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Beer Product. The following table shows the quantity of beer brewed at various periods. The amounts are given in thousands of hectolitres (= 26.4 gallons): also the number of active breweries in the beer excise district:

Beer
Württem-

Alsace

No. of Active Years.

Excise Dist. Bavaria. berg. Baden. Lorraine. Total. Breweries. 1890-91..

32,280
14,427
3,508
1.679

837 52,731 8,969 1891-92.. 32,632 14,490

1.643
875

53,094 8,672 1892-93...

33,171
15,104
3,750
1,714
912

54,651 8,460 1893-94...

31,385
15.025
3,478
1,710

907

55,505 8,243 1894-95..

33,974
15,186
3,493
1.728

869 55,250 8,029 1895-96.... 33,733 16,034

3,885
1,914

997 56,563 7,847 The average annual consumption per head of the population of the entire Zollgebiet for the twenty years, 1874-94, was 25.3 gallons.

10V1

UR..........

....

.

.

Alcohol.

The production and consumption of alcohol, showing uses and per capita consumption, are given below in hectolitres (1 hectol.=26.4 gallons): Years ending Sept. 30 1890. 1891.

1892.

1893. 1894. 1895. 1896. Production....

.. 3.144.801 2,969,149 2,948,244 3,028,920 3,262,685 2,951,671 3,333,648 Consumpt'n (total)....... 2,827,859 2.72:2,426 2,743,786 2,861,589 2,927,629 2,940,263 3,098,118 (per capita).

5.5
5.5
5.7
5.7
5.7

5.9 (industrial). 531,375 519,104 551.300 606,670 604.394 718,806 808,979 (beverages). 2,296,484 2,203,322 2,192,486 2,254,919 2,263,235 2,221,457 2.289,839

5.8

do do do

729

Minerals and Metals. The annual product of the principal minerals and metals in Germany and Luxemburg is shown in the following table, in thousands of metric tons, likewise the values, in thousands of dollars: -- Metric Tons

---Values -Minerals

1892 1893 1894. 1895. 1896. 1892 1893. 1894. 1895. 1896. Coal.......... 71,372 73,909 76,773 79,169 85,639 131,745 124,617 127.204 130,679 143,813 Lignite...... 21,172 21,567 22, 103 24,788 26,767 14,626 13,751 13,288 14.065 14,773 Iron ore.... 11,539 11,457 12,392 12,349 14,162 11.539 11,457 12,392 10,265

12,845 Zinc ore.....

800
788

706

729 5.305 3,574 2,569 2,561 4,118 Lead ore.....

163

168 163 161 154 3,672 3,536 3,026 3,134 2,998 Copper ore...

508
385
588

633 717 5,128 4,531 4,060 3,726 4,109 Kainit. 549 665 727

680

857 1,956 2,398 2,575 2,327 Other pot. salts.. 803 861 916 840 924 2,532 2,762 2,988 2,819 Rock salt..

663 669 735 087 756 708 736 789 776 MetalsPig iron....

4,937 4,986 5.559 5,417 6,295 57.324 54,986 57,095 56,906 71,712 Zinc.....

140
143
144

150 153 13,765 11,821 10,453 10,083 11,423 Lead.....

98

101 111 113 5,137 4,519 4,762 5,291 5,945 Copper. 25 24

6,189 5,858 5,468 5,641 7,072 Gold*..

3

3,684 2 138 2,881 Silver*....

489
449 444 440

14,307 11.766 9,654 The production of bituminous coal in 1897 was 91,010 tons, and peat or brown coal 29.420 tons. The total steel production amounted to 4,538,637 tons, as against 4.297,447 in 1896. In 1897, copper ore, 700,000 tons; iron ore, 15,448,212 tons; copper, ingot, 29,408 tons; gold (kg.), 2,781, value $1,934,000; silver, value $9,092,000; sulphuric acid, value $3,716,000.

95

26

Foreign Commerce.

The imports and exports of merchandise under the head of "special trade" (precious metals included), together with the movement of the precious metals, are shown below; the imports and exports for 1897 are valued at the prices for 1896. The returns for 1897 are swollen by the inclusion, for the first time, of dutiable articles imported for re-export after further manufacture. (Expressed in marks):

- Merchandise

-Precious MetalsYears.

Imports.
Exports.
Imports.

Exports. 1891..

