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tures. $22.977; cotton, unmanufactured, $26,110,302; grease and soap stock, $1,045,027 ; iron and steel and manufactures, $1,380,688 ; oils, mineral, crude, $4,584,562; refined, $932,938 ; oil, cottonseed, $2,601,

3; provisions--tallow, $675,424 ; hog products, $1,203,487 ; other meat products, $579,061; tobacco, unmanufactured, $1,832,903 ; wood and manufactures, $841,963; total value of domestic merchandise,

The principal articles of export to the United States were: Duty-free-Art works, $2,448,713; chemicals, drugs, dyes, $1,511.636, of which $565,927 was argol; hides and skins other than furs, $1,742,$30: silk, raw and waste, $838,689; wool, unmanufactured, $2,607,014; total free of duty, $17,731,574. Dutiable-Brusbes, $542.069; chemicals, drugs, dyes. $1,544,627; cotton, manufactures of, $3,637,104 ; chinaware, etc., $1,593,100; feathers, natural, $601,732; feathers and flowers, artificial, $1.608,201 ; fish, cured, $811,679 : fruits, including nuts, $989,388; furs and manufactures. $917.492: glass and glassware,

69,573: bair and manufactures, 502,041; jewelry, $1,174.887 : leather and manufactures, $2,599,373; metals, compositions, etc., $946.909; oil, olive, $532,530; perfumes, cosmetics, etc., $82,290 ; silk, manufactures, $11.323.087 : spirits, distilled, $1,071,244; sugar, $1,421,317 ; vegetables, preserved, $579, 180; wines, $4,109.7-54, of which $3,132,959 was champagne; wools, etc., manufactures, $6,849,831, of which $5,722,666 was dress goods: total dutiable, $19,798,657.

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Shipping, Railroads, Post-Office, and Telegraphs. (See Index.)

Banking.

The BANK OF FRANCE.

1810...

Though not a State institution, the Bank of France has the exclusive right to issue circulating notes. The following statements, from "A History of Banking in All Nations," published recently by The Journal of Commerce and Commercial Bulletin, show the course of the Bank's circulation and its stock of coin from 1810 to 1896 inclusive.

Statistics of coin on hand and the Bank's circulation, in millions and hundred thousands of francs, 1810 to 1866: -Coin on Hand

Note Circulation
Year.

Maximum. Minimum. Average. Maximum. Minimum. Average,
50.8
31.1
42.0
104.1

92.2

101.2 218.3 161.8 194.9 171.9 122.2

153.8 172.5 104.3 145.0 238.6 201.5

223.6 1810.

261.2
216.3
246.9
205,3
203.8

223.4
482.1
427.0
457.8
515.5
436.3

485.6 573.0 411.4 513.5 805.8 703.6

749.6 1.318.5

505.3
1,130.7
1,814.4
1,359.0

1,544.3
2,103.6
1,763.7
1,974.1
2,481.3
2.206.8

2,315.4 1885.

2,281.5
2,019.9
2,176.4
3,063.9
2,719.4

2,846.0 1986.

2,525.8
2,220.5 2,422.7 2,973.7

2,658.1

2,789.2 18si.

2,401.8
2,316.0
2,361.5
2,929.8
2.551.4

2,719.3 1488..

2,347.1
2,242.1
2,301.0
2,891.3
2,516.8

2,676.4 2,598.6 2,223.7

2,398.4
3,123.1 2,616.8

2,876.1 1890.

2,592.8
2,360.6
2,513.2
3,259.8
2,893.4

3,060.4 1-91.

2,641.8
2.358,2
2.553.8 3,288.8

2,922.9

3,084.6 1892. 2,983.5 2,587.2 2.826.5

3.335.7
3,037.0

3.151.3
3,004.6
2,786.1
2,956.0
3,589.7
3,255.9

3,445.5 1894.

3,304.6
2,951.1
3,083.7 3,675.1 3,314.7

3,476.5 1895.

3,390.9
3,176.2

3,294.3
3,334.9
3,154.7 3,224.7

3,458.0

1893..

1836....

3,682.

These statistics are carried back to the year 1815 in Volume I of this work, at pages 41 and 42. They are converted from £'s sterling at a value of $5.00 to the £.

Classification of the coin on hand in the Bank of France at the end of each year, in millions and hundred thousands of francs, 1870 to 1897:

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114,977

The capital of the Bank of France is estimated at 182,500,000 francs. The commercial discounts of the Bank of France, * in millions and hundred thousands of francs, from 1810 to 1894, were as follows:

-Paper on HandYear.

Single Pieces. Amount. Maximum. Minimum. Average. 1810...

792.9

187.6
137.7

1623 1820.

303.7

67.6
26.2

38.9 1830.

274,912
617.5

196.1
113.7

144.4 1840.

676,676
1,105.8

211.1
152.9

174.7 1850..

816,657
1,171.1

149.6

98.3

114.3 1860....

3,684,852
4,964.8

582.6
428.6

493.3 1870.

4,687,762

6,6:27.4
1,380.7
494.7

738.1 1880.

