is determined. But back of that, we who are in State meetings year after year, and international meetings year after year, know that the sentiment of the teaching forces in America on this, so far as it has crystallized at all, is overwhelmingly for it.

Mr. LEATHERWOOD. Doctor, did I understand you to say that the delegate who attends this meeting goes back and then takes a census of the teachers in the schools in the State or in the county?

Mr. MORGAN. Perhaps it will answer your question to say that nearly all of the State educational associations have themselves indorsed this bill over and over, after a discussion of it at their State meetings. I, myself, have spoken on it this very year before three of the State associations.

Mr. ROBSION. At what places?
Mr. MORGAN. California, Michigan, and Idaho.
Mr. ROBSION. How many were present?

Mr. MORGAN. The audiences varied all the way from 3,000 perhaps, down to a thousand in the Idaho meeting.

Mr. ROBSION. Was action taken in those three States?

Mr. MORGAN. Yes; it has been. They are on record. I don't mean action was taken this year, but they have gone on record year after year.

Mr. RobSION. What reaction did you get there at those State meetings to this bill?

Mr. MORGAN. I didn't find a bit of opposition in any one of the three meetings.

Mr. BLACK. Has the National Education Association circularized this association at all on this bill?

Mr. MORGAN. You understand that the journal of the association goes constantly to the membership.

Mr. Black. Is that the official organ?

Mr. MORGAN. That is the official organ of the National Education Association, and it goes constantly to its entire membership.

Mr. BLACK. In addition to that, has there been any kind of circularization of the association for this bill?

Mr. MORGAN. Of course, there is constant contact between these State organizations. I wonder if the committee realizes that in more than 30 of the States the State organization maintains a full-time office, with a person in charge of the office who is working constantly on the problem of improving the schools and who, in many cases, is the editor of the State journal which, in turn, constantly sends out information, so that his teachers may be familiar with what is going on and the best processes in education.




Mr. LEATHERWOOD. I am glad to know, Doctor, just how thoroughly this subject has been gone into, for the reason that the United States Chamber of Commerce quotes the chamber of commerce in my city as favoring a certain proposition. The chamber of commerce at home has 1,600 members. The facts are that only 6 of those 1,600 members voted upon the question, and yet we are quoted as favoring the proposition.

Mr. MORGAN. I am aware of that, sir, and I firmly believe that in the teaching profession as perhaps in no other profession in America there is an inclination to consider things rather thoroughly. I realize that in any group the number that actually studies and reads, line by line, a bill of this sort, is relatively small, and yet I suspect among teachers, and with reference to this particular bill, it is perhaps greater than for any similiar piece of legislation ever before this committee.

Mr. LEATHERWOOD. "Then you do feel we are safe in relying upon the fact that the teaching body generally have given considerable individual study to this particular legislation?

Mr. MORGAN. I would be willing, sir, if I knew nothing of this particular measure to take the judgment of the kind of men and women who have been coming before this committee for the last two or three days. I believe they are devoted in the sense that Nathan Hale was devoted when he said, in his last words, that he regretted that he had only one life to lose for his country. I believe that expresses the spirit of the teachers of America and I would trust them on this question.

Mr. BLACK. I know some teachers who would lose their lives on the other side of this question.

Mr. ROBSION. You hardly answered Mr. Leatherwood's question. He asked you if you believed that the teachers generally had studied this question.

Mr. Morgun. I believe, sir, a very large body of them have; yes.

Mr. Robson. Perhaps you stated before I came in, the membership of your association.

Mr. MORGAN. I have a full statement in the record.

Mr. BLACK. I suppose copies of your publication are on file in the Congressional Library?

Mr. MORGAN. They can be found in any library in the United States.

Doctor DAVIDSON. Mr. Chairman, Mr. Morgan has referred to State organizations of teachers. I have mentioned from time to time the commission of which I chance at the present time to be chairman, the legislative commission of the National Education Association. May I state in this connection that the present legislative commission of the N. E. A. is composed of 132 members, organized two years ago by President Blair of the National Education Association, who is State superintendent of public instruction for the State of Illinois. Instead of naming the several members of this commission, himself, Doctor Blair asked the State associations in each State, through their proper officers, to nominate their own members on this nation-wide commission. It will be seen that the national commission was thus formed in a very democratic way, and that every State in the Union is represented in its membership. If I may I would like to file at this time the names of the members of this commission.

