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ITALY.

Area and Population.

At the census of December 31, 1861, the area was about 96,500 square miles, with a population of 21.777,334. According to the censuses of 1871 and 1881, the area of the kingdom was, as now, 114,410, the population aggregating respectively 26,801, 154 and 28, 459,628. The estimated population for 1894 was 30.0r3,663 and 279.45 inhabitants per square mile.

The increase in population from 1800 to 1881 (census figures) is shown as follows:

1800.
1825.
1848.
1861.
1871.

1881.
18,124,000 19,727,000 23,617,000 25,000,000 26,800,000 28,460,000

The estimated population on December 31, 1896, was 31,290,490, or 282.8 inhabitants per square mile.

At the time of the census of 1881 the resident or legal population was 28,953,480. The number of foreigners was 59,956: 16,092 were Austrians, 12, 104 Swiss, 10,781 French, 7,302 English, 5,234 Germans, 1.387 Russians, 1,286 Americans (United States), 1,212 Greeks, 922 Spaniards, and the rest mainly Turks, Belgians, Swedes, and Norwegians, Dutch, Egyptians, Argentines, Brazilians.

OCCUPATION OF INHABITANTS IN 1881.

Occupation.
Agriculture.......
Raising of animals and apiculture......
Horticulture........
Sylviculture............
Fishing and chase ..
Mining ................
Mineral industry...
Industrial productions....
Inns, clothing, etc.........
Commerce...................
Transport.
Proprietors and pensioners...
Employees and domestics.
National defense...
Civil administration...
Public worship......
Justice...........
Sanitary service.....
Instruction......
Fine arts, etc....
Literature and applied science..
Hawkers.................
Workmen, porters, etc.......
Prisoners, paupers, etc.........
Students, housekeepers, etc.
No occupation stated......

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48,019

44,359

49.765

382

31,668

805

163

211

37,851

783

52,245

1890. Europe...........

100.259 North Africa.........

2,020 America

United States...
Canada.....
Mexico, Colombia, Venezuela.
Central America. .....

926 Brazil..... ........................

16,233 Chili and Peru.....

3,334 The Argentine, Uruguay, and Paraguay.......

41,352 America (country not named).... 4,553 Other countries.......

548 Total...

........... 217,244

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2,036 108,414

896 27,542 3,062 1.143

1,088 45,324

657 36,212 4.871

851

1.204 41,628

192 34,383 1.579 719

28,542
3,577
518

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Fiscal Affairs. The following table shows the revenue and expenditure for the fiscal years named, ending June 30, the budget estimates being given for the last two years :

Total Revenue. Total Expenditure. Difference.
Years.

Lire.
Lire.

Lire. 1889-90.

1,903,170,131

1,879,636,028

Inc. 23,534,103 1891-92..

1,747,951,589

1,798,090,394

Dec. 48,138,805 1892-93..

1,748,429,655

1,739,085,890

Inc. 9,313,765 1853-94

1,863,294,087

1,912,149,991

Dec. 58.855,904 1894-95.

1,807,372,533

1.806,963,455

Inc. 409,078 1895-96.

1,839,753,509
1,841,386,659

Inc. 1,633,150 1896-97....

1,727,979,187

1,712,571,466

Inc. 15,407,721 1897-98........

1,690,154, 121
1,555,779,746

Inc. 131,374,375

PUBLIC DEBT. The capital of the outstanding public debt for the year ending June 30, 1896, was 12,732,392,000 lire, divided as follows: Consolidated, 9,587,111,000 lire; redeemable, 2,782,451,000 lire; treasury bonds, 288,208,000 lire; miscellaneous, 430,000,000 lire: total, 3,087,860,000 lire, from which deduct bonds and securities in possession of treasury, 355,468,000 lire.

The interest on the public debt is classified as follows for the year ending June 30, 1896 : Consolidated. 470,578,000 lire: redeemable, 114,655,000 lire: treasury bonds, 11,070,000 lire; miscellaneous, 911,000 lire: total, 597,214,000 lire; less interest on securities held by the treasury, 2,246,000 lire, or total of 594,968,000 lire.

Customs Imposts.

The following statement shows the customs duties in lire, collected for the years 1896 and 1897 :

1896..
1897.

1896.

