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PUBLIC DEBT.
The Controller's report, December 31, 1897, shows the public debt of Russia as follows:

Total in

Gold. Silver and Paper. Silver and Paper. Loans converted

Roubles.
Roubles.

Roubles. 6 per cent......

50,000.000

75,000,000 5 per cent....

*65.174.900

65,174,900 5 per cent....

773,283,420
1,531,376,700

2,691,301,830 44 per cent ..

121,507,438

182,261,157 Treasury bonds..........

**24,669,000

24,669,000 Total.......

944,790,858
1,621,220,600

3,038,406,887 Paper currency covered......

148,061,277

148,061,277 Cost of conversion........

106,301,535

96,307,582

255,759,884 To cover paper currency......

148,061,277

222,091,916 Total cost.....

254,362,815

96,307,582

477,851,800 New loans concluded(4 p. c.) for nominal sum of.

910,448,375
1,674,000,000

3,039,672,562 Taken from Imperial Treasury..

273,997,991

97,045,040

508,042,026 The State debts on January 1, 1897, are classified as follows: -- Loans

Loans-Bonds--Roubles--

- RoublesPer Cent.

Gold.
Paper. Gold.

Paper.
Gold.

Paper. 333,895,250 78,000,000 14,976,266

348,871,516 78,000,000 99,659,375

99,659,375 i37,331,000

137,331,000 1,509,501,903 136,553,044 2,024, 368, 274 1,509,501,908

2,160,921,318 110,397,500 248,560,000

110,397,500 248,560,000 11,558,600 155,400,000 48,837,200 42,157,538 59,395,800 197,557,538

38,490,119

38,490,119 Others ..............

* 37,057,153
22,938,531

59,995,684 Totals... 2,065,012,633 792,901,197 63,813,466 2,127,954,463 2,128,826,099 2,920,855,660 Paper roubles....... 3,097,518,949792,901,197 95,720,199 2,127,954,463 3,193,239,148 2,920,855,660

There is, in addition to the above, 621,281,634 paper roubles for paper currency uncovered.

NOTE.-The uniform value of 1 rouble 50 copecks=1 rouble gold, and 1 rouble 50 copecks in silver.

342

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Agriculture.
The lands of Russia are distributed among the different classes of owners as follows:

Unfit for Culture,
Area.

Roads, etc.
Owners.

Acres.

Acres.
The State....

410,801,867

139,397,498 The Imperial family.....

19,890,835 The peasants......

373,310,496

*35,535,735 Private owners.....

294,504,582

35,115,557 Total.....

1,098,507,780

210,058,770 In Central Russia 66 per cent. of the arable land is under crops; in South Russia, 78 per cent.; in North and in Southeast Russia, 10 per cent.; and in Astrakhan only 8 per cent.

The cereal crops of Russia in Europe (exclusive of Finland) for the last four years are seen from the following, in thousands of quarters (8 bushels):

Wheat. Rye.

Parley.

Oats. Various. Total. European Russia, 1893......

* 45,051

87,168
35,622 78,572

21,137

287,550 1894...

44,240
104,474
28.808
78,700

18,335 274,557
1895....
37,586
90,814
27,165
76,514

21,236 253,315 1896.

38,785
88,670
26.936
76,073 26,335

256.799 Poland, 1893..

1.585
6,482
2,067
5,761

846

17,741 1894....

2,104
7,160
2,102
5,413

958

17.737 1895,

2,289
6,439
2,056
4,927
1,105

16,816 1896..

2,428
7.829
2,163

1,212

18,967 North Caucasia, 1893,

5,996

979
1.771

857
482

7.085 1894.

5,605

980
2,098
1,572

975

11,230 1895.

8,456

579
2,635
1,679 2,568

15.917 1896.

5,707
1,334
2,493
1,388
2,792

13,714 West Siberia, 1893..

5,418
3,169

866
6,841

499

16,793 1894..

3,917
2,840

618
4,870

410

12,655 1895....

3,807
2,495

624
4,983

305

12,214 1896..............

4,464
2,679

775
6,907

15,272 In European Russia, in 1896, there were 5,484,050 acres under flax, yielding 670,000 tons of flax fiber and 909,200 tons linseed, of which 41.190 tons and 58,000, respectively, were reported : 2.004.730 acres under hemp, 246,800 tons of fiber, and 723,400 tons hem pseed; 14,000 tons fiber reported. About 6,500 tons of hops are gathered each year.