4,403,404,000
3,339,755,000
252,600,000

164,200,000
4,227,004,000
3,150,104,000

208,400,000

196,000,000 1893.

4,134,070,000
3,244,562,000

172,300,000

152,600,000 1894.

4,285,533,000
3,051,480.000
347,300,000

90,000,000 1895

4,246,111,000
3,424,275,000

125,400,000

106,200.000 1896.

4,557,951.000
3,753,822.000
219,472,000

2:27.833,000 1897.

4,833,000,000
3,808,000,000

187,000,000

155,000,000

1892...

* Given in kilogrammes. 1 kilo. = 2.2046 lbs.; 1 metric ton = 2,204 lbs.

414

1897.

The values of the imports and exports, classified as below, were as follows (in millions of marks):

- Imports-

-- -Exports1896. 1895. 1894. 1889. 1896. 1895. 1894. 1889. Raw materials... 1.886 1,805 1,666 1,767

773

668 665 Manufactures......

939
925
885

993 2,301 2,179 1,879 2,099 Food and cattle.... 1,482 1,389 1,437 1,229

451 416

401 Some of the leading articles of import and export for 1896 and 1897 are shown as follows:

--Imports

--Exports-1896.

1896.

1897. Cottons and cotton cloths...

294,099 356,365 227,120 229,518 Lead and lead articles..............

7,440
8,592
10,805

12,787 Brushes and sieves......

2,998
3,159
20,667

22,854 Colors, pharmaceutical product....

243,810
244,075

318,414 326,730 Iron and iron articles....

46,987
66,769

322, 785 319,018 Earths, minerals, precious metals, amianthus...... 373,494 329,099 282,584 218,974 Flax, bemp, and other textile materials not cotton. 93,869

89,427
30,980

28,776 Grains and other vegetable products...

728,281 718,247 73,225 95,063 Glass and glassware.....

10,705
11.358
43,381

43,733 Hairs and feathers.....

46,972
54,385

29,377 33,257 Skins and furs....

170,290
181,622

75,659

84.365 Wood and other cut-out matters.

243,522 297, 453

95,755 109,482 9,884 6,872 24,866

19,623 Instruments, machines, and vehicles

36,486
48,303

155,872 172,119 Rubber and gutta-percha..

42,903 406,403

30,460

35,119 Clothing and linen drapery.....

10,600
11.159

120.075 142,578 Copper and copper materials....

69,517
87,001
84,546

85,051 Hardware.....

39,899
39,825

116,997 125,673 Leather and leather articles..

57,518
58,359

151,316 150,446 Linen cloths....

26,806
28,290
24,017

25,137 Literary and artistic productions,

35,670
43,834

113,129 124,384 Food products, groceries, preserves.

626,322 694,895

342,359 435,026 Oils, not otherwise specified, and greases.

144,205
155,398

27,140

29.366 Paper and paperware...

12,626

13,607 101,172 97.277 Petroleum..................

80,959
81,402

1,325

1.939 Silks and sil kalines.

152,180

155,073 155, 123 145,258 Soap and perfumery...

1,850
1,941
12,450

13,213 Stone and stone objects...

31,915
36,983

25,577 23,860 Coal, peat...........

117,150

124,783 157,395 169,293 Objects of straw and bark fibers...

8,210
9,087
4,349

4,717 Resin, pitch, tar, asphalt......

37.720
39,567

9,750

9,576 Animals & animal products not elsewhere specified. 133,280

134,349

9,886

8.016 Potteries...

5,141
7,309

43,136 59,615 Cattle..

145.938
149,090

23,276

20,008 Wool and wool stuffs..

404,954 402,158 325,004 327,559 Zine and zinc articles....

5,487
6,901

11,528 27,274 Tin and tin articles.....

18,038
15.715

5,273 4,982 Divers.................

451
8,837

8,968 The imports of textile materials for the past four years are given as follows:

1894.
1895.
1896.

1897.
Cwts.
Cwts.
Cwts.

Cwts. Raw cotton....

2,778,308
3,008,872
2,814,889

3,024,694 Cotton residue..

214,773
275,454
276,052

291,440 Raw sheep wool.............

1,630,790
1,832,016
1,702,446

1,632,935
'544,936
649,289
541,861

487,260 Hemp....

443,669
492,492
445,237

465,873 Jute....

781,515
1,138,279

988,454

892,905 Raw silk...