9,185,577

8,696.9
1,018.2
579.3

758.5 1885.

11,660,589

9,250.1
1,116.4
582.7

784.3 1886.

11.377,405

8,302.9
1,125.6
413.7

620.8 1887.

11,579,661

8,268.7

792.2
430,6

577.9 1888.

11,958, 137

8,585.4

816.7
495.1

621.1 1889.

12,368,431

9,180,4
1,076.7
491.0

713.8 1890,

12,583,222
9,534.6

984.6
493.2

669.6 1891.

13,277,234

9,968.8
1,437.0
533.3

760.7 1892,

13,089,468
8,415.8

870.7
409.7

550.4 1893.

13,353,912
8,837.0

802.4
475.9

579.3 1894..

13,489,506

8.725.0
1,030.7

360.0

564.6

The condition of the Bank of France is shown below for the weeks ending September 1 and 8, 1893' and the corresponding period of 1897, in thousands of pounds sterling :

Sept. 8, Sept. 1, Sept. 9,
Assets.
1898. 1898. 1897.

Liabilities.
Coin and bullion-gold.. £75,164 £75,368 £80,880 | Notes...
Coin and bullion-silver 49,791 49,860 48,693 Government deposits..
Government securities. 14,104 14,104 14,104 Private deposits.........
Discounts and advances 39,151 43,049 37,157

Sept. 8, Sept. 1, Sept. 9,

1898. 1898. 1897. £140,709 £141,658 £144,124

10,634 12, 860 7,918 18,694 18,907 19,737

The following statement, from "A History of Banking in All Nations," Volume III, page 131, shows the amount of paper discounted annually by all the banks of France from 1881 to 1894

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Gross Amount of Paper. Net Amount of Paper.
Francs.

Francs.
30,209,200,000

27,188,300,000 30,100,800,000

27,090,800,000 30,364,800,000

27,328,400,000 28,795,800,000

25,916,300,000 27,171,600,000

24,454,500,000 26,441,600,000

23,797,500,000 26,440,000,000

23,796,000,000 26,891,600,000

24,202,500,000 27,177,800,000

24,460,100,000 27,886,400,000

25,097,800,000 28,545,100,000

25,690,600,000 22,964,400,000

20,668,000,000 23, 104,000,000

20,793,600,000 22,394,000,000

20,154,600,000

The transactions of the Paris Clearing House were as follows for recent years, expressed in milliards of francs, 00,000's omitted :

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* From "A History of Banking in All Nations," Volume III, page 81; published by The Journal of Commerce and Commercial Bulletin.

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The Monetary Union between France, Belgium, Switzerland, and Italy was formed in 1865, and was joined by Greece in 1868. The convention was renewed in 1878, 1885, and 1890. These countries have their gold and silver coins of the same weight and fineness, and the same system is followed in Finland, Roumania, Servia, Spain, and, partially, in several of the South American republics.

(For gold and silver coins see Index.l

There is a double standard of value, gold and silver, the ratio being theoretically 154 to 1. of silver coins, however, only 5-franc pieces are legal tender, and of these the free coinage has been suspended since 1876.

NOTE.-For further information see “ Year Book," Volume I, pages 61 and 62, and subsequent issues.

COINAGE.

The amount of money coined in France during recent years has been as follows, in francs : Year.

Gold.

Silver.
Bronze.

Total. 1895................................ 108,006,930

*8,000,000

110,000

116,116,930 112,538,240

829,423

113,367,733

* Token money.

GERMANY.

Area and Population.

The following statement shows the area and population of the twenty-five States of Germany, and of the Reichsland of Alsace-Lorraine, as returned at the three census periods of 1885, 1890, and 1895 :

States of the Empire. Prussia......... Bavaria...... Württemberg ....... Baden....... Saxony...... Mecklenburg-Schwerin.. Hesse...... Oldenburg... Brunswick.. Saxe-Weimar..... Mecklenburg-Strelitz.: Saxe-Meiningen.......... Anhalt.......... Saxe-Coburg-Gotha. Saxe-Altenburg ...... Lippe..................... Waldeck..... Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt.... Schwarzburg-Sondershausen.... Reuss-Schleiz...... Schaumburg-Lippe, Reuss-G reiz... Hamburg... Lübeck,...... Bremen..... Alsace-Lorraine....

Area English Population Sq. Miles. Dec. 1, 1885. 134,463 28,318,470 29,282 5,420,199 7,528 1,995,185 5,8:21 1.601.235 5,787 3,182,003 5,135

575,152 2,965

956,611 2,479

341,525 1,424

372,452 1,388

313.946 1,131

98,371 953

214,884 906

248,166 755

198,829 511

161,460 469

123,212 433

56,575 363

83,836

73.6C6 319

110,598

37,204 122

55,904 158

513,620 115

67.658 99

165.628 5,600 1,564,355

Population Population Dec. 1, 1890. June 14, 1895. 29,957,367 31,855,123 5,594,982 5,818,544 2,036,522 2,081,151 1,657,867 1,725,464 3,502,684 3,787,688 578,342

597,436 992,883 1,039,020 354,968

373,739 403,773

434,213 326,091

339.217 97,978

101,540 223,832

234.005 271,963

293,298 206,513

216,603 170,864

180,313 128, 495

134,854 57,281

57,766 85,863

88,685 75,510

78,074 119,811

132,130 39,163

41,224 62,754

67,454 622,530 681,632 76,485

83.324 180,443

196,404 1,603,506 1,640,986

Population per Square Mile, 1895.

