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BULGARIA.

The estimated area of the Principality of Bulgaria proper is 24,360 English square miles, and of South Bulgaria (or Eastern Roumelia) 13,500 square miles. By a census taken on January 1, 1893, the population of the whole Principality was ascertained to be 3,309,816; the population of Eastern Roumelia being 992,386. The great majority of the inhabitants live by the cultivation of the soil and the produce of their flocks and herds.

The budget estimates for 1897 were: Revenue, 83,425,019 levs (francs); expenditure, 82,422,659 levs. The chief items of revenue were: Direct taxes, 33,731,145 levs: customs and excise, 31,080.000 levs. The chief items of expenditure were: Public debt, 18,267,992 levs; finance, 4,991,910 levs; interior, 8,380,876 levs; public instruction, 9,188,560 levs; war, 22, 104,000 levs. The public debt consists of 10,000,000 leve, besides a loan of 46,000,000 levs in 1886 for the purchase of Varna-Rustchuk Railway, a loan of 30,000,000 levs in 1889, and a loan of 142,000,000 levs in 1892 (of which 72,000,000 only have yet been paid over). The total amount of these loans in January, 1897, was 169,814,404 levs, while the total assets of the State amounted to 157,200,806 levs. Besides these liabilities, there are the Russian occupation debt of 1,000,0001, the East Roumelian tribute, the Bulgarian tribute, and the still undetermined share of the Turkish debt.

The principal agricultural product is wheat, which is largely exported. There are (1892) 5.359,900 acres arable, 770,600 meadow, 237,121) vineyard, 111,120 market garden, etc. ; woods and forests, 3,291,100. The total cultivated area is 9,770,700 acres ; uncultivated but fit for cultivation, 13,651,300; unfit for cultivation, 1.099,150. There are about 400,000 proprietors of land, and the rural population not possessing land numbers about 2,329,900.

The public debt consists of a loan of 46,77 7.500 levs in 1886 for purchase of Varna-Rustchuk Railway (42,063,500 levs outstanding in January, 1897); a loan of 30,000,000 levs in 1888-9 (27,440,000 outstanding): one of 142.780.000 levo in 1892, of which 76.030,000 have been issued: there has also been received an advance of 10,000,000 levs on account of a further issue of this loan; the Russian occupation debt, 11,918,296 levs outstanding; the East Roumelian tribute debt to the Ottoman Government, 0,785,208 levs.

The total value of the imports into Bulgaria in 1896 amounted to 76,530,278 levs or francs, as compared with 69,020,29., frs, for 1895. The exports for 1896 were valued at 108,739,977 frs., against 77,685,546 frs. in 1895. The following table shows the trade by countries, in thousands of levs or francs:

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The chief imports in 1896 were: Textiles, 26,467,000 levs; colonial goods, 6,575,000 levs; metals, 8,788,000 levs; machinery, 2,611,000 leys; timber and furniture, 4,124,000 levs. Chief exports: Grain, 94,089 levs; live stock, 4,247,000 levs.

The number of vessels entered at the port of Varna in 1896 was 795, of 496,331 tons; and 793, of 468,687 tons, cleared ; at Bourgas, 489 vessels, of 347,285 tons, entered.

For RAILROADS, Post-OFFICES, TELEGRAPHS, see Index.

There is a National Bank of Bulgaria, with headquarters at Sofia and branches at Philippopolis, Rustchuk, and Varna; its capital is $2,000,000, provided by the State, a reserve fund of $150,000, and $80,000 notes in circulation. The Ottoman Bank has a branch at Philippopolis, and in each district there is an agricultural bank under control of the Government. There are nickel and bronze stotinki (centimes), silver coins of 1.1, 2and 5 levs (francs) : the notes of the National Bank circulate at par.

ASIA.

INDIA.

Area . and Population.

BRITISH TERRITORY.

No. Districts.

Pop. per Sq. Mile,

1891. 200 112

2

13

British Provinces.
Ajmere.
Assam....
Bengal....
Berárs.
Bombay
Burmab.
Central Provinces...
Coorg .................

471

Increase.

81,636 595, 407 4,596,467

224,818 2,395,156

6

Area in
Square
Miles.

2,711
49,004
151,543
17,718
125,144
171,430
86.501

1,583 141,189 107,503 110,667

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Population Population

in 1881. in 1891.

460,722 542,358 4,881,426 5,476,833 66.750,520 71,346,987

2,672,673 2,897,491 16,505,967 18,901,123

7,605,560 9,838,791 10,784,294

178,302 173,055 30,827,113 35,630,440 44,150,507 46,905,085 18,843, 186 20,866,847

27,270

15,609 198,860,000

221,172,952

Madras.....

