Imágenes de páginas
PDF
EPUB

GREECE

The area of Greece is 25,014 square miles.

At the census of 1879, the population (including that of Thessaly in 1881) was 1,973,768; in 1889, 2,187,218; in 1896, 2,433,806, or 97.3 population per square mile.

The areas and populations by provinces will be found in previous issues of the "Commercial Year Book."

There are large numbers of Greeks in the Ottoman Empire, raising the whole Greek nationality to over 8,000,000, as under: Greece, about 2,200,000; Asia Minor, 2,000,000; Crete, Cyprus, and other Ottoman islands, 400,000; European Turkey, 3,500,000; total, 8,100,000.

For 1897 the budget estimate of revenue and expenditure was as follows:
Sources of Revenue.

Drachmai. 1. Branches of Expenditure. Drachmai. Direct taxes....... 19,792,364 | Public debt...

21,690,895 Customs and excise... 33,245,552 Pensions......

5,742,600 Stamps and dues..... 18.676.775 Civil list......

1,325,000 Monopolies........... 11,402,916 Chamber of Deputies.....

490,320 State property...

3,731,362 MinistriesSales.............. 966,650 Foreign Affairs.........

2.224,479 Repayments...... 1,023,330 Justice...

5,364,325 Arrears................... 3,355,000 Interior....

13,930,935 Ligbt-houses..... 400,000 Instruction, etc...

5,647,543 International telegraphs.. 750,000 Army......

16,345,311 Elementary instruction.. 100,000 Marine...

7,000,487 Municipal contributions. 1,200,000 Finance....

1,523,952 Extraordinary ......... 700,000 collecting revenue....

8,963,478 Various...

3,503,240 Total......

95,343,939
Total...

93,852,565 For five previous years the actual receipts and expenditures were as follows:

-Revenue-
Ordinary. Extraordinary. Total.

Expenditure.
Year.

Drachmai.
Drachmai.
Drachmai.

Drachmai.
83,269,911
99,300,373
182,570,284

107.317,616 1890...

79,518,045
43,224,000
122,772,045

129,358,573 1891.....

89,725, 769
12,900,000
102,625,769

125,106,600
94,882,884
10,999,890
105,882,774

107,679,804 96,731,414

9,739,157
106,470,571

101.563,761 The receipts for 1894 are given as 102,895,141 drachmai; for 1896, revenue, 97,100,400, and expenditure, 90,901,700 drachmai. On January 1, 1897, the outstanding public debt of Greece was as follows:

Gold Drachmai. Paper Drachmai. Consolidated.....

155,000,000

31,801,295 Amortizable. .....

470,034,822

34,644,248
bles sur bonds).
Floating (Treasury bo

14,194,066

14,000,000 Forced currency .......

16,800,000

74,200,000 Fractional currency.......

14,000,000 Total..............

656,028,888

168,645,543

1889..

1802.... 1893..

The details of the above, which are practically the same for 1897 as in 1895, will be seen in the * Commercial Year Book" for 1898.

The annual interest being paid at the beginning of 1897 was 8,477,534 drachmai gold and 4,520,158 drachmai paper: the interest on the external debt being reduced 30 per cent. of amount due; that On the monopoly loan to 43 per cent., and that on other internal debts to 33 per cent.

Greece agrees to pay to Turkey a war indemnity of £T4,000,000, and to accept international control in financial matters.

Greece is mainly an agricultural country. In 1893 the agricultural production was approximately as follows: Cereals, 20,250,000 bush.; tobacco, 16,000,000 lbs.; vineyards, 60,000,000 gall. ; currants, 50,000,000 lbs.; olives, 15,000,000 lbs.; figs, etc., 60,000,000 lbs.

Commerce. The imports and exports, including bullion and specie, are as follows, in thousands of drach

mai:

[blocks in formation]

The special commerce with the leading countries is shown below, in thousands of drachmai:
- Imports

-- Exports
1890.
1895.
1896.
1890.
1895.

1896. Russia......

21,408
28,416
24.141

917
5,310

7.617 Germany..........

5,651
8,440
10,209
2,372
5,087

3,334 Holland .........

1,861

467
939
3,178
3,107

3,230 Belgium..... 4,009 1,435 2,745

6,008
7,831

8,229 United Kingdom...

33,237
30,774
29,447 33,022 16,833

18,197 France.

10,255
6,791
8,523
21,440
7,975

6,505 Italy .....................

5,109
2.449
2,906
1,518
6,841

3,969 Austria-Hungary .........

