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For duties of teachers in connection with registers, see sec. 151.

Returns to be made to State board of education, are: 1. Town reports of school visitors, sec. 77.

(a) including names of teachers and committees, sec. 79. 2. Town reports by town committees, sec. 129. 3. District reports by board of education, sec. 60. 4. Reports of evening schools, sec. 72. 5. Reports of private schools, sec. 23.

Blanks are supplied for all above returns and for reports of district committees to school visitors, sec. 147.

Shall ascertain and keep informed as to the condition and progress of the public schools in the State ;

And shall seek to improve the methods and promote the efficiency of Educational teaching therein, by holding, at various convenient places meetings. in the State, meetings of teachers and school officers, for the purpose of instructing in the best modes of administering, governing, and teaching public schools, and by such other means as they shall deem appropriate ; but the expenses incurred in such meetings shall Expenses.

not exceed the sum of three thousand dollars in any year. Other duties and powers of the board are : 1. To superintend Normal School, secs. 13–17.

2. To act as committee of the Connecticut Industrial School at Middletown, secs. 18-20.

3. To enforce law relating to employment of children, secs. 8, 24, 25.

(a) Shall appoint agents, sec. 8. 4. To enforce laws relating to attendance, secs. 7, 8.

(a) May appoint agents, secs. 7, 8. 5. To keep account of library money, sec. 11. Said board shall, on or before the Monday after the first Wednesday

in January in each year, submit to the Governor a report

containing a printed abstract of said returns, a detailed 1887, ch. v, $28.

statement of the doings of the board, and an account of the condition of the public schools, of the amount and quality of instruction therein, and such other information as will apprise the General Assembly of the true condition, progress, and needs of public education ; and such annual reports shall be submitted to said Assembly at its regular sessions.

“All other reports now required to be made annually to the General Assembly shall hereafter be made to the governor at

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Annual report,

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the same period of the year as now required to be made to the General Assembly,” General Statutes, sec. 376.

The number of reports annually printed and distributed is 3000, General Statutes, sec. 331.

SEC. 6. The board shall appoint a secretary, who shall, G. S. sec. 2097. under its direction and control, perform such duties, in Secretary of the the general supervision and control of the educational board, duties. interests of the State, in visiting the public schools, and in the execution of the duties and powers of the board, as the board may prescribe. The board shall have power to appoint a clerk, who shall Clerk. assist the secretary, and perform such clerical and other duties as the secretary may prescribe.

The secretary is, ex officio, a member of the visiting board of the Sheffield Scientific School, sec. 180.

Other duties and powers are:

1. To make return to Comptroller of delinquent towns and forfeitures, sec. 78.

2. To draw orders for library money, sec. 148. 3. To furnish blanks and registers to private schools, sec. 23.

4. To make estimates of appropriations. General Statutes, sec. 380.

5. To sign orders for State money drawn from treasury, sec. 12.

6. To inspect certificates of attendance, sec. 27, and registers of private schools, sec. 23.

7. To remit forfeitures, sec. 171.

For salary and expenses of the secretary and clerk, see General Statutes, sec. 3706.

The Secretaries of the Board have been the following: Daniel C. Gilman, New Haven, 1865–7. Birdsey G. Northrop, Clinton, 1867–83. Charles D. Hine, Hartford, 1883The Clerks of the Board have been John G. Baird, Hartford, 1868–1883. Asahel J. Wright, Killingly, 1883Sec. 7. The board shall have power to appoint an agent to secure the due observance of the laws relating to the instruction of children, and such agent shall make written report of his work to the secretary semi-annually. Report.

Agent may inspect certificates of attendance, sec. 27, and registers of private schools, sec. 23.

G. S. sec. 2098. Agent.

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G. S. sec. 1755. Enforcement of



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G. S. sec. 2100. Text-book on

Under this section the agents of the Board have been
Henry M. Cleveland, Brooklyn, 1869–71.
Giles Potter, New Haven, 1872–.

SEC. 8. It shall be the duty of the State board of educa

tion and the school visitors, boards of education, and law relating to town committees of towns, to enforce sections 24 and 25 employment of

of chapter iii; and for that purpose the State board of

education may appoint agents, under its supervision and control, for terms of not more than one year, who shall be paid not to Compensation exceed five dollars per day for time actually employed and of Agents. necessary expenses, and whose accounts shall be approved by said board and audited by the Comptroller.'