125 109 252 436 189

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N. W. Provinces and Oude...
Punjab.........
Quetta, etc......
Andamans......
Total British Provinces............

14,628

...

964,993

250

229

Native States not under direct British administration:

Density Area in Population, Population,

per Square Square Miles. 1881.

1891.

Increase. Mile. Total States.....

595,167 54,932,908
66,050.479 11,117,571

111 Total India........................ 1,560, 160 253,793,514 287,223, 431 33,429,917 184

For details of States and Provinces, consult " Commercial Year Book" for 1898, Vol. III.

POPULATION BY OCCUPATIONS (000'S OMITTED).

State and local administrations..
Defense...
Service of foreign States.....
Provision and care of cattle............
Agriculture....
Personal, household, and sanitary ser-

vices....
Food, drink, and stimulants....
Light, firing, and forage......
Buildings..................................
Vehicles and vessels....
Articles of supplementary requirement
Textile fabrics and dress.....
Metals and precious stones......

5,600, Glass, pottery, and stone ware...........

664 | Wood, cane, and matting....
500 Drugs, dyes, gums, etc.......
3,646 Leather, horns, boxes, etc.............
171,735 Commerce......................

Transport and storage.....
11,220 Learned and artistic professions....
14,576 Sport and amusements...

Sport and amu
3,522 Earth work and general labor......
1,438 Undefined and disreputable.....

147 | Independent means..............
1,149
12,611
3,821

Total...

2,361 4,203

392 3,285 4,686 3,953 5,672

141 25,468 1,563 4,774

287,223

Fiscal Affairs.

The subjoined table gives, in tens of rupees (Rx.), the total gross amount of the actual revenue and expenditure of India, excluding capital expenditure on public works, and distinguishing Indian and home expenditure, in each of the financial years ending March 31, named:

Year ended March 31. 1884. 1890..... 1894... 1895.... 1896...... 1897 (revised estimate)............ 1898 (budget estimate).........

Revenue.

Rx.
71,842,020
85,085,203
90,565,214
95,187,429
98,370,167
93,803,800
95,670,800

--- Expenditure

In Great Britain,
including

Total
In India.

Exchange. Expenditure.
Rx.
Rx.

Rx.
51,497,561
18,464,752

69,962,313 60,960,805 21,512,365

82,473,170 66,000, 101 26,112,111

92,112,212 65, 718,671 28,775,648

94,494,319 69,377,831 27,458,338

96,836,169 95,790.700 98,140,800

The following table exhibits the growth of the three most important sources of the public revenue of India-namely, land, opium, and salt-in the financial years named: Year ended Land, Opium.

Salt. [ Year ended Land.

Opium.

Salt. March 31. Rx.

Rx.
Rx. 1 March 31. Rx.

Rx.

Rx. 1885. 21,832,211 8,816,469 6,507,236 1895.

25,408,272 7,323,757 8,605,749 1890..... 23,981,399 8,583,056 3,187.7391896..

26,200,955 7,123,922 8,861,845 1893..... 24,905,328 7,993,180 8,556,104 1897

23,953,500 6,409,100 8,421,800 1894..

25,589,609 6,627,571 2,288,876 (approximate.)

PUBLIC DEBT.

The following table shows the amount (in tens of rupees) of the debt of British India, both bearing and not bearing interest, distinguishing the debt in India and in Great Britain, in each of the financial years given:

Permanent Debt Permanent Debt Unfunded Debt
Year ended

in India.
in England.
in India.

Total.
March 31.

Rx.
Rx.

Rx. 1885..

93,183,660
69,271,08
11,266,746

173,721,494 1890.

102,761,175
98,192,391
10,675,877

211,629,443 1894....

105,546,078
108.113,792
13,694,528

227,354,398 1895.

104,373,740
114,005,826
13,906,720

232,286,886 1896.....

103,788,928
113,903,732
14,646,368

232, 339,028

Rx.

Agriculture.

The total acreage over which the chief crops of British India were grown in 1895-96 were as follows: Rice, 69,160,351; wheat, 18,530,832; other food grains, 84,227,474 ; sugar-cane, 2,930,593; tea, 406, 478: cotton, 9,600,616; oil seeds, 12,844,062; indigo, 1,569,869; tobacco, 1,111,973 ; jute, 2,248,593.