16,691 13,887

11,842
8,598
5,957

6,949 Roumania............

654
1,514
302
969

817 Turkey (Europe and Asia).... 18,924

9,684 14,423

9,878

8,304 United States..

1,667
3,707
4,502
5,702
2,350

2,681 Total, all countries... 120,786 109,610 · 116,276 95,792 72,183 72,477

The imports and exports of some of the leading articles are shown as follows, in thousands of drachmai:

[blocks in formation]

The trade in merchandise with the United States is shown as follows, for the years ending June 30:

1893.
1894.
1895. 1896.

1897.

1898. Imports into United States..... $1,283,557 $797.281 $327,201 $720,386 $732,702 3910,390 Exports from United States.... 130, 461 124,449 152,544 191,046 110,763

127,550

Shipping, Railroads, Telegraphs, Post-Office. (See Index.)

Greece has a bimetallic monetary system, and its coins conform to the standard of the Latin Union. The ratio between the two metals is 15% to 1. The coinage of gold is unlimited and that of silver suspended. The coinage charge is 74-9 fra ncs per kilogramme fine for gold and 133 francs per kilogramme fine for silver. Gold coins and the 5-franc silver pieces are unlimited legal tender.

For gold and silver coins, see Index.

The situation of the National Bank of Greece on August 31, 1897, was as follows: Gold and silver on hand, 1,700,000 drachmaí; notes to bearer in circulation, 137,500,000 drachmai; private accounts current and deposits, 41,800,000 drachmai: portfolio, 13,000,000 drachmai: advances on real property. 37, 400,000 drachmai; advances on personal property, 3,200,000 drachmai: funds abroad, 6.400.000 drachmai.

SERVIA.

The Kingdom of Servia has an area of 19,050 square miles. It is divided into fifteen provinces, with a total population in 1895 of 2,288,259 persons. The population consists of 86.48 per cent. rural, and 13.12 per cent. in cities. The occupations of the people are 16.81 per cent. in trade ; 10.32 per cent. in occupations connected with food: 16.22 per cent. connected with clothing: 14.20 per cent. connected with molding of iron and metal work; 4.31 per cent. teachers and clergy; 8.16 per cent. officials. As to race, in 1891 there were 1,955,944 Servians (who, according to language, are Slavonic by race), 143,684 Roumanians, 37,381 Gypsies, 6,878 Germans, 2,929 Albanians and Turks, 4.510 Jews, 1.359 Bulgarians, 9,676 other foreigners.

The revenues and expenditures of Servia have been estimated as follows:

[ocr errors]

Revenue. Expenditure.

Revenue. Expenditure.
Year.
Dinars.
Dinars.

Year.
Dinars.

Dinars. 46,196,864

46,196,864
1894.............

59,220,034 64,057,973
57,527.084
57,527,084 1895..............

63.755,600 63,623,868 60,135,840 60,107, 472 1896 (estimated). 63,659,720

63,355,607 1896...

70,076,902 72,205,800 | 1897 (estimated).... 63,659,720 63,355,607 On January 1, 1896, the public debt amounted to 408,237,000 dinars, 355,292,000 being at 4 per cent. 21,000,000 in four per cents. were issued in 1897.

Servia is almost exclusively an agricultural country, the land being distributed almost entirely. among peasant owners, whose holdings are mostly from 10 to 30 acres.

The country has considerable mineral resources, including various kinds of coal, the total production of coal in 1891 having been 87.650 tons. Besides coal, there are iron, lead, silver, zinc, quicksilver, antimony, gold, asbestos, copper, and oil shales. Many concessions have been made to companies and private persons for working mines, and mining operations are also carried on by the State

The value of the foreign trade is shown as follows, in dinars :
Year.
Imports. Exports. Transit.

Year.
38.014,748 45,840,555

1894......
42,806,000 52, 480,000 18,368,000 1895......
37,069,631 46,451,656 17,635,000 1896............
40,922,584 48,910,435 16,349,000 |

[blocks in formation]

The values of the leading imports and exports are shown as follows, in thousands of dinars :

-~-Imports

Exports

1894. 1895. 1896. 1894. 1895. 1896. Agricultural produce and fruits..

1,493 1,149 1,217 13,095 16,046 23,427 Animals and animal produce..

309
296
443 26,727

18,983

22,333 Colonial produce......

3,431 3,424 3,584 Hides, skins, leather, etc.........