The agents so appointed may be directed by said board to enforce the provisions of the law requiring the attendance of children in school

and to perform any duties necessary or proper for the due

execution of the duties and powers of the board. The action of the Board and reports of Agents under the above section can be found on pages 38–45, of this Report.

SEC. 9. The board of education shall prescribe the

text-books to be used in teaching physiology and hygiene physiology and hygiene, how as required by law, and shall prepare or cause to be presupplied.

pared a text-book, and, if desirable, charts for such teaching, which text-book and charts shall be furnished to towns and school districts, for the use of scholars in the public schools needing the same,

free of expense. The secretary shall take out a copyright Copyright.

for the State upon any text-book or chart prepared under the authority of this section.

The action of the Board under this section and the number of books distributed to the towns are stated on pages 6–8 and 85-88.

SEC. 10. The State Board of Education may, upon pub

lic examination in such branches, and upon such terms as certificates may it may prescribe, grant a certificate of qualifications to be granted upon teach in any public school in the State, and may revoke

the same. Such certificate may be accepted by any board of School Visitors, or Board of Education, in lieu of any other examination,

This section places School Visitors, Town Committees and Boards of Education under no legal obligation to accept a certificate issued by the State Board of Education. While the certificate furnishes evidence of the highest character that the holder is fit to teach, it is not and cannot be a general warrant to teach in any school in the State. To give a State certificate

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G.S. sec. 2222.



force in any town it must be accepted “ in lieu of an examination" by the Town Board or Examining Committee, and it is incumbent upon the holder before beginning to teach to obtain this formal sanction of the local officers.

The main features of the plan adopted by the Board are as follows:

1. There are two grades of certificates, called Primary and Advanced. To obtain the lower, applicants must attain the required standard in the following branches, viz:

Reading, Writing, Spelling, Arithmetic, Geography, Grammar, History of the United States, and Physiology.

Papers are always presented in Singing and Drawing, which are optional. Success in these branches will be noted on certificate.

Questions in Theory and Practice will be found on all the papers.

To obtain higher grade, the required standard must be reached in the following branches, viz:

Algebra, Geometry, Book-keeping, Physics, Physical Geography, and Civil Government, and a choice between English Literature, General History and Chemistry.

2. In general it may be said that three-fourths of the questions must be answered with accuracy and fullness to entitle the candidate to a certificate. For purposes of ranking, the scale of 100 is used.

3. Candidates for the lower grade of certificate may at the same examination take any of the higher studies, and if successful in one or more, may have the result noted on lower grade certificate.

4. To assist committees in obtaining information, upon each certificate will appear the places where the holder has taught and the length of time in each.

5. In most cases, certificates will not be granted for a period longer than one year. It is impossible now to apply any other than the educational test, but it is the purpose of the Board to follow and observe the holders and judge of their fitness in other directions.

Certificates may be revoked at any time. 6. Renewals will be granted to those who teach successfully,

but it is the plan of the Board to require at the end of a certain definite period an examination in some branch in addition to those taken at the first examination.

7. Examinations will be held in and for any town upon invitation of the visitors. Applicants who succeed will receive State Certificates, and the record of all, whether successful or not, who are expecting or intending to teach in the town will be given to the Examining Committee. This record is given, however, only in the cases of those who could be legally called before the Town Board for examination.

Places of holding examinations and names of holders of certificates are given on pages 54–56.

SEC. 11. The State Board of Education shall keep an

account of the money drawn and paid out for school lischool libraries braries and philosophical apparatus pursuant to chapter x,

and the Comptroller shall annually audit such account. The annual appropriation is $5000.

The amounts drawn since 1856 are given on page 217, and the report for year 1886–7 on page 206.

SEC. 12. The Board is authorized to expend such sum

as may be necessary to perform the duties and execute the account; orders powers conferred upon it, and shall semi-annually file with

the Comptroller a certified account of all State moneys received and expended during the preceding half year, which account shall be audited by the Comptroller. All orders for drawing any State money shall be signed by the Secretary and countersigned by a committee of the Board duly authorized thereto.

For fiscal year see General Statutes, sec. 375.
Disposition of balances, General Statutes, sec. 408.

G. S. sec. 2220 Account of appropriation for

and apparatus.

G.S. sec. 2099. Expenses and

how signed.

Instruction, Employment and Attendance of Children.

[Compilation of 1888, Chapter III]. The persons and officers mentioned or referred to in this chapter who have duties and powers in connection with instruction, attendance and employment are as follows:

1. Parents. (a) To cause children between 8 and 16 to attend

(1) Regularly, sec. 21.
(2) In public schools, sec. 21.

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