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Revenue and Expenditure.

The following table shows the actual revenue and expenditure for the years ending March 31. They are revised so as to exclude, in accordance with the system now adopted, the army and navy extra receipts, and the contributions by India for military charges, formerly brought to account as revenue : Expend. 1

Expend-
Year.
Revenue.
iture.
Year.
Revenue.

iture. 1884... £86,160,184 £85,954,564 1892..

£90,994,786 £89,927,773 1885. 87,988, 110 89,037,883 1893.

90,395, 377 90,375,365 1886. 89,581,301 92,223,844 1894,

91,133,410 91, 302, 846 1887. 90,772,758 89,996,752 1895.

94,683,762 93,918,421 1888. 89,802, 254 87,423,645 1896.

101,973,829 97,764,357 1889. 88,472,812 87,683,830 1897

103,949,885 101,476,669 1890.

89,304,316
86,083,314 1898,

106,614,004 102,935,994 1891.

89,489,112 87,732,855

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The following statement shows the oscillations of the national debt of the kingdom from 1748:

Annual Principal.

Charge. At the end of the Spanish War, 1748.........

£75,812,132

£3,165,765 Decrease during eight years' peace......

1,237,107

412, 199 At the commencement of the Seven Years' War,

74,575,025

2,753.566 Increase during the war...

58,141,024

2,279,167 At the Peace of Paris, 1763......

132,716,049

5,032, 733 Decrease during twelve years' peace.

5,873,238

329,214 At the commencement of the American War

126,842,811

4.703,519 Increase during the war.......

116,220,334

4,837,737 At the end of the American War. 1784....

243,063,145

9,514,256 Decrease during the peace..

3,399,724

109,077 At the commencement of the French War,

239,663,421

9,432,179 Increase during the war....

297,989,587

10,836,372 At the Peace of Amiens, 1802....

537,653,008

20,268,551 Increase during war with Napoleon

323,386,041

12,377,067 At the Peace of Paris, 1815.......

461,039,049

32,645, 618 Decrease during forty years...

91,956,500

4,930,415 At commencement of Crimean War,

769, 082,549

27,715,203 Increase during the war.....

39,026,173

834,836 Debt in 1857...

808, 108,722

28,550,039 Decrease since the Crimean War

151,109,781

3,550,039 Debt on March 31, 1895....

656,998,941

25,000,000 Debt on March 31, 1896..

648,474,143

25,000,000 Debt on March 31, 1897..

640,773,679

25,000,000 Debt on March 31, 1898.....

634.435,704

25,000,000

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Agriculture.

The statement following shows the acreage in cereals and green crops in Great Britain and Ireland respectively :

GREAT BRITAIN.

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Description

of Crops.
Wheat..
Barley and bere ...
Oats......
Beans......
Peas....

PRODUCE OF PRINCIPAL CROPS.
-Great Britain-

1895. 1896. 1897. 1893.
1,000 1,000 1,000 1.000
Bush. Bush. Bush. Bush.
37,176 57,053 54,910 1.666
68,651 70,775 66,814 6,211
122,149 114,016 116,847 55,701

5.555 6,437 6,603
4,719 4,970

5,239
1,000 1,000 1,000 1,000
Tons.
Tons. Tons.

Tons.
3.593 3,562 2,608 3,064
24,730 23,254 25,652 4.848

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1894.

1.000
Bush.
59,173
72,295
135,463

7.085
6,219
1.000
Tons.

2,789
26,398

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54

6

12

10

Tons.

Potatoes....
Turnips and Swedes.

1,000 Tons. 3,472 4.490

1.000 1.000 Tons. Tons. 2,701 1,498 4.783 4,134

1.8
4,279

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The following facts are taken from Mulhall:

Since 1846 there has been a decline in acreage of nearly two millions, but this has been compensated by the increased pastoral industry. Below are shown the figures :

1846........... 1895...........

Year.
Grain. Green Crops. Pasture.

Total.
11,600,000
10,330,000
22,940,000

44,870,000 8,870,000 11,180,000 27,830,000

47,880,000 The average production of crops and meat for the three years 1893-4-5 was: Wheat, 1,249,000 tons; barley, 1,820,000 tons; oats, etc., 4,460,000 tons; potatoes, 6,100,000 tons; turnips, 30,300,000 tons; hay, 12,300,000 tons: meat, 1,100,000 tons.