2,916 1,663 2,558 2,641 3,718 2,952 Cotton goods................ 6,759 4,365 6,961 1,283 843

913 Wool and woolen goods...

3,057 2,219 3,400

149

151 Foods and drinks.....

1.461
858
820

2,101 3,320 2,309 2,885 343

220

273 810 1,951 2,333

10

11 Pottery, glass, etc.... 2,198 2,186 2,024

170 Wood and woodwork. 1,341 1,171 1,339 568 556

624

2,414

Metals..
Apparel....

213

150

Da

Banking is conducted by various establishments, of which, in 1890, there were 43. The principal is the privileged National Bank of the Kingdom of Servia, in Belgrade, with a paid-up capital of 20,10.000 dinars. It is entitled to issue bank-notes, of which there were, in 1889, 28,597,840 dinars in circuation, with a metallic reserve of 4,596,000 dinars. Besides the National Bank, there were, in 1894, 5 bank establishments. 27 bank associations, and 28 savings-banks.

Servia accepted, by the law of June 20. 1875. the French decimal system for its moneys, weights, and measures. The Servian dinar is equal to one franc. In circulation are gold coins of 10 and 20 dinars (milan d'or); silver coins of 5, 2, 1, and 0.5 dinar; copper of 10 and 5, and nickel of 20, 10,

and 5 paras.

For RAILROADS, TELEGRAPHS, and Post-OFFICE, see Index.

MONTENEGRO.

com land and cattle taxes, the salt monop

The area of Montenegro is estimated to embrace 3,630 English square miles. The total popula. tion was stated in official returns to number 220,000 in 1879; a recent estimate puts it at 200,000. The population is mainly pastoral and agricultural. The Montenegrins belong almost entirely to the Servian branch of the Slav race.

No official returns are published regarding the public revenue and expenditure. Estimates state the former at 600,000 Austrian florins, derived chiefly from land and cattle taxes, the salt monopoly, and customs duties. Montenegro owes to the Länder Bank of Vienna a sum of one million florins, borrowed at 6 per cent.

The cultivated land is mostly the property of the cultivators, the Croatian system of domestic communism being generally prevalent. In some districts, however, the land is split up into diminutive peasant holdings, while in a few the métayer system is met with, but large estates nowhere exist. The principal crops grown are maize, tobacco (450,000 lbs. in 1894), oats, potatoes, barley, and buckwheat.

The customs tariff is 6 per cent. ad valorem on all merchandise, with the exception of certain prohibited articles. The exports are valued at about £120.000, imports at £20.000. The principal exports are sumach, flea powder, smoked sardines, smoked mutton, cattle, sheep, goats, cheese, wool, hides, skins and furs, honey, beeswax, wood for walking-sticks, etc., olive oil, wine, tobacco.

Montenegro has no railroads, and has only 280 miles of telegraph.

Montenegro has no coinage of its own, Austrian paper being the principal medium of exchange. Turkish silver is also current, and French and English gold circulates freely at a rate of exchange fixed from time to time by the Government. There is no bank of any kind in the country.

[merged small][ocr errors][ocr errors][ocr errors][merged small]

The estimated area and population of Roumania are: Area, 48,307 square miles, and population (1893), including Dobruja, is 5,800,000. Included in the population of Roumania proper are 4 million Roumanians, about 300.000 Jews, 200,000 Gypsies, 50,000 Bulgarians, 20,000 Germans, 37,400 Austrians, 20,000 Greeks, 15,000 Armenians, 2,000 French, 1,500 Magyars, 1,000 English, besides about 3,000 Italians, Turks, Poles, Tartars, etc.

The chief sources of revenue consist in direct and indirect taxes, and the profits derived from the extensive State domains and valuable salt mines, and from the salt and tobacco monopolies. The following table shows the revenue and expenditure for the last six years ending March 31 (old style):

1890-91.
1891-92.
1892-93.
1893-94.
1894-95.

1895-96.
Lei.
Lei.
lei.
Lei.
Ler.

Lei. Revenue....

170,353,796 180,147,096 182,095,596 219,597,336 199.6.20,405 202,507.632 Expenditure.... 162,116,869 168,404,894 178,532,004 199,261,159 209,985,905 216,560,567

Lei. 79,215,000

66,500

.

[ocr errors]
[ocr errors]
[ocr errors]

Finance...;Dñic Instruction..

The following are the budget estimates for 1897-98 :
Revenue.

Lei. Í

Expenditure. Direct taxes......

33,610,000 Public debt.... Indirect taxes.....