The average production of tea for the five years ending 1894-95 was 124,971,905 pounds, of which 120.439,095 pounds were exported. The average production of coffee for the corresponding period was 34,444,087 pounds, of which 31,595,514 pounds were exported.

In 1894-95, there were nearly 74,300 square miles of forest demarcated and reserved by the State.

Industries.

At the end of 1896-97, there were 31 jute mills and i hemp mill, employing a daily average of 91.389 persons, namely : 60,141 men, 17,179 women, 5,619 young persons, and 8,420 children. The mills contained 12,784 looms and 258,154 spindles. The nominal capital of the mills is about Rx.4.645.000.

At the end of June, 1897, there were 154 cotton mills, containing 37,303 looms, and 3,975,719 spindles, employing a daily average of 148,997 persons, of whom 92,180 are men, 28,028 women, 17,782 young persons, and 10,177 children, and 900 not classified. The mills consumed 5,032,000 cwts., and the total production of yarn was 421,540,000 lbs., as compared with 435, 124,000 lbs. in 1896.

In 1896, there were ten paper mills, employing 3,613 persons. The output was 40,707,589 lbs., valued at Rx.587,200.

The amount of beer brewed in 1897 was 5,309,475 gallons, and 3,022,171 gallons were imported. There were six woolen mills open at the end of 1896, with 530 looms and 18,658 spindles.

The division of the aggregate capital among the principal classes of joint-stock companies in 1897 is shown as follows: Paid-up ]

Paid-up
Capital.

Capital.
No.
Rx.

Rx. Banking and insurance........ 4,270,759 Ice manufacture..

162,224 Trading companies.... 231 4,539,406 Sugar manufacture....

230,236 Mills and presses......... 351 14,879,688 | Breweries.

170,000 Planting................... 171 3,740,839 Others.....

1,306,245 Mining and quarrying.....

64 1,857,162

726

జలు.

Foreign Commerce.

The value of the sea-borne external trade is sbown below. The average rate of increase is given for the last 35 years, the period being divided into five parts, of seven years each:

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The following shows (in tens of rupees) the total imports and exports of India, divided into merchandise and "treasure" (bullion specie), excluding Government stores and Government treasure, in the fiscal years ending March 31 :

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of the exports of merchandise in 1897, Rx. 99,880,660 represented the domestic products. Rx. 4,033,637 were re-exports of foreign imports.

The imports of merchandise for the year 1897-98 amounted to Rx. 69,394,000, and exports of Indian produce Rx. 93,777,000.

The following table shows (in tens of rupees) the respective shares which the leading countries with which India deals had in the exports and imports (merchandise alone) of India in the years ending March 31 : Exports of Indian Produce-

Imports into India from a 1895. 1896. 1897. 1895. 1896.

1897. Countries.

Rx.
Rx.
Rx.
Rx.

Rx.
C'nited Kingdom... 32,795,328 35,000,899 31,646,304 51,105,757 47,161,484 50,417,501
Ching................
12,548,725 13,777,103 13,681,925

2,662,956 2,805 858 2,149,089 France... 8,660,680 8,664.871 6,355, 496

860, 430
978,970

920,096 Italy... 2,980,601 3,122,030 3,027,963

342,039
420,814

464.717 Straits Settlements. 5,238.985 5.845,931 5,007,998 2.103.158 2,075,220 1,842,122

pited States..... 5,838,449 5,907,942 4,813,706 1,106,441 1,139, 438 1,466,949 Egypt........... 4,627,748 5,175,471 4,853,561

282,291

250,792 199,723 Belgium....

3,786,302 3,941,490 3,032,888 1,866,365 2,728,893 2,403,703 Austria..... 2,438,977 3,444,489 2,496,685 1,194,115

1,324,871 1,487,788 Ceylon...... 3,262,299 3,500,082 3,109,983

451.823
541,770

682,643 Germany...

7.718,877 8,051,374 7,535,579 1.731,453 2,352,529 2,307,821

Rx.

The following table shows (in tens of rupees) the value of the leading articles of private merchandise imported and exported (the produce of India only-that is, not including re-exports of foreign goods) in the years ending March 31, 1896 and 1897 :

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Exports.
Rice..........
Wheat
Cotton, raw.....
Cotton, manufactured..
Opium.
VPIU ...........
Seeds (oil seeds mainly)...
Hides and skins.......
Jute, raw.............
Jute, manufactured
I ......................
Indigo.................
Other dyes and tans........
Coffee......
Wool, raw...
Spices.......
LAC (excluding lac dye)....

