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BELGIUM.

Area and Population. The area of Belgium is 11,373 square miles. According to the census of 1890, the population was then 6,069,321 ; in 1880 it was 5,520,009: in 1870, 5,087,826: in 1860, 4,731,996 : in 1850, 4,426,205 ; and in 1840, 4,072,619. The population per square mile in 1896 was 571.1; total population Dec. 31, 6,495,886.

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IMMIGRATION AND EMIGRATION.
1890. 1891.
1892. 1893.

1894. Immigration .............

21.458 20,741 21,774 21,686 27,635 Emigration..............

21,675 18,994 22,532 22.117 18,302 Excess of immigration.. Dec. 217 Inc. 1,747 Dec. 758 Dec. 431 Inc. 6,333

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Fiscal Affairs. The following table shows the revenue and expenditures, in thousands of francs, for the years indicated: Revenue

-- Expenditure-Year. Ordinary. Extraordinary. Total. Ordinary. Special

Total. 1,000 fr. 1,000 fr. 1,000 fr. 1,000 fr. 1,000 fr.

1,000 fr. 1870...........

190.537

14,905
205,442
191,844
25,064

216,908 1880..

291,921
102,294
394,215
292,009
90,899

382,908 1885..

313,170

19,915
333,085
313,916
37,335

351,251 340,526

37,878
378,404
335,231
82,663

417.894
362,600
42,589
405,185
353,340
49,219

402.559 372,644

23,086
395,730
364,819
45,564

410,383 1808..

388,696
91,737 480,433

386,174
55,054

441,228 The amended budget for the year 1897 was: Ordinary revenue, 386,923,178 francs, and ordinary expenditure, 386,295,842 francs.

The national liabilities in 1897 were: Share of the Netherlands debt, at 24 per cent., 219,959,632 francs; loans at 3 per cent., 2,088,537,690 francs, and the floating debt (treasury bonds), 20,000,000 francs, making a total of 2,328,497,322 francs.

1890...

105...

Agriculture.

Of the 2,945,715 hectares which compose the area of Belgium, 67.34 per cent. are under cultivaton, and 16.51 per cent, under forest, 7.88 per cent, uncultivated, the rest roads, marshes, rivers, etc. Tbe agricultural population in 1880 numbered 1,199,319, or 21.77.

In 1830, the varions agricultural products were distributed as follows (in hectares): Cereals, 934,663 : peas. beans, etc., 33,093; sugar beet, 32,627 ; flax, 40,078; other ornamental plants, 24,070; root planta, 36,153; potatoes, 199,357; grasses, 536,000; heaths, brushwood, land not regularly cultivated, etc.. 231,964; fallow, groves, orchards, etc., 146,592; forests, 489,423. The principal cereals were wheat, 275,831 hectares; oats, 249, 486; rye, 277,640.

The estimated yield of the various crops in 1896 was as follows: Wheat, 7,238,595 hectolitres : barley, 1,445,616 hectolitres; oats, 8,477,118 hectolitres; rye, 7,422,135 hectolitres ; potatoes, 31,679,940 quintals; beet (sugar), 9,374,551 quintals; beet (other), 9,814,386 quintals. In 1895, the yield of tobacco was 5,166.000 kilogrammes.

The total value of agricultural products in 1880 was 1,412,224,000 francs; and of animal produce, 28.752,350 francs. The net revenue from forests alone in 1890 was 4,830,884 francs. In 1880 there were 271,974 borses, 1,382,815 horned cattle, 365,400 sheep, and 646,375 pigs.

1 hectare = 2.471 acres. 1 kilogramme = 2.2046 pounds avoirdupois.

Mining and Metals.
The production and value of coal were as follows:

1880. 1890. 1891. 1892. 1893. 1894. 1895. 1896. Tons (1,000)................ 16,886 20,366 19,676 19,583

19 19,411 20,535 20.458 21.213 Value in francs (1,000)... 169,680 268,503 247,454 201,288 181,403 191,292 193,357 202,010 The production of pig iron and manufactures of iron were as follows:

1890. 1891. 1892. 1893. 1894. 1895. 1896. Pig iron, Tons.................

787,836 684,126 753,268 745,264 818,597 829,234 959,400 Value (1,000 francs). 50,073 38,318 38,716 36,052 40,828 40,207 51,580 Manufactured ironTons....

514,311 497,380 479,008 485,021 453,290 445,899 519.857 1,000 francs...