Mr. Robsion. The present committee that is serving?
Doctor DavidSON. Yes, sir.
Mr. ROBSION. Unless there is objection, it may go in the record.


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Chairman, William M. Davidson, superintendent of schools, Pittsburgh, Pa. Secretary, Charl Williams, National Education Association, Washington, D. C. A. T. Allen, State superintendent of public instruction, Raleigh, N. C. George A. Allen, jr., State superintendent of public instruction, Topeka, Kans.

H. B. Allman, superintendent of schools, Rushville, Ind. Mrs. Bertha Armbruster, 111 Gale Avenue, River Forest, Ill. Walter S. Athearn, dean of religious education, Boston University, Boston, Mass.

Lou E. Ballinger, principal, 1801 Sixteenth Street NW., Washington, D. C. R. W. Bardwell, superintendent of schools, Rock Island, Ill. C. H. Barnes, superintendent St. Louis County schools, Duluth, Minn. Percival S. Barnes, superintendent of schools, East Hartford, Conn. Nora Barron, 847 Plymouth Building, Minneapolis, Minn, W. F. Bond, State superintendent of public instruction, Jackson, Miss. F. D. Boynton, superintendent of schools, Ithaca, N. Y. Mrs. Mary C. C. Bradford, 1735 Bellaire Street, Denver, Colo. I. W. Brister, president, West Tennessee State Teachers College, Memphis, Tenn.

L. W. Brooks, principal, high school, Wichita, Kans.

D. S. Burleson, professor, East Tennessee State Normal School, Johnson City, Tenn.

R. C. Burts, superintendent city schools, Rock Hills, S. C.
S. P. Capen, chancellor, University of Buffalo, Buffalo, N. Y.
John C. Callahan, State superintendent of public schools, Madison, Wis.
J. A. C. Chandler, president, College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, Va.
M. G. Clark, superintendent of schools, Sioux City, Iowa.

Maude Compton, president, Omaha School Forum, 5615 Howard Street, Omaha Nebr.

E. B. Comstock, principal, North Dallas High School, Dallas, Tex.
Randall J. Condon, superintendent of schools, Cincinnati, Ohio.
J. H. Cook, 1207 West Market, Greensboro, N. C.

William J. Cooper, State superintendent of public instruction, Sacramento, Calif.

C. W. Crandell, superintendent of schools, Monroe, Mich.
R. B. Daniel, superintendent of schools, Columbus, Ga.
Charles S. Davis, superintendent of schools, Steelton, Pa.
Florence Deneen, 457 West Sixty-first Street, Chicago, Ill.
Clarence H. Dempsey, commissioner of education, Montpelier, Vt.

L. H. Dennis, director, vocational education, State Department of Education, Harrisburg, Pa.

Guy S. Dennison, 1215 Kumler Avenue, Dayton, Ohio.
J. J. Doster, dean, school of education, University of Alabama, University,

Mrs. Agnes Driver, Lincoln Junior High School, Honolulu, Hawaii.
Selden M. Ely, supervising principal, Gale School, Washington, D. C.
Lawton B. Evans, superintendent of schools, Augusta, Ga.
H. G. Faust, superintendent of schools, Shawnee, Okla.
Charles M. Fisher, superintendent, Dade County Schools, Miami, Fla.
Anna Laura Force, principal, Lake Junior High School, Denver, Colo.
Anna G. Fraser, vice principal, Oakland High School, Oakland, Calif.
J. D. Fulp, superintendent, Bailey Military Institute, Greenwood, S. C.

Miss Lloy Galpin, president, High School Teachers' Association, 304 Trinity Building, Los Angeles, Calif.