1897. Import duties..... 235,951.732 220,893,193 Stamp tax.............

1,070,619 1,100,022 Export duties.....

3,764,696 1.049,779 Navigation tax........ 6,323,078 6,920,681 Extra tax on m'fr'd

Divers products...... 1,393,260 2,625,842 merchandise......... 2,496,380 2,796,300

Total............. 250,999,765 235,385,817

2,496,380

2,796,300 Divers pro

Agriculture and Mineral Production.

The area of Italy comprises 28,658,900 hectares. Of this area, 20,238,000 hectares (70.6 per cent.) are productive. 4,647,451 hectares (16.2 per cent.) unproductive, and 3,773,449 hectares (13.2 per cent.) produces little or nothing. The agricultural condition of the country is shown in the following table:

- Produce-
-Area under Cultivation-

-Total-
1893.
1894.
1895.
1893.
1894.

1895. Hectares. Hectares. Hectares. Hectol's. Hectol's. Hectol's. Wbeat...

4,556,000 4,574,000 4,593,000 47,654,000 42,850,000 41,499,000 Maize,

1,920,000 1,901,000 1,957.000 29,168,000 21,004,000 24,838,000 Oats.

458.000
466,000

474,000 6,430,000 6.010,000 6.764,000 Barley ..

3:23,000
303,000
297,000 2,792,000 2,938,000

2,620,000 Bye.....

145,000
142.000 137,000 1,585,000

1,518.000 1,413,000 Rice....

162,000
165,000

163.000 4,850,000 5,738,000 5,994,000 Pulse.. 861,000 850,000 849,000 4,092,000 4,555,000 4,080,000

Quintals. Quintals. Quintals. Hemp...

101,000
105,000 105,000

675,000
795,000

580,000 Hlax,.....

52.000
52,000
52.000
169.000
187,000

203,000 Potatoes....

198.000

200,000 209,000 8,089,000 6,214,000 7,022,000 Chestnuts....

412,000
410.000 412,000 2,647,000

1,920,000 2,128,000

Hectol's. Hectol's. Hectol's. Wine..

3,435,000 3,451.000 3,462,000 32,164,000 25,817,000 24,246,000 Olive oil.... 1,061,000 1,044,000

2,941,000 2,120,000 2,261,000

Kilogr's. Kilogr's. Kilogr's. Tobacco.....

4,314

4,658 5,240 6,079,710 5,877,229 6.743,000 Silk cocoons........

47,624,000 43,128.000 41,152,000 Plants.

Plants. Number. Number. Number. Acid fruits............. 17,176,000 16,933,000 ......... 3,320, 400,000 3,549,900,000 2,718,300,000

Plante.

1 kilogramme = 2.2046 pounds. 1 hectare = 2.471 acres. 1 hectolitre = 2.8375 bushels. 1 quintal = 290.46 pounds. 1 hectolitre = 26.417 gallons.

In 1890 Italy bad 5,000,000 cattle, 6,900,000 sheep, 1,800,000 goats, 1,800,000 swine. In 1895 there were 550,045 persons employed in rearing silkworms, and 172,000 skilled and other workers (including ninetenths women and children) were employed in the treatment and manufacture of silk. The total weight of the cocoon harvest was: In 1890, 89,866,800 lbs.; in 1891, 85,494,748 lbs.; in 1892, 69,283,000 lbs., in 1833. 104.991,900 lbs.: in 1894, 95,073,000 lbs.: in 1895, 90,723.700 lbs.

According to last census, the whole agricultural population was computed to be 14,900,000, including women.

The average values of produce, agricultural, animal, and forest, are, in round numbers: Cereals, fibers, wine, fruit, etc., 2.873,000,000 lire: animals, wool, milk, cocoons, etc., 1,424,000,000 lire; forest yield, 88,000,000 lire; total, 4,385,000,000 lire. The value of accessory agricultural produce, such as vegetables, fungi, poultry, eggs, etc., is not known, but the exports alone of such produce amount to about 80,000,000 lire annually.

The total wine crop in Italy for the year 1894 amounted to 25,816,588 hectolitres; 1895, 24,245,836 hectolitres ; 1896, 21,373,092 (provisional figures).