82,988 72,602 64,879 61,873 57,589 55,7:29 Steel ingots

221,296 221,913 280,037 273,113 405,661 407.634 698,755 Million francs....... 24,989 21,307 23,277 22,929 33,011 31,018 50,510 Steel rails, etc.Tons................

201,817 206,305 208,281 224,9:22 341,318 367,917 519.300 1,000 francs..........

31,278 29.111 27,601 28,868 40,201 42,419 63,129 The lead produced in 1896 amounted to 17,222 tons, and in 1897, 14,800 tons; 149,599 tons of zinc' crude and sheet, in 1896, valued at $12,427,000; and 28,509 kilog. of silver, valued at $638,000. In 1897' the pig-iron production was 1,034,732 tons; steel ingots, 616,604 tons.

TON

................

Coal.........

Foreign Commerce. The imports and exports of Belgium, under "special" and "general" trade,'were as follows, in francs: ---General Trade

--Special Trade-
Imports.
Exports.
Imports.

Exports. 1890.

3,189,160,016
2,948,151,841
1,672,100,000

1,437,000,000 1891...

3,119.623,667
2.817.1105,898
1.799,800,000

1,519,000,000 1892.

2,817,674,833
2,664,423,337
1,536,500,000

1,369,400,000 1893.

2,810,709,742
2,590,261,736
1,575,900,000

1,355,900.000 1894.

2,703,080,783
2,424,560,429
1,574,500,000

1,303,700,000 1895....

2.901,948,026
2,604,862,583
1.680,400,000

1.385,400,00 1896.

3,037, 400,000
2,720, 300,000
1,776,700,000

1,467,900,00n The leading articles of “special trade" for 1896 and 1897 are shown as follows, in thousands of francs :

-Imports-

--Exports--1897. 1896. 1897.

1896. Animals, living .........

47.769
56,571
36,321

31.383 Animal products (crude)..

37.761
37,122
35,203

35,511 Arm3 (fire)...

1,673
1,562
15,298

15 07 Butter........

13,194
14,219
;6,433

6.6.22 Chemical products....

83,854
87,136
47.682

45,390
36,219
31,153
95,618

95,845 Coffee..

62,345
52,260

184

105 Copper and nickel.....

19,646
19,596
14,218

16,578 Drills and chiffons......

11.324

9,370
15,343

12,945 Drug supplies...

33,341
21,533
23, 470

17,240
22,620
21,955
3,900

3.744 Glassware..

4.000
3,761
74,004

78,344 Grains, and products of..

277,585
299.54
80.362

73,909 Hides ..................

75.354
67,513
72,780

65,808 Iron and steel...

36,316
36,096
129.001

132,910 Machinery and tools...

26,857
22,991
73,070

61,714 Manures....................

16,798
18,203
30,488

23,807 Meats......

19,816
17,735
25,285

28,650 Mineral products (crude)..

91,547
73,845
49,506

38,657 Papers.....

5.500
5,477
17.843

19,851 Pigments and colors.......

26,585
27,635
23,656

24.256 Rubber (crude).......

13,636
10,118
10,233

7.723
16,852
10,115
34.264

33,269 Textiles............

61,632
65,515
50,580

55,604 Textile materials, raw (not cotton & wool). 54,896

57,229
80,646

61,477 Tin, lead, and zinc..

27,910
27,286

52,300
0........................

51,295 Vegetables and vegetable substances.

96,142
106,770
48,362

51.0185 Vegetables, eggs, rice, salt (colonial).

39,366
38,578
30,211

27,097 Vegetable oils........

18,856
18,555
13,900

12,048 Wearing apparel...

14,358
13,867
9.758

9,721 Wines......

27,070

39,522 Wood, oak, and walnut...

102,297
89,996
12,934

12,700 Yarns of linen, wool, etc.....

30,089
31,003
109,519

111,277

Fisn.................

Stone.................

COMMERCE WITH THE UNITED STATES. The values of the imports and exports as between the United States and Belgium, for years ending June 30, were as follows, in thousands of dollars :

1892 1893 1894. 1893. 1896. 1897. 1898. Imports from the United States... $48,785 $26,740 $28,423 $25,243 $27,071 $33,072 $17,606 Exports to the United States...... 10,273 11,166 8,610 10.141 13.776 14.082 8,742

The principal articles of imports from Belgium for the year ending June 30, 1806. were: Cement, chemicals, drugs and dyes, $241,507 : chicory root. 8202.993: cotto

02,993; cotton, manufactures of. $36.12: flax, hemp, and jute, manufactures of, 8576.354; furs, manufactures of, $336,602; glass and glassware, $1,688,616; hides and skins, not furs, $211,336; jewelry, $1,269,155; leather, kid gloves, $410,608 : paper stock, $372, 141; provisions, meat products and cheese, $267,292; sugar, not above No. 16 D. S., beet, $1,771.977; wool, $1,432, 400; manufactures of, $606,594.