According to an official report, the Russian crops (Caucasus and Poland included) in 1897 were as follows: Rye, 946,047,000 pouds; winter wheat, 156,680,000 pouds; spring wheat, 331,314,000 pouds; oats, 515.523,000 pouds: barley, 288,977,000 pouds; buckwheat, 469,377,000 pouds; millet, 80,322,000 pouds; maize, 36,185,000 pouds.

The estimated wheat crop of European Russia is 296,000,000 bushels for 1898, as against 285,000,000 bushels in 1897.

5,435

Mining Industries.

The mining industry in Russia is steadily developing. The statistics for the years stated are shown in the following table:

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Russia remains still dependent upon foreign supplies of coal and coke, as will appear from the following statement of imports, in tons of 2,240 pounds:

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The Caspian naphtha industry is increasing rapidly. The output in 1896 was, in gallons : Crude oil, 127,423,000 residuum, 927,125,000; illuminating, 433,615,000; lubricating, 42,785,000; others, 5,180,000, 'lotal, 1,536,130,000.

Manufactures.

Inclusive of the mining, tobacco, spirits, and sugar trades, the manufactories of the Empire having a yearly productivity of more than 1,000 roubles each are estimated as follows:

Yearly ProPeople Employed -Steam-Engines

duction. Number.

Men.

Women. Number. Horse-Power. Roubles. European Russia...... 17,605

949,044
284,030
10,525
289,404

1,466,988.000 Poland. 2,711 108,434

44.925

1,959
81,328

229,485,090 Caucasia.....

1,199
20.766
1,261

791
7.114

34,733,000 Siberia......

609
10.961
1,056

115
1,812

11,929,000 Turkestan.....

359
6,295

25
399

16,186,000 Total, 1893........ 22,483 1,094,972 311,803 13,325 380,057 1,750,331,000

Steel..

The growth of the different industries for the last 12 years is thus stated by the Ministry of Finance:

1880-81.

1893.
Cast iron.....

cwts.
8,810,000

22,830,000
Iron...........

5,770,000

9,700,000 6,030,000

9.610.000 Railway rails...

3,960,000

4,440,000 Manganese ore....

200.000

4,900,000 Coal.....

64,770,000

148,360,000 15,600,000

28,000,000 Naphtha......

6,900,000

108,700,000 Raw cotton, home-grown..

293,000

1,225,000 Cotton spindles...

*6,000,000 Sugar........

5,030,000

11,470,000

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Salt............

The cotton industry is making rapid progress, as will appear from the following comparison ; the figures represent paper roubles, not gold:

Printing and
Spinning.
Weaving.

Dyeing.
Finishing.

Total.
Year.
Roubles.
Roubles.
Roubles.
Roubles.

Roubles. 1890.

74,100,000
99,700.000
61,100,000
5,500,000

240,400,000 1885...

97,400,000
98,000,000
59,500,000
3,300,000

258,200,000 1869.

187,600,000
222,300,000
72,800,000
4,400,000

487,100,000

*This high figure is obtained by reckoning upon a 12-hour day's work, while many spindles in Russia run from 18 to 24 hours.

3,000

The value of iron and steel manufactures imported into Russia from the United States, as compared with the principal exporting countries thereto, is shown below for the year 1896:

Value of
Total Im-

portations Great

United from All Articles.

Germany. Britain. Belgium. States. Countries. Machinery, unspecified....

$4,300,000 $2,150,000 $1,024,000 $450,000 $8,420,000 Sheet iron up to No. 25...

4,600,000 470,000 1.800.000 20,000 7,300,000 Bar iron, etc.........

4,900,000 320,000 1,300,000 1,000 7,020,000 Castings for machinery, etc...

3,200,000 607.000 440.000 215,000 5,350,000 Locomotives...

2,900,000 88,000 125,000 1,952,000 5,145,000 Textile machinery ......

425,000 3,224,000

6,000 2,000 3,800,000 Bar steel, etc............

520,000 115,000 600,000

1.150.000 Steam-engines....... 1,350,000 670,000 162,000

2,158,000 Iron and steel articles weighing more than 2 kilogrammes.

740.000 490,000 260,000 16,000 1,950,000 Enameled ware...

491,000 813,000 79,000 58,000 1,690.000 Wood-working machinery....

465,000 444,000 70,000 54,000 1,672,000 Sheet iron under No. 25..

372,000 912,000 42,000 3,000 1,366,000 Pig iron............

131,000 954,000 30.000 7,500 1,348,000 Sheet steel up to No. 25........