236.9 198.7 276.4 296.4 654.5 116.2 350.3 150.7 304.9 244.2

89.7 245.5 3:23.5 286.9 352.2 286.6 133.4 244.0 234.9 414.2 314.7

552.0 4,314,1

724.5 1,983.8

293.0

131

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POPULATION ACCORDING TO OCCUPATION, WITH PERCENTAGE, 1882 AND 1895.

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Fiscal Affairs.

The following statement shows the revenue and expenditure (in thousands of marks) for the last six years, the figures for the last three years being taken from the budget estimates :

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The amounts raised by customs and excise and stamps were as follows (in thousands of marks):

Estimated. 1892-93. 1893-94. 1894-95. 1895-96. 1896-97. 1897-98. Customs and excise..................

620,001 607,080 642,007 661,639 634,665 653,131 Stamps............................

31,305 31,203 48,994 64.747 61,000 61,873 Total..

651,307 638,283 691,001 726,386 695,665 715,004

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On October 31, 1896, the public debt amounted to 2.126,827,300 marks. Of this amount 450,000,000 bears interest at 4 per cent., 790,000,000 at 3 per cent., and 886.827,300 at 3 per cent. There also exists an unfunded debt, represented by "Reichs-Kassenscheine," or imperial treasure bills, outstanding on March 31, 1895, to the amount of 120,000,000 marks. As a set-off against the debt there exists a variety of invested funds. The fund for invalids consisted of 447,708.900 marks in 1895. The war treasure fund of 120,000,000, marks is not invested, but preserved in gold at Spandau.

Agriculture.

The total yield of farm products in the years indicated, in metric tons of 2,200 lbs., or hectolitres of 26.417 gallons, and in tons or hectolitres per hectare, was as follows:

2,994,823

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-1893-94

1894-95—

1895-96—
Per
Per

Per
Tons. Hect. Tons.

Hect.

Tons. Hect. Wheat..

1.47 3,012,271 1.52 2,807,557 1.45 Rye......,

7,460,383 1.24 7.075,020 1.17 6,595,758 1.12 Barley...

1,946,944 1.20 3,432,913 1.49 2,411,731 1.43 Oats......

3,242,313 0.83 5,250,152 1.34 5,252,590 1.30 Buckwheat.

93,825 0.55 93,556 0.58 103,924 0.67 Potatoes....

32,277,851 10.63 29,049,238 9.60 31,786,621 10.42 Hay................

11,490,787 1.94 18,970,259 3.21 21,001,6:21 4.27 Beet-root (sugar).. 9,794,482 24.79 12,537, 429 28.53 11,196,320 27.52 Beet-root (fodder). 8,086,699 18.37 10.088,216 22.58 9,265,607 20.21 Tobacco... 32,082 2.11 38,317

48,546 2.30
Hops.......
10,640 0.25 33, 109 0.78

30,181 0.72
Hectol's.
Hectol's.

Hectol's.
Wine...

3,820,352 33,0 2,824,422 24.2 2,011,637 17.3

1 hectare = 2.471 acres.
The number of live stock in the German Empire is shown as follows:

---Cattle-
Year. Horses. Mules. Asses. Cows. Others. Total. Sheep.

3,352,231 1,626 11,689 8,961,221 6,815,481 15,776,702 24,999,406 1883..... 3,522,545 1,0098,786 9,087,293 6.699,471 15,786,764 19,189,715 1892.....

3,836,256 383 6,320 9,946,164 7,609,530 17,555,694 13,589,612

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1873.....

Pigs.
7,124,088
9,206,195
12,174,288

Goats.
2,320,002
2,640,994
3,091,287

BEET-ROOT SUGAR.

The following are the statistics of beet-root sugar production in the Zollgebiet:

No. of Kgs.

Beet-Root to Number of Beet-Root Used, - Production in Metric Tons

Produce 1 Years. Factories in Metric Tons. Raw Sugar. Refined Sugar. Molasses. Kg. of Sugar. 1890-91...... 406

10,623,319

1.284,485
679.213
263,094

8.27 1891-92....

403
9,488.002
1,144,368
721,053
244,969

8.29 1892-93...

401
9,811,940
1,175,137

168,420
241,805

8.35 1893-94.....

405
10.644,352
1.319,006
819,629
279,299

8.09 1894-95.

405
14,521,029
1.841,461

992, 136
347,090

8.20 1895-96...

397
11,672,816
1.615,111

7.58 1896-97...

399
13,721,601

1,738,884

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