Notwithstanding that the price of grain has fallen 40 per cent. since 1846, the gross value of farm products then was £218,000,000, as against £230,000,000, the average value for 1893-45. The following figures will show the relation between labor and production and the influence of machinery thereon:

62
91

Year.

Hands.

Product, £'s. £'s Per Hand. 1846..

3,519,000

218,000,000 1895....

2,527,000

230,000,000 From these figures it may be deduced that two men now produce in quantity what five did then. The fluctuations of agricultural capital are shown below in millions pounds sterling :

1880.

1780.
702

Land....
Cattle.....
Sundries.......

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2,086

207

1895. 1,686

202 189

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. COAL AND IRON ORE-PRODUCTION AND VALUES.
-Coal

----Iron Ore--
Quantities.

Value.
Quantities.

Value.
Tons.

Tons.
181,614,288
74,953,997
13,780,767

3.926,445
188,277,525
62,729,759
12,367,308

3.190,647 189,661,362 57,231,213 12.615,415

2,865,709 195,361,260 57,190,147 13.700.764

3,150,424 202, 129,931 59,740,009

14.008,500

1890..
1894
1895....
1896.
1897...

* Includes Isle of Man and Channel Islands.

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1885..........

500,010

PRODUCTION OF BESSEMER INGOTS.

PRODUCTION OF OPEN-HEARTA STEEL INGOTS.
Year.
Gross Tons.

Year.

Gross Tons. 1,304,127 1885

583,918 1890... 2,014.813 1890.

1,564,200 1894 1,535,384 1894.

1,575,318 1895... 1.535,225

1,724,737 1898.. 1,815,842 1896.

2,317,555 1,884,155 | 1897..

2,601,806

1895..

1897...

IMPORTS, EXPORTS, CONSUMPTION, AND STOCK OF COTTON. The following shows the quantities of each description of cotton for 1897, in thousands of pounds, and the corresponding totals of previous years : 1897.

Import.

Export. Consumption. Stock Dec. 31. American....

1,420.530
138,9x9
1,331,219

356,285 Brazilian......

17.300
1,004
15,286

3,017
298,817
70,690
234,036

53,876 Peru, West Indian,

8,951
3,163

4,816 East Indian, etc....

41,479
25.078
24,242

2,924 Total, 1897....

1,787,077
238,924
1,612,025

420,918 Total, 1896.

1.806,087

191,090
1,644.661

587,027 Total, 1895.

1.815.074

209,211
1.631.953

616,690 Total, 1894

1,834,546
244,396
1,613,373

642,781 Total, 1893..

1,498,062

235,580
1,482,664

666,005

Egyptian

indian, etc......

AVERAGE PRICE OF COTTON. Ellison & Co., of Liverpool, give the following estimate of the average price of cotton at that port for a series of years:

1897. 1896. 1895. 1894. 1893. 1892. 1891. 1890. 1889. 1888. d.

d.

d. Import....... 45-16 434 43-16 456 53-16 4 13-16 5 5-16 5 13-16 5 11-16 5 17-32 Export....... 47-164 11-16 4 3-16 4 5-16 51-16 411-16 4 15-16 55-16 54

476 Consumpt'n.. 45-16 444 458 53 16 4 13-16 55-16 5 15-16

5 19-32

d.

d.

d.

d.

d.

d.

WOOL.
Helmuth, Swartze & Co., London, give the following statements of the supply, export, and
consumption of wool in the United Kingdom:
Domestic Imports of Wool,

Left for
Clip.
Alpaca, and

Total Home Con-
Estimated
Mohair.

Total.

Exports. sumption.
Year.

Lbs.
Lbs.
Lbs.
Lbs.

Lbs. 1893.... 151,000,000 696,000,000

847.000.000
362,000,000

485,000,000 1894.

142,000,000
723,000,000

865,000,000 358,000,000 507.000.000 189...

135,000,000
801,000,000 936,000,000

426,000,000

510,000,000 1896...

136,000,000
736.000.000
872,000,000
352,000,000

520,000,000 1897...

139,000,000 767,000,000 906,000,000 411,000,000 495,000,000

-Value

FLAX, HEMP, AND JUTE.
The imports of these articles into the United Kingdom were as follows:

-- --Quantity -
Flax- Dressed, undressed, and Tons. Tons. Tons.


Tow or Codilla of -

1897.
1896. 1895.