104.000 820.000 270,000

500 1.217.000 Agricultural machinery....

756,000 168,000 2,000 48,000 1,113,000 Electrical machinery........

380,000

76,000 42,000 1,500 600,000 Castings N. E. S.....

312,000 150,000

17.000 590,000 Iron and steel articles weighing less tha kilogrammes.........

380,000 92,000 28,000 29,000 590,000 Steel rails......

311,000 123,000 107,000

580.000 Agricultural steam-engines .....

160,000 270,000

585,000 Totals....

..... $26,788,000 $12,966,000 $6,431,000 $2,179,000 $53,634,000

· 44,000

1,500

Finland.. {En

Foreign Commerce. The merchandise imports and exports of Russia, special commerce, expressed in thousands of roubles, were as follows for the years named; those of Finland are expressed in marks :

1890. 1892.

1893.
1894.

1895, 1896. Imports, Special

European frontier............ 361,398 346,475 395,091 488,444 457,712 502,784 From Finland......

13,386 11,949 15,836 18.879 20,880 20,451 Asiatic frontier..

41.281 45,456 52,619 52,249 59,916 66,575 Total.....

416,065 403,880 463,546 559,572 538,508 589,810 Exports, Special

European frontier............. 598.753 385,896 505,895 580,357 592,963 595,072 To Finland.......

16.715

21,098 18,528 15,303 15,514 17,655 Asiatic frontier 77.932 68,586 74,787 73,093 80,605

77,204 Total.. 693,400 475,580 599,210

668,753

689,082 689,931 la S Imports..............

140,600 145,600 126,200 139,700 150,300 172,600 Exports..............

92,400 93,700 114,800 136,000 142,900 159,000 Gold and silver coin and bullion, expressed in gold roubles : Exports....

20,934
4,619
7.313 44.222

1,375

2,067 Imports....

23,178

113,765 31,319 130,941 37,597 118,398 The foreign trade is shown as follows, expressed in thousands of paper roubles :

-Exports

--Imports-
1894.
1895.
1896.
1894.
1895.

1896. Articles of food.....................

428,437
382,517

382.900 66,197 67,652 69,800 Raw and half manufact'd articles 201,674 258,408 257,800 314,464 282,373 306,700 Animals.....

12,179 15,138 15,100

2,734
2.883

2,300 Manufactured goods..::

21,966

11,196 12,900 131,831 136,403 161,500 Total..........

691.030 667,259 668,800 515,236 489,401 540,200

EXPORTS OF GRAIN.
For the last six years grain has formed, on the average, 55 per cent. in value of the aggregate
exports to Europe, 58.7 per cent. in 1888, and 51 in 1889.
The official figures of grain exports are given in the subjoined table:

1892.
1893.
1894.
1895.

1896.
Cwt.
Cwt.
Cwt.
Cwt.

Cwt. Wheat.

26,297,180 50,351,000 65,966,000 76,453,000 70,774,000 Rye.

3,890.600 10,378.000 26,307,000 29,588,000 26,281,000 Barley ....

14,176,000 35,854,000 49,328,000 34,877,000 26,289,000 Oats........

6,619,500 18,315,000 30,436.000 21,457,000 21,768,000 Maize......

6,958,380

5,137.000 18,783,000 8,268,000 4.170.000 Peas.

808,420 1,368,000 2,750,000 3,246,000 3,017.000 Various groats.......

113,040
370,000 1,610,000

284,000

254,000 Flour..

2,168,400 2,382,000 2,609,000 2,600,000 2,466,000 Other grain products..........

2,302,780 5,841,000

8.222.000

8,469,000 8,8:22,000 Total...........

63.334.300 129,996,000 205,998,000 185,242,000 163,611,000

EXPORTS OF NAPHTAA.

The export of naphtha (from Russia and Caucasus as well) will be seen from the following table :

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Rice......

ani flour.....

447

7.922

The imports into European Russia and North Caucasia of the principal articles, expressed in thousands of paper roubles, were as follows: Imports.

1892.
1893.
1894.
1895.

1896.
7763
*601
*723
*700

*695 Other grain and flour....

947
1,141

407

876 Fruits and vegetables.........

5,589
4,608
4,778
8,877

9,468 Fish..

11,648
10,267
10,178
12,983

13,092 Tea.

14,031

+17,691 +16,913 +19.163 +18,819 Coffee.....

6,209
6,670
5,851
5,604

5,408 Tobacco.....