Principal exports to Belgium were: Breadstuffs, $3,893,234 ; copper, ingots, bar, and old, $1,525,351 : cotton, unmanufactured, $3.539,012; iron and steel. manufactures of, $611,490: leather, manufactured, $446,419; naval stores (rosin, etc., and turpentine), $742,158; oil cake and oil-cake meal, $1,206,719; refined mineral oil, $2,637,758; provisions, $4,877,026, of which $2,520,358 is bacon and hams and $1,900,065 is lard; tobacco, unmanufactured, $2,216,921; wool, and manufactures of, $591,108. GOLD AND SILVER COIN AND BULLION, IMPORTS AND EXPORTS. --Gold

Silver-
Year.

Imports.
Exports.
Imports.

Exports. $9,202,507

$196,444
$10,505,251

$1,179,518 356,479

2,517
297,911

13,823 1892....

512,378

10,534
333.179

25,379 1803....

546,675

32,450
362,453

50,419 3,904,676

325,100
1,004,219

3.864,205 For years 1855 to 1884, see this “ Year Book," Volume I, pages 42 and 43.

140..

Shipping, Railroads, Telegraphs, Post-Office. (See Index.)

Money.
The franc is the unit of value, and is of the par value of 19.3 cents. Belgium is one of the five
States forming the Latin Union.

For gold and silver coins, see Index.
For monetary system of Latin Union, see " Commercial Year Book," Volume I, pages 61-63.

The nominal value of coin minted and circulated from 1832 to 1894 was: Gold, 598,642,745 francs ; silver. 556.312.745 francs: copper and nickel, 17,671,784 francs; total, 1,172,657,275 francs. No coinage has been minted recently. The proportion of Belgian and of foreign fractional silver coin (2,1, and franc pieces) in circulation was as follows: Of silver fractional pieces amounting to 349,217 france received at the offices of the bank on September 1, 1893, 43.53 per cent, in value was Belgian, 31.21 per cent. French, 17.83 per cent. Italian, 3.65 per cent. Swiss, 0.745 per cent. Greek; or 56.465 per cent. Was foreign,

Banking.

The one bank of emission in Belgium is the National Bank, instituted 1850. Its capital, entirely paid up, is 550 million francs. It is the cashier of the State, and is authorized to carry on the usual banking operations.

The situation of the bank on September 30, 1897, was: Cash, 104,300,000 francs; notes to bearer in circulation, 486.000.000 francs : accounts current and deposits. 41.400.000 francs ; portfolio, 428.800,000 france, advances on mortgage, 28,000,000 francs: treasury account and deposits, 46,200,000 francs. The condition of the 54 joint-stock and private banks at the end of 1896 was: Assets.

Liabilities, 1,000 Francs.

1.000 Francs. Cash.. 39,577 Paid-up capital......

205,288 Securities

Reserves (various)..

96,862 Commercial..... 169,390 Contracts for fixed term.......

274,5,6 Public funds, etc........ 296.908 Contracts short dated.

568.793 Accounts current.... 399,115 Unpaid dividends.........

20.508 Advances...............

261,037
1,166,027

Total.
...................... 1 100, VS.

1,168,0:27 There are, besides, agricultural banks, credit unions, and popular banks. The following are statistics of the State savings-banks: Amount of

Amount of Deposits at

Deposits at Year. Offices. Depositors. Eod of Year. Year. Offices. Depositors. End of Year' Francs.

Francs. 731.057 282,588,099 1894....

859 1,053,669

390,181.775 856 960,468 351,308,338 | 1895...... 868 1,145,408

427.317.065

Total..

1890.......

1893.***.

RUSSIA.

Area and Population.