61,160,000 Council of Ministers.. State monopolies....

50,170,000 MinistriesMinistries

War............ Agriculture, etc....

25,383,000 Public Works.....

16,838,000 Worship and Public Instruction.. Interior..........

10,242,000

Interior............ Finance....

4,570,000 Public Works..... W ar............::::

1,325,000 Justice........ Instruction and Worship

200.000 Agriculture, etc... Foreign Affairs...

160,000 Foreign Affairs..... Justice...

200.000 Supplementary credit.. Various...........

11,295,000 Total.....

215,153,000

Total

44,470,000 25,325,000 27,084,000 18,511,000 5,642,000 6,613,000 6,147,000 1,635.000 444,000

215,153,000

The public debt amounted to 1.240,432.700 lei in 1897.

Of the total population of Roumania, 70 per cent. are employed in agriculture. There are about 700.000 heads of families who are freehold proprietors. Of the total area, 68 per cent. is productive, and 29 per cent. under culture, 21 per cent, under grass, and 16.9 per cent. under forest. In 1896, the various cereal crops were: Wheat, 1,505,210 hectares, 23,088.700 hectolitres ; maize, 1,939,080 hectares, 23,056.700 hectolitres : barley, 607,700 hectares, 11,201,700 hectolitres; oats, 281,870 hectares, 5,187,300 hectolitres : rye, 243,400 hectares, 4,305,100 hectolitres. Colza, flax, and hemp are also cultivated. The area under tobacco was 5,700 hectares, yielding 40,590 quintals; vines, 145,710 hectares, yielding 4,627,800 hectolitres wine : plums, 52,020 hectares, yielding 967,250 hectolitres.

The following table shows the value of the commerce, in thousands of ler :

1890.
1891.
1892.
1893.

1894. Imports................. 362.791 436,682 380.747 430,490 4:22.142 Exports......

275,958 274,681 285,384 370,652 294,198

[blocks in formation]

According to Roumanian returns, the value of the commerce of the leading countries with which Roumania deals was as follows, in thousands of ler :

Germany....
Great Britain..
Austria......
France......

Imports from 1895. 1896. 80,812 95,807 58.984 78.367 86,298 92.853 25,599 25,883

Exports to
1895. 1896.
26,164 17,003 Belgium ........
75,363 111,931 | Turkey .........
42,006 32.697 Russia......
5,682 8 ,788 Italy............

Imports from

1895. 1896.
14,720 9,889
14,761 15,471
9,505 8. 121
6,089 7.835

-Exports to 1895. 1896. 75,579 113,849 14,168 15,494

9,245 6,159 10,631 10,340

The values of the leading imports and exports in 1896 were as follows, in thousands of ler : Imports. Exports.

Imports. Exports. Textiles.

150.900

2,800 Animals and products..... 9,200 10.300 Metals and metal goods... 61.200

2,500 Fruits, vegetables, etc.....

23,400 14,700 Hides, leather, etc......... 15.100

1,200 Drinks......

1,000

22,400 Wood................

6,400
7,400 Paper.....

6.100 Glass and pottery....

8,100
200 Fuel......

9.400

1,900 Chemicals...........

15,400

400
Various...

20.800 3,500 Oil, wax, etc...

6.300

100 Cereals....... 4,600 276,500

Total............ 337,900 324,100

200

In 1896, the merchant navy consisted of 299 vessels of 61,078 tons, including 28 steamers of 1,054 tons.

The navigation of the Danube is carried on under international regulations. From its mouths to the Iron Gates it is regarded as an international highway, the interests of the several States being specially provided for. The arrangement lasts for 21 years from April, 1883. In 1895, 1,619 vessels of 1,554,698 tons cleared from the Danube at Sulina.

For RAILROADS, TELEGRAPHS, POST-OFFICE, see Index.

The decimal monetary system was introduced into Roumania in 1876, the unit of the monetary system being the leu, equivalent to the franc. The monetary standard is gold.

For gold and silver coins, see Index.

The Bank of Roumania is the chief financial institution. It is a State bank, with a capital of 30.000.000 lei, of which the Government furnishes 10,000,000 lei. The Bank has the sole privilege of issuing potes. The circulation must be covered by securities or other valuables which can be easily converted into cash, and the Bank must hold a metallic reserve amounting to at least one-third of the outstanding notes.

On October 28, 1895, the outstanding circulation was 154,085,862 ler, and the reserve in gold 87,571,001 lei, and in silver 2,369,403 lei.

« AnteriorContinuar »