John Gault, principal, Franklin School, 700 Pine Street, Manchester, N. H.
A. D. S. Gillett, president, State Normal School, Superior, Wis.
Annie G. Griffey, 2110 Battery, Little Rock, Ark.
F. A. Harrin, Conway, Ark.
John B. Heffelfinger, superintendent of schools, Newton, Kans.
Carl A. Hoffman, 1801 North Park Avenue, Chicago, Ill.

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George W. Hug, superintendent of schools, Salem, Oreg.
W. J. Hunting, Lovelock, Nev:
Helen A. Irving, county superintendent of schools, Rawlins, Wyo.
Clara L. Jahnke, 1930 Eighth Avenue, Spokane, Wash.
D. C. Jensen, superintendent, Jordan district schools, R. F. D. No. 2, Sandy,

Olive M. Jones, 52 Gramercy Park, North, New York, N. Y.
R. G. Jones, superintendent of schools, Cleveland, Ohio.

Zebulon V. Judd, dean, school of education, Alabama Polytechnic Institute, Auburn, Ala.

J. F. Keating, superintendent, school district No. 20, Pueblo, Colo. John A. H. Keith, State superintendent of public instruction, Harrisburg, Pa. P. H. Kimball, principal, Washington Street Normal School, Machias, Me. Lee Kirkpatrick, superintendent of schools, Paris, Ky. Uel W. Lamkin, president, Northwest Missouri State Teachers College, Maryville, Mo.

Austin Landreth, principal high school, Pendleton, Oreg.

Mrs. Inez Johnson Lewis, superintendent of schools, El Paso County, Colorado Springs, Colo.

John C. Lindsey, superintendent of schools, Mitchell, S. Dak.
W. T. Longshore, principal Greenwood School, Kansas City, Mo.
John D. Loper, superintendent of schools, Phoenix, Ariz.

Hugh S. Magill, general secretary, International Council of Religious Education, Chicago, Ill.

A. E. MacArthur, director of vocational education, Carson City, Nev.

Effie MacGregor, principal, John Burroughs School, 2003 Aldrich Avenue, S., Minneapolis, Minn.

A. A. McDonald, superintendent of schools, Sioux Falls, S. Dak.
B. H. McIntosh, Cheyenne, Wyo.
Ury McKenzie, superintendent of schools, Hot Springs, Ark.
Lurena Merriman, principal, 107 Olive Road, Tucson, Ariz.
Virgil Miller, Abraham Lincoln High School, Council Bluffs, Iowa.
John Milne, secretary, New Mexico Educational Association, Albuquerque,
N. Mex.

J. G. Moore, superintendent of schools, Fargo, N. Dak.
Martha Newell, 2334 North Seventh Street, Terre Haute, Ind.
Marjorie Oliver, Eleventh and Broadway, Muskogee, Okla.
Pearl Payette, No. 5 School, Battle Creek, Mich.
Harlan B. Peabody, 7 Villa Avenue, Providence, R. I.
Webster H. Pearce, State superintendent, Public Instruction, Lansing, Mich.
Mrs. B. C. Peixotto, 55 John Street, New York, N. Y.
Miss Rose Pesta, Windermere Hotel, Chicago, III.
L. H. Petit, superintendent of schools, Chanute, Kans.

Caroline S. Pfaff, district superintendent of schools, 4868 Constance Street, New Orleans, La.

Sidney Pickens, superintendent of schools, Batesville, Ark.
D. Walter Potts, superintendent of schools, East St. Louis, Ill.
Sue Powers, superintendent Shelby County Schools, Memphis, Tenn.
Charles H. Priest, superintendent of schools, Carson City, Nev.
Lois Randolph, State superintendent of public instruction, Santa Fe, N. Mex.
Helen M. Rathbun, Rowan Trees Hotel, 500 Englewood Avenue, Chicago, Ill.
Charles B. Redick, superintendent of schools, Gallup, N. Mex.
Anna Riddle, 217 North Thirteenth Street, St. Joseph, Mo.
E. E. Roderick, superintendent of schools, Belfast, Me.
Joseph Rosier, president, State Teachers College, Fairmont, W. Va.
E. L. Rouse, superintendent of schools, Scottsbluff, Nebr.
V. L. Roy, president, Louisiana State Normal College, Natchỉtoches, La.
Joseph H. Saunders, superintendent of schools, Newport News, Va.