MINERAL PRODUCTION,

The chief mineral production for 1896 was as follows, in metric tons and dollars (U. S.): Copper ore, 90,408 tons, valued at $424,719; iron ore, 203,966 tons, value $507,973; lead ore, 33,545 tons, value $892,865; zinc ore, 118,171 tons, value $1,498,129.

Products are: Briquettes, 422, 409 tons, value $2,081,645; copper and alloys, 10,319 tons, value $3,426,050; iron, cast, 15,321 tons, value $592,031; iron, pig, 139,991 tons, value $6,606,951 : lead, 20,786 tons, value $1,162,469; salt, sea, 422,555 tons, value $856,072; silver, 38,075 kilogs., value $882,228; steel, 65,955 tons, value $4,874,539; sulphur, refined, 71,072 tons, value $1,198,447 ; sulphur, ground, 89,292 tons, value $1,602,797.

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The following table exhibits the total imports and exports, the precious metals (uncoined silver excluded), and merchandise (special commerce) for the years given:

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Merchandise. Total.
Lire.

Lire.
1,319,638,433 962,600,353
1,126,584,583 939,509,555
1,170,328,304 1,011,802,478
1,190, 148,200 1,058,298,248
1,094,621,442 1,057,182,039
1,187,238,399 1,059,579,763
1,174,267.3931,129,806,698
1,201,253,227 1,138,947,214

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IMPORTS AND EXPORTS BY CLASSES.

-Imports-1895.

1896. Raw materials....

$87,306,736 889,617,647 Materials prepared for manufacture..... 46,679,538 44,231,418 Manufactured products.........

48,301,683

44,345,510 Food supplies...............

46,874,549 48,786,299 Total..

$229,162,506 $226,980,874

- Exports1895.

1896. $33,751,363 $33,881,490 71,160,874 64,686,969 35.623.234 42,638,165

59,750,468 61,905,559 $200,285,939 $203,012,183

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The leading imports and exports for the years 1895 and 1896 are shown as follows, in thousands of lire: Imports.

Exports.
1895.
1896.

1895.

1896. Grain, wheat....

95,383 110,287 | Silk, raw and thrown.... 296,035 257,898 Cotton, raw.. 96.717 112,750 Silk, waste.

22,633 25,552 Coal......

86,096
89,706 Silk, manufactures...

29,689

29,689 Timber for b

31,017

31,681 | Suk coco
Silk, cocoons.....

4,334

4,235 Sugar, raw..

19,447
20.560 Wine in casks .....

43,551 46,603 Sugar, refine

319
223 | Oil, olive........

46,388 54,913 Wool, raw....

29,994
31,941 Fruit (fresh).................

48,264 53,696 Machinery ... 35,465 36,246 Eggs...........................

32,083

28.964 Silk, unbleached, raw, or

Coral, manufactured....... 21.943 26,626 twisted.... 74,237 51,290 Hemp and flax, raw.....

40,507 37,450 Fish, of all sorts....

31,596

29,263 Sulphur, unrefined and reIron in bars, Ist fusion ... 11,459

10.889 fined..............

20,642 27,262 Coffee............. 28,792 27,741 Rice.............

12,393

10.791 Silk, manufactures of...

22,264
Cotton, raw.....

1,762

2,215 Linen and hemp yarn..

13,305
14.809 Marble.......

9,043

9,764 Hides, raw and dried...

35,060
Meat, fresh and salted...... 17,511

16.051 Cheese..................

11,115
10,466 Skins, raw....

21,302 16,236 Tobacco leaf....

24,341
21.302 Straw plaiting...

6,401 6,130 Cotton, unbleached..

2,941

1,143 Dyeing and tanning stuffs... 12,070 11,742 Cotton, bleached.

1,847
1,446 Animals, cattle.......

18,727 15,082 Cotton, colored and dyed... 2,057

1,694 Animals, horses....

1,915

1,782 Cotton, printed...

6,376
4,040 Animals, swine....

3,878

3.002 Horses...............

20,198
27.046 Zinc ore.....

8,342

9,236 Cotton yarn.....

2,273
1,503 Lead ore....

1,060

757 Oil, mineral, refined....

12,008 11,937 Grain, wheat... Rice.....

13
415 Grain, other.....

7,473 9,749 Railway materials...