24,570
28,202
25,713

28,858 GENERAL DISTRIBUTION OF GERMAN COMMERCE. The "special" commerce of the Deutsche Zollgebiet, or Customs League, was divided as fol. lows, expressed in thousands of marks:

- 1894
--1895-

--1896Imports Exports Imports Exports Imports Exports Countries.

from.

to.
from.

to.

from. German free ports....

12,718 37,454 14,609 37,991 15.801 40,456 Great Britain.......

608,866 635,114 578,726 678,890 647,773 715.946 Austria-Hungary..

581,749 401,653 525,431 435,766 578,032 477,324 Russia.....

543,938 194,806 568,795 220,881 634,671 364,142 Switzerland.

136.228 188,334 144,516 219,029 146,343 243,953 Belgium....

171.628 149,888 179,194 159 186 175,702 168,000 Netherlands.

199,179 244,017 164,331 245,133 162,632 262,265 France and Algeria...

214,049 188,130 229,922 202,769 233,587 201,553 Italy.......

141,436 82,470 145,942 83,375 137, 484 85,630 Norway and Sweden.....

82,607 113,471 78,241 118.951 93,109 127,144 Denmark....

73,426 83,387 73,031 100,877 58,224 97,417 Spain,.....

39,349 30,567 28,607 31,158 35,942 39,428 Balkan Peninsula, includ'g Greece,

Montenegro, and Turkey in Asia 91,385 83,379 74,362 83,192 114,830 72,702 Portugal...

12,790 10,865 13,539 13,054 15,226 13,412 British India ....

164,130 39.169 162, 128 44,661 171,163 49,179 Rest of Asia............

87,669
60,120 105,605

77.605

132,324 99,123 Africa (except Algeria)

72,142 38,678 79,352 42,887 88,588 57,457 North and Central America.

582,875 305,246 564,825 411,413 640,142 424.766 South America and West Indies. 369,014 142,537 394,212 192,751 369, 416 182,307 Australia.................

98,917 21,272 118,506 23,362 104,464 30,044 Other countries

1,438

923 2,237 1,145 2,498 1,574 Total.............

........ 4,285,533 3,051,480 4,246,111 3,424,076 4,557,951 3,753,822

[graphic]

437

Fax...

[graphic]

to.

to U:

S

1 90293.............

COMMERCE WITH THE UNITED STATES. The following statement shows the imports of Germany from the United States and the exports thither for a series of years (ending June 30):

Imports
Exports

Imports

Exports
Years.
from U.S.

Years.
from U.S.

to U.S. 1885-86. $61,961,000 369,154,000 1892-93..

$83,578,000

$96.210.000 1886-87..

58,571,000
80,647,000 1893-94..

92,357,000

69,387,000 1887-88.

56,414,000
78,421,000 1894-95..

92,054,000

81,014,000 1888-89.....

68,802,000
81,742,000 1895-96...

97,897,000

94,241,000 1889-90....

85,563,000
98,837.000 1896-97.

125.246,000 111,211,000 1890-91...

92,795,000
97,316,000 1897-98...

155,039,972

69,696,907 1891-92....

105,521,000

82,907,000 1 The principal imports from United States during the year ending June 30, 1896, were : Breadstuffs, $6,918,749 (of this $5,121,573 was corn); copper (ingots, bars, etc.), $2,394,070; cotton (unmanu.

ers, 81,609,045 ; hides and skins, $1,074,268; iron and steel, manufactures of, $2,506,779; naval stores, $1,665,436; oil cake and oil cake meal, 31,939,558: oil, refined mineral, $7,686,715; provisions, $12, 190,115 ; tobacco (unmanufactured), $4,031,312; wood, and manufactures of, $2,619,281. Exports to the United States were: Books, etc., $1,000,542; cement, Portland, $1,815,307 ; chemicals, drugs, dyes, $5,632,205 free ; $4,157,793 dutiable; cotton, manufactures of, $8,712, 145; earthen, stone, and china ware, $2,692,110; flax, hemp, jute, manufactures, $1,770,979; furs and fur skins and manufactures, $2,046,001; glass and glassware, $2,982,966; hides and skins, $1,216,837; iron and steel, and manufactures of, $2,924,836; leather and manufactures, $4,559,167; metals, and manufactures of, $1,729,031 : paper and manufactures of, $2,037,841; rice and rice flour, S1,067,778; silk manufactures, $6,219,170; sugars, $12,528,755; toys, $2,242,264; wines, $1,359,185; wool manufactures, $11,658,949.