H. Leslie Sawyer, president, New Hampshire State Teachers Association, New London, N. H.

John F. Scully, superintendent of schools, Brockton, Mass..

W. E. Sealock, dean, school of education, University of Nebraska, Lincoln, Nebr.

R. T. Shaw, West Philadelphia High School for Boys, 245 South Fifty-first Street, Philadelphia, Pa.

Fred W. Shearer, principal, high school, 4 Miles Avenue, Middletown, Conn.

Fred Sickles, superintendent of schools, New Brunswick, N., J.
Capitola Simpson, Teachers College, Moorehead, Ky.
Jessie Skinner, 563 Irving Street, Portland, Oreg.
Mrs. Florence K. Smith, 220 North Mount Vernon Avenue, Prescott, Ariz.
Harry P. Smith, professor of education, Syracuse University, Syracuse, N. Y.
J. W. Smith, T. C. Station, Denton, Tex.
R. H. Snyder, superintendent of schools, Idaho Falls, Idabo.
H. E. Stahl, superintendent of schools, Claymont, Del.
B. F. Stanton, superintendent of schools, Alliance, Ohio.
George D. Strayer, teachers college, Columbia University, New York, N. Y.
W. A. Sutton, superintendent of schools, Atlanta, Ga.
W. S. Taylor, University of Kentucky, Lexington, Ky.
May Trumper, State superintendent of public instruction, Helena, Mont.
L. A. Tuggle, superintendent, Vermilion County Schools, Danville, Ill.
Ira Tweedy, superintendent of schools, Rupert, Idaho.
D. B. Waldo, president Western State Normal School, Kalamazoo, Mich.
W. F. Webster, superintendent of schools, Minneapolis, Minn.
Frank Weld, 1126 Q Street, Lincoln, Nebr.
J. E. Wesley, Hawthorne School, East St. Louis, Ill.
F. L. West, Utah Agricultural College, Logan, Utah.
L. A. White, superintendent of schools, Minot, N. Dak.
G. Elmer Wilbur, superintendent Duval County Schools, Jacksonville, Fla.
S. C. Wilson, Sam Houston State Teachers College, Huntsville, Tex.
Benjamin Wist, president, Normal School, Honolulu, Hawaii.

John W. Withers, dean, school of education, New York University, New York, N. Y.

Kate Wofford, superintendent Laurens County Schools, Laurens, S. C.
Will C. Wood, commissioner of banking, Sacramento, Calif.
Annie C. Woodward, 144 School Street, Somerville, Mass.
Robert H. Wright, president East Carolina Teachers College, Greenville, N. C.
Ada York, county superintendent of schools, San Diego, Calif.,

Doctor DAVIDSON. In addition to this commission we have somewhere in the neighborhood of 3,000 additional members of our association who are serving on State committees on legislation, county committees, and local committees, scattered in different sections of the country. This great group, under the direction of the central committee, known as the legislative commission, of which I chance to be chairman, had been organized for the purpose of educating our own membership, and we feel that each year the information in relation to all the things which the National Education Association is trying to do to advance education is being understood better and better by the rank and file of the teachers of America.

Mr. RobsION. How long have you been connected with this organization?

Doctor DAVIDSON. Since the year 1890.

Mr. Robsion. Have you observed the sentiment of the teaching force of the country with reference to this legislation since it began?

Doctor DAVIDSON. Yes, sir.
Mr. RobsION. Has it diminished or grown?

Doctor DAVIDSON. It has been increasing in volume year by year. Wherever I go and speak I find a tremeduous response always from the groups I chance to address.

Mr. ROBSION. Do they appear to be generally familiar with this proposed legislation? I mean that it is up and being considered?

Doctor DAVIDSON. Yes, sir.

Mr. LEATHERWOOD. Doctor, I think yesterday it was you who called our attention to the General Federation of Womens Clubs, consisting of something like 2,000,000 members.

Doctor DAVIDSON. About a million and a quarter I think was the figure I quoted.

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