13,537,289

3,913,896
14,090,192
8,314,587
8,459,336
9.717,432
7,639, 478
9,992,861
4,747,443
7,664,889
5,354,511

872,683
2,198,192
1,355, 108

489,509 1,833,601

1897.
Rx.

Imports.
11,917,586 Cotton manufactures......

836,395 Metals, hardware, cutlery..
12,970,089 Silk, raw and manufact'd..
8,496,474 Sugar, refined & unrefined.
8,022,923 Woolen goods..............
8,011,680 Liquors......................
7,001,680 K'way plant & rolling stock
10.550,577

Oils....
5,213,930 Machinery and mill work..
8.124,548 Coal.........................
4,370,757

Provisions....
638,936 Apparel, excluding hosiery
1,585,039 Spices.....
1,241,497

Glass......
497.0561 Drugs.....
1,399,862

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COMMERCE WITH THE UNITED STATES
The figures which follow include British East Indies, and are for the years ending June 30:

1892.
1893.
1894.
1895. 1896. 1897.

1898. Imports into U.S...... $24,773,107 $25,968,554 $14,829,661 $21,266,013 $20,270,558 $20,567,122 $27,238,459 Exports from U.S..... 3,674,3073,152,7604,329.103 2,853,941 3,225,368 3,844,911 4,695,855

The principal articles of import into the United States for the year ending June 30, 1896, were : Chemicals, drugs, dyes, etc., $4,003,077 ; coffee, $735,250; india-rubber and gutta-percha, crude, '$2,536,481; spices. $726.424 : leather, skins for morocco, $2,037,915; oils, $1,134,645; textile grasses, etc., unmanufactured, $1,828,560; manufactured, $2,729.266. Exports from the United States: Cotton, manufactured, $138,603; iron and steel manufactures, $176,299; oil, refined, mineral, $2,430,475; silver, $100,000.

IMPORTS AND EXPORTS OF PRECIOUS METALS. The amount of bullion and specie, private and Government, imported and exported, will be seen from the following table for the years 1892-97 :

Year ended March 31. 1892..... 1893. 1894 1895 1896. 1897.......................... 1897.

Imports of

Gold.

Rx.
4,118,929
1,781,789
3,146,530
1,756,280
5,029,269
4,491,179

Imports of

Silver.

Rx.
10,603, 733
15,228,021
15,314,726
7,824,927
8,338,716
8,593,385

Exports of

Gold.

Rx.
1,705,137
4,594,472
2,505,284
6,730,374
2,503,317
2,200,141

Exports of
Silver.

Rx.
1,581,549
2,364,452
1,594,908
1,495,698
1,756,494
2,737,355

Railroads, Post-Office, and Telegraphs. (See Index.)

Shipping.

In 1896-97, there entered at ports of British India in foreign trade 5,006 vessels of 3,883,989 tons, of which 1,989 vessels of 3,086,971 tons were British. There cleared 4,934 vessels of 3,814,596 tons, of which 1.980 of 3,078,271 tons were British.

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Rx.

1891..........

1893..................

Money and Banking. The silver rupee is the monetary unit, the value of which fluctuates with the gold price of silver. On July 1, 1896, its value was 23.6 cents.

In the year ending March 31, 1863, the total value of notes in circulation was 49,260,000 rupees.

The following were the total values of notes in circulation (in tens of rupees) on March 31 in each year from 1891 to 1896 : Rx.

Rx.
25.690,449 894
30,411,631 1896 ...........

25,940,699 1892..

24,076,408 | 1895.

1895.... .............. 30,700,010 | 1897 .................. 23,753,307

26,401,8201 Nearly two-thirds of the total note circulation is in the currency circles of Calcutta and Bombay.

The following are the statistics of the various Government savings-banks in India. These banks were divided into presidency banks (3), railway banks (12), post-office banks (6,343), and military banks (162) in 1895-96 : -Native Depositors - European or Eurasian ---- Total

Depositors.
No. of Balance at No. of Balance at

Balance at Years. Banks. Accounts. End of Year. Accounts. End of Year. Depositors. End of Year.

Rx.
Rx.

Rx. 1890-91..... 6,642

402,118
6,457,817 73,211
1,602,859 457,329

8,060,676 1893-94..... 6,544

558,528
8,330,484

86,130
1,991,976

644,658 10.322.460 1894-95..... 6,564 594,914

8,473,378

88.295 2,061,548 683,209 10,534,926 1895-96......

629,625 8,718,286 86,929 2,402,966 716,554 11,121,252 NOTE.-For monetary system, see this " Year Book," Volume I, page 67.

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