1897. From Russia......

73,379 67,227 77,874 1,998,482
Germany..
947 1,443 1,687

23,937
Holland....
2,660 2,754 5.301

131,918
Belgium...

20,715 22,270 16,484 1,024,206 Other count

1,101 1,505

1,276

24,641 Total..

98.802 95,199 102,622 3,203,184 Hemp-Dressed, undressed, and

Tow or Codilla of From Russia..

7.416 11.071 12,540

177,507
Germany......
8,485 9,322 10.354

201,845
Italy...
15,975 11.025 10,914

419,154
British East Indies..
6,877 5,569 4,999

94,614
Philippine Islands... ... ... 44,578 39,319 47,957 759,111
Other countries......
6,575 15,411 11,187

111,228

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Total...

89,906 Jute............. ........... 336,919

Total of flax, hemp, and jute. 526,627

97,951 392,025

340,649

1,763,459 4,142,610 9,109,253

4,167,992 9,236,794

2,087,367 4,358,036 9,716,543

527.565

592,598

Fisheries.

The quantity and value of fish, excluding shell fish, landed on the coast of the United Kingdom for the year 1897 were as follows: England and Wales, 397,260 tons, value £5,568,494 ; Scotland, 250,087 tons, value £1,627,622; Ireland, 40,918 tons, value £283,944: total United Kingdom, 688,283 tons, value £7,480,000; including shell fish, £7,907,569.

Imports and Exports.
The merchandise imports and exports of Great Britain have been as follows for a series of years :
-- Exports-

Total
Foreign
British

Total Imports and
Year.
Imports. and Colonial. Produce.

Exports. Exports. 1890.

£120,691,997 £64,721,533 £263,530,585 £328,252,118 £748,944,115 1891. 435,441,264 61,878,568 247,235,150

309,113,718

744,554,982 1892. 423,793,882 64,423,767 227, 138,270

291,640,166

715,434,048 1893.... 404,688,178 58,878,552 218,259,718

277, 138,270

681,826,448 1894. 408,344,810 57,780,230

216.005,637 273,785,867 682,130,677 1895.

416,689,658

59,704,161 226, 128, 246 285,832, 407 702,522,005 1896.

441,808,904 56,233,663 240,145,551 296,379,214 738,188,118 1897...

451,238,683 59,833,677 234,350,003 294,183,680 745, 422,363

1895. £8.966 140,242 25.058

CLASSES OF ARTICLES FOR TWELVE MONTHS ENDED DECEMBER 31.
Imports from foreign countries and British possessions (in thousands of pounds):

1897.

1896. Animals, living (for food)..

£11.380 £10.438 (A.) Articles of food and drink, duty free....

151,550 147.000 (B.) Articles of food and drink, dutiable..

26,791

25,568 Tobacco, dutiable...

4,072

4,352 Metals. ...........:

21.265 20,492 Chemicals, dyestuffs, and tanning substances.....

6,006

6,776 Oils.....

7,841

8,459 Raw materials for textile manufactures...

70,263 74.757 Raw materials for sundry industries and manufactures.

52,085

47.241 Manufactured articles,

85,038

81,379 (A.) Miscellaneous articles.......

14,139

14,330 (B.) Parcel post..........

1,004

1.012 Total value,....

................ £451,238 £441.808

18,656 6,558

8,111 70,769 44,024 75,601 14,367

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£416,689

Exports of British and Irish produce and manufactures (in thousands of pounds):

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Animals, living .......
Articles of food and drink.......
Raw materials......
Articles manufactured and partly manufactured, viz.:

(A.) Yarns and textile fabrics...
(B.) Metals and articles manufactured therefrom (except ma-

chinery).........................................
(C.) Machinery and mill work...........
(D.) Apparel and articles of personal use......
(E.) Chemicals, and chemical and medicinal preparations.....
(F.) All other articles, either manufactured or partly manufac-

tured.... (G.) Parcel post.... Total value................

.....................

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101,377 28,888 15,150 9,307 8,288

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Grain and flour.......
Cotton, raw.....
Wool, sheep and lamb's......
Dead meat................
Sugar, raw and refined..
Butter and margarine..
Wood and timber.
Silk manufactures......
Flax, hemp, and jute...
Tea...........
Woolen manufactures...
Animals........
Oils......
Chemicals, dyestuffs, etc
Seeds.........
Fruits and hops....
Currants and raisins
Leather...............
Wine..
Cheese......,

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