The area of the Russian Empire, including its internal waters, covers 8,644,100 English square miles. There has been no general census enumerati

en no general census enumeration of its population since 1859, when the number of inhabitants was 74,000,000 in round numbers. The growth or population has since then been largely accelerated by acquisitions of territory, and the rate of increase is indicated by the following figures, supposed to be based on careful estimates. The latest census figures are appended and differ slightly from the estimated population for 1895, given in this work last year:

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According to official statistics there was in Russia an excess of emigration over immigration in the case of Russians of 1,146,052 in 33 years (1856-1888), and a surplus of immigration of 2,304,717 foreigners during the same time. Emigration is on the increase. Of late the Russians, especially Jews, contributed a large part to the flow of emigrants into the United States. During the years 1871-85, 8,767, 605 foreigners entered Russia, but only 7,525,360 left, showing thus an immigration of 1,242,245 (563,345 Germans, 447,736 Austrians, 9.395 English, and nearly 100,000 Persians). The surplus of foreigners who entered Russia during the years 1886-88 (2,478,430) over those who left was 278,947, while the surplus of Russian subjects who left Russia (1,413,018) over those who returned was 136, 129.

The emigration to Siberia may be judged from the following numbers of emigrants carried on board the steamers which ply on the Ob and Irtysh: In 1888, 26, 129; in 1889, 30,410; in 1890, 36.000; in 1891, 60,000; in 1892, 100,000; in 1895, 100,000, and in 1896 and 1897 from 150,000 to 200,000 each year.

Fiscal Affairs.

The following table gives the total actual ordinary and extraordinary revenue and expenditure in paper roubles. The table is made up upon a new classification adopted on June 4, 1894, and differs from preceding years as follows: (1) All revenue which was commonly calculated in the budget estimates with the fluctuating value of the rouble is now calculated at a uniform value of 1 rouble 50 copecks paper = 1 rouble gold, and 1 rouble 50 copecks in silver; and (2) various articles which were differently classed in former estimates, some of them in the ordinary and others in the extraordinary, are classed for all the ten years according to the new classification, in paper roubles:

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1886... 1888. 1890. 1891. 1892. 1893. 1894. 1895,... 1896... 1897.... 1898...

-Revenue-
Ordinary. Extraordinary.
774,314,414

183,843,657
873,560,748

54,662,834 933,379,144

94,858,076 890,545, 476

29,513,486 964,678,095

189,617,408 1,031,489,740

160,523,630 1,145,352,364

75,226,335 1,244,362,202

153,068,740 1,368,719,351

43,500,457 1,318,366,495

3,809,627 1,364,458,217

3,300,000

ExpenditureOrdinary. Extraordinary. 847,589,274

97,433,987 836,992,477

69.231,493 914,789,775.

123,901.207 925,355,708

178,377,328 952,575.764

166,759,310 926,392,639

47,702,806 1,045,512,088

101,423,380 1,129,439,236

366,634,470 1,229,044,280

255,308,655 1,284,858,862

129,112,196 1,338,085,213

123,964, 710

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BUDGET ESTIMATES, 1896, 1897, AND 1898.
Revenue.

1896.
Sources of Revenue.

Roubles.
I. Ordinary Revenue.
Direct Taxes -
Land and personal..

48,023,965
Trade licenses......

43,352,800 On capital.........

13,159,000 Total direct taxes........

104,535,765

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Mint, mines, post, and telegraph.....
Sale of spirits by the State.............
State domains......
Sale of State domains...........
Redemption of land: State's peasants....

Liberated serfs.
Reimbursement of railways and other loans..
Miscellaneous...............................
War contributions..

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Branches of Expenditure.
I. Ordinary Expenditure.
Public Debt-

(a) Interest and capital, State debts.....
(b) Interest and railway obligations......
(c) Unpaid arrears......
Higher institutions of the State....
Holy Synod..........

.choisi
Ministry of the Imperial Househ

Foreign Affairs.
War...
Navy.............
Finances....
Agriculture and State Domains.
Interior...........
Public Instruction.....
Ways and Communications.

Justice....
State control....
Direction of studs...
Unforeseen...

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*Siberian Railway, 82,248,170 roubles; works connected with it, 2,485,410 roubles; other railways of general use, 35,726,000 roubles ; local small branches, 10,000,000 roubles.

+ Siberian Railway, 61,134,110 roubles; works connected with it, 3,280,652 roubles; other railways of general use, 54,041,387 roubles; local small branches, 10,656,047 roubles.

Siberian Railway, 34,447,020 roubles: works connected with it, 3,718,363 roubles: other railways, 13.585.182 roubles: local small branches, 10,000,000 roubles; rolling stock for Siberian and other rail. ways, 49,234,145 roubles.

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