GOLD AND SILVER COIN AND BULLION IMPORTS AND EXPORTS.
Gold Coin and Bullion

-Silver Coin and Bullion
Imports.
Exports.

Imports.

Exports. 1892.... $45,612,162 $38,897,709 | 1892.....

$3,904,687 $3,029,225 1893....

35,551,259
24,175,031 1893....

2,464,328

11,894,183 1894*. 77,130,690 12,690,000 1894 .........

4.251.407

8.450.850 1895.... 23,193,328 19,514,609 1895...................

2,389,088

5,547,817 1896.. 52,421,909 47,000,480 1896.

3,163,429 7,260,925

Internal Transportation.

RAILROADS. (See Index.)

CANAL AND RIVER NAVIGATION.
At the end of 1895 the canals and inland navigations of Germany were as follows:
Length Navigable for Vessels of Draught-

Under
5 ft. 9 in. 4ft. 11 in. 3 ft. 3 in. 2 ft. 6 in. 2 ft. 6in.
Nature of Waterway.

Miles. Miles.

Miles. Miles.
Navigable rivers......

986
1,494
2,483
238

6:29 Canalized rivers.

208
983

104 Canals..

171
981

120 Kaiser Wilhelm Canal....

28.

“Miles.

Total Length Miles. 5,830 1,371 1.391

44

31

90

6

61

Total......

1,181
1,873
4,447

372
780

8,653 The number of vessels passing through the Kaiser Wilhelm Canal from April 1, 1896, to March 31. 1897, was 19,960, with a registered tonnage of 1.848,458, as against 1,505,983 tons in 1895-96. The total receipts in 1896-97 amounted to £50,842, and expenses £103.239. In 1897-98 the number of vessels passeu through was 23,108, with net carrying capacity of 2,469,795 register tons.

Shipping, Post-Office and Telegraph. (See Index.)

Money and Banking.

MONEY.-For gold and silver coins, see Index.
NOTE.- For further information see this " Year Book," Volumes I, II, and III.

* In addition there were imported 66,269 kilogrammes and exported 27 kilogrammes of gold and silver, value not stated.

COINAGE.
The following statement shows the value (in thousands of marks) of the money coined since the
foundation of the present Empire:
Year.

Gold.
Silver.
Nickel. Copper,

Total. 1894...

157,282.1
4,487.2

843.9
373.4

162,986.6. 1895.

107,514.0
7,672.4

181.6
340.9

115.708 9 1896..

107,701.8
11,411.6

1,522.0
443.2

121,078.6 1897.

126,662.4

1,479.5

206.3

128,348.2 Total since 1872...... 3,108,189.9

507,629.9

54,134.9 13,444.9 3,683,399.6 Withdrawn.......

6,226.0
13,405.1

3.2
0.1

19,635.0 Surplus.............. 3,101,963.9 494,224.8

54.131.7
13,444.9

3,663,764.6.

NOTENBANKEN.

The following statement shows the average financial condition of the note-issuing banks of the Empire, in thousands of marks:

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The following statement shows the condition of the Imperial Bank, in thousands of pounds sterling, at the dates named:

Aug. 31, Aug. 22, Aug. 31, 1

Aug. 31, Aug. 23, Aug. 31, Assets. 1897. 1897. 1896.

Liabilities.

1897. 1897 1896. Coin and bullion....... £43,240 £44,504 £45,133 | Notes in circulation.... £53,534 £51,546 £52,257 Diseounts & advances.. 39,35937,264 38,613 | Current accounts...... 25,715 26,582 25,523

The following table shows the annual transactions of the Bank since its foundation, for the years named, in thousands of marks:

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The Deutsche Oekonomist publishes a report on the issue of foreign loans in Germany. The capital raised is stated as follows, in millions of marks:

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A detailed statement of these issues shows as follows, in millions of marks:

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ation of limited liability companies is recorded by the same authority. as follows: In 1892, number of companies, 63; capital, 28,864,700 marks. In 1893, number, 162; capital, 68,667,464 marks. In 1894, number, 254; capital, 112,456,000 marks. In 1895, number, 297 ; capital, 149, 711,100. In 1896, num. ber, 376; capital, 128,483,700 marks.

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