2,558
2,275
2,256
2,479

2,383 Wines........

8,410

10,316
10,436

10,445 Raw cotton.........

84,600 64,067

88,655
59,439

72,197 Cotton yarn and wadding.

3,954
4,416
4,284
4,240

3,960 Wool, raw, and yarn..

8,669
28.880
31,456
30,506

24.066 Silk, raw, and yarn...

11,571
12,347
13,686
10.915

12,086 Lether,

5,668
6,579
8,161
9,815

11.236 India-rubber. .

5,613
6.911
15,142
7,770

8,541 Colors...

12,964
12,592
13.042
16,133

15,983 Chemicals ......

13.295
12,750
15,645
12,430

13,236 Coal and coke......

12,054
14,265
15,645

15,553 13,592 Raw metals.....

33,817
36,738 59,493

59,695 Manufactured goodsCotton goods...........

2,307
2,267
2,489
2,260

1,192 Other textile goods..

5,280
4,054
8,029

6,844 Metal goods......

12,316
16,608
25,231
23,797

25,570 Machinery ............. 24,752 28,023 46,253

53,175

57,773 Watches and clocks...

5,193
5,710

...... The total imports of bar and sheet iron, expressed in pouds (1 poud = 36 pounds avoirdupois). were as follows: In 1892, 3,050,000; in 1895, 5,295,000; in 1894, 11,365,000; in 1895, 13, 109,663.

7,145

EXPORTS OF LEADING ARTICLES.

The leading exports from European Russia and North Caucasia, including exports to Finland, are shown as follows, in thousands of roubles :

1893.
1894.
1893.

1896. Corn, flour, sarrazin, etc...........

294,751
380,462
334,896

321,950 Fish and caviare.....

4,111
3,895
2,548

4,711 Butter and eggs.....

17,289
19,303
23,513

22,805 Alcohol and gin.....

2,673
3,176
1,853

1,832 Sugar.....

14,486
11,830

21,931 Various articles of food...........

* 13,566

7,115
22,339

9,649 Articles of food..........

332,390 428,437

385,647

382,888 Timber and wooden goods......

40,406
39,161
40,144

46,727 Raw metals (platinum, mercury)...

1,232 Mercur .............. .

3,052 Oleaginous grains, chiefly linseed & grass seeds 27,816

31.071
45,901

50,721 Flax.......

63,827
47,518
12,364

62,836 Hemp......

12,746
14,854
19,212

16,115 Tallow

542 Bristles, bair, and feathers ...

9,334
7,865
10,439

9,924 W ool................................

6,428
5,904
6,490

7.869 Furs..

5,138
3,502
4,172

3,673 Naphtha and naphtha oils, etc.........

22,381
19,441
27,274

28,679 Various..........................................

35,894
30,664
73,779

26,554 Raw and half-manufactured goods.. 226,169 201,665

260,044 257,838

422

4,248

453

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* Also 2,599,000 roubles' worth from Persia in 1893, 2,104,000 in 1894, 2,622,000 in 1895, and 2,775,000 in 1896.

+ Also 19,199,000 roubles' worth through Asia in 1893, 22,260,200 in 1894, 19,214,000 in 1895, and 20,253,10 in 1896.

Besides, to Vladivostok, 19,005,000 roubles' worth in 1895, and 24,552,000 in 1896.

Italy .....::::

The total value of imports and exports (merchandise only) with the principal countries is shown below, in thousands of roubles :

Imports

---Exports---
1890.
1895.
1896.
1890.

1895. 1896. Finland.... 13,386 20,880 20,451 16,715

15,514

17.655 Denmark...

1.659
1,777
2,319

10,541

9,098 Germany...

114,633 175,647 190,170 177.940 179,276 185,368 Holland..

4,858
5,051

5,834 43,538 59,184 70,850 Belgium...

7,085

14.610 19,523 27,387 25,895 23.143 United Kingdom

93,340 119,782 111,309 203,663 174,849 160,903 France............

17,254 22,549 23,412 49,365 49,531 58,206 9,152 11,698 10,006

30,337 32,418 36,412 Austria-Hungary...

17,807 24,092 22,902 30,245 34,533 29.942 Turkey ..........

7,654 6,805 6.100 16,772 13,519 14.340 Egypt..... 10.644 12,212 13,599 2,562 4,863

3,790 United States....

53,393 29,457 65,671

946 2,207

1,606 China.