830

484 Indigo...

4,998

4,964 Oil, olive ....................

4,843

2,693 Silkworms' eggs, on cards... 2,170

2,362)

37.389

78

The imports from and exports to (special commerce) the leading countries are given below in thousands of lire :

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The values of the imports into the United States and of the exports from the United States to Italy for the years ending June 30 were as follows:

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The principal imports into the United States for the year ending June 30, 1896, were: Argol, $1,458,478; sulphur, $1,586,551; fruits (lemons and oranges), $5,941,855; bides and skins, $843,548; matting (floor), $684,886; oils (vegetable), 3946,722 ; cheese, $475,940; silk (unmanufactured), $4,587,761 ; wool, and manufactures of, 8533,467 : silver, $40. Exports from the United States were: Corn, $583,268 ; cotton. 310.533,092: refined mineral oils, $1,829,177 : tobacco (unmanufactured), £2,874,473; wood, and manufactures of, $714,959.

IMPORTS AND EXPORTS OF GOLD AND SILVER COIN AND BULLION.

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Shipping, Railroads, Post-Offices, Telegraphs. (See Index.)

Money and Circulation.

The money is the same as that of France, the lira being equal to 19.3 cents. The circulation of State and bank notes is shown as follows:

1890.
1892.
1893.
1894.
1895.

1896. 1,000 Lire. 1,000 Lire. 1,000 Lire. 1,000 Lire. 1,000 Lire. 1,000 Lire. State notes...

342,809
341,414
351,792 492,149 510,000

510,000 Bank potes*...

1,126,440 1,138,385 1,221,634 1,128,598 1,085,675 1,069,233 Gold was coined to the value of 1,364,400 lire in 1890; 653,220 lire in 1891; 674,120 lire in 1892 ; 824,280 lire in 1893. No silver has been coined in recent years. In 1894 bronze pieces were coined to the amount of 3.790,978 lire; nickel, 17,780,200 lire; in 1895, nickel, 2,219,800 lire.

The total coinage from 1862 to the end of 1894 was : Gold, 426,332,990 lire; silver, 567,037,025 lire; nickel, 17,780,.200 lire; bronze, 83,636,121 lire; total, 1,094,786,336 lire. The recoinage was 28,954,834 lire.

For gold and silver coins, see Index.
NOTE.- For further information see this " Year Book,” Volume I, pages 61-63.

* Including, for 1893, 9,182,000 lire; for 1894, 2,445,000 lire; and for 1895, 857,355 of notes of the Banca Romana (in liquidation).

Banking.

There are now only three banks of issue: The Banca d' Italia; the Banca di Napoli, and the Banca di Sicilia. In 1896 the condition of the three institutions combined was as follows, in thousands of lire: Assets.

Liabilities. Cash and reserve.... 585,614 Capital....

347,000 Bills.............. 313,457 Notes in circulation..........

1,069,233 Credits...... 90,730 Accounts current.....

308,371 Deposits.....

1,475,044 Titles and valuables deposited....... 1,475,044 Various securities. 920,150 Various ........

175.788 Total ............

3,384,995
Total...

3,375,436

.....................

There are 759 co-operative credit societies and popular banks, with assets at the end of 1891 amounting to 754,072,665 lire, and liabilities 745,789,445 lire: 150 ordinary credit companies, with assets 1.726,911,882 lire, and liabilities 173,940,689 lire. Eleven agrarian credit companies had assets (1892) 49,812,389 lire, and liabilities 49,759,134 lire. There were 10 crédit foncier companies with assets 1,071,378,107 lire, and liabilities 1,063, 418,487 lire (1894).

SAVINGS-BANKS, ETC., 1896.

Total

Deposits Repayments
Offices. Depositors. Deposits. during Year. during Year.

Lire.
Lire.

Lire. Post-office savings-banks...... 4.827

2,997,562 478,000,000 281,024,939 278,208.432 Ordinary savings-banks*...... 395 1.475,008 1,258,052, 466 456,616,930 411,274,397 Co-operative savings-banks and ordinary credit companies* .. 762 4 45,075 318,933,482 354,394,381 367,943,087

In 1895 the ordinary savings-banks had 1,588,412 depositors, their total deposits amounting to 1,343,723,104 lire.

* Figures are for the year 1893.

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