29, 180 41,567 41,457

3,022
5,047

5.482 Persia.

10,783 18,965 17,492 10,896 14,160 14,496 Total all countries...... 416,065 538,508 · 589,810 693,400 689,082 689,931

IMPORTS AND EXPORTS OF GOLD AND SILVER. The value of the gold and silver coin and bullion imported into and exported from Russia has been: ----Gold

-Silver-
Year.
Imports.
Exports.
Imports.

Exports.
1892

$89,497,054

$195, 956
$9,019,503

$4,157,443
1893

10,225, 426

134,454
17,570,074

6,190,134
1894.

84,527,216
29,085,329
19,076,833

5,844,742
1895.

19,486,233

185,070
21,536,271

1,762,512
1896.....

69,720,678

180,715
41,498,492

2,708,233

COMMERCE WITH THE UNITED STATES. The total value of merchandise of all Russia exported to the United States and imported from the United States was as follows:

1892.
1893.
1894.
1895.
1896.
1897.

1898. Exported from Russia.. $5,246,797 $6,117,015 $3,206,748 $4,016,401 $3,973,583 $3,401,080 $4,650.739 Imported into Russia... 6,819,035 2,447,414 6,991,330 6,162,793 8,062,143 8,016 218 5.954.097

The principal articles exported from Russia to the United States for the year ending June 30. 1896, were : Chemicals, drugs, dyes, etc., $498,211, of which licorice root, $458,266; flax, hemp, jute. $473 592: furs and skins, undressed, $345,707 ; hides and skins, not furs, $717,305; wools, unmanufac. tured, $1,135,469.

The principal imports into Russia from the United States were: Agricultural implements. $4576:22; cotton, unmanufactured, $3,693,406; iron and steel, manufactures, $1,787,124; naval stores, $329,617.

Railroads, Shipping, Telegraphs, and Post-Office. (See Index.)

Banking and Money.

To effect a stability in the value of the paper rouble, the Ministry of Finance, in 1895. offered means for all payments to the Treasury and railways being made in gold, at a ratio between gold and paper currency to be fixed from time to time by the Ministry. For 1895 the ratio was established at i r. 48 c. paper for 1. r. gold. For 1896, the value of the old and new "imperial” was established at 15 r. 45 c. and 15 r., respectively-making the ratio between gold and paper 15 to 10, or 15 paper roubles for 10 roubles in gold. This ratio was continued in 1897, and it is proposed to maintain it further. The State Bank is to accept paper money at this ratio for gold. By Imperial decree dated January 3, 1897 the gold money, while of the same contents of gold, weight, and dimensions as before, shall be marked upon it-on the "imperials" 15 roubles (instead of 10), and on the "half imperials,"7 r. 50 (instead of 5 r.).

On September 10, 1897, a law was passed authorizing the issue of paper currency, when necessity requires, by the State's Bank, on the following conditions: When the amount of paper currency does not exceed 600,000,000 roubles, it must be guaranteed by half that sum (300,000,000 roubles) in cold while all issues above 600,000,000 roubles must be guaranteed to the full amount in gold deposited at the bank. The Bank of Russia acts in the joint capacity of a State and commercial institution. It has 108

Its condition at the end of 1897 was as follows:
Liabilities.
Roubles.

Assets.

Roubles. Paper, roubles in circulation........... 1,050,000,000

| CusuI uper
Cash-Paper money.....
une .....................

137,801,183 Liabilities abroad and metallic...

1,329,074
Gold........

159,184,915 Foundation capital.........

50,000,000
Silver......................

25,017 299 Reserve capital.....

3,000,000 Debt of Treasury for paper money.. 206,278,167 Capital for building new house.... 331.872 Gold in money, ingots, etc....

983,798,464 Interest-bearing deposits.... 29,681,992 Gold abroad..

16,347,766 Unredeemable deposits...... 64,093,721 Sums at bankers' abroad....

209.733 Current accounts, Treasury, State, and

141,595,367 private..............................

539,967,779 Paid on current accounts guaranteed Railway's accounts........... 16,775,187 by securities...........

24, 492,156 Interest due and various transferable

Loans under securities.......

192,432,649 - sums...

39,397,989 Bonds, etc., belonging to Bank.... 26,007, 666 Profits of 1896.

9,174,529 Accounts of branches and Treasury... 171.456.439 Transfers.... 215,577, 191 | Miscellaneous......

31,707,537 Total...............

.2,019,829,334 Total...........

2,019,329,334 | Deposited in trust...................... 2,676,969,987

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