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CHINA.

Area and Population. The following table gives a statement of the area and population of the whole of the Chinese Empire according to the latest estimates :

Area,

Eng.
Sq. Miles.

Population.
China Proper....

1,336,841

386,000,000
Dependencies-
Manchuria..

362.310

7,500,000 Mongolia.

1.288,000

2,000,000 Tbibet.......

651,500

6.000.000 Jungaria..

147,950

800,000 East Turkestan........

431,800

580,000

Total...........

4,218,401

402,680,000 According to official data, the population of the 18 provinces of China Proper and Formosa was 413,000,000 in 1812; other estimates then gave 350,000,000.

The Island of Formosa was ceded to Japan on May 8, 1895. The formal transfer was effected on Jone 2. 1895.

The total number of foreigners resident in the open ports of China was 10,855 at the end of 1896. Among them were 4,362 British subjects, 1,439 Americans, 852 Japanese, 933 Frenchmen, 870 Germans, 871 Portuguese, 410 Spaniards, and 407 Swedes and Norwegians, all other nationalities being represented by very few members. About one-half of the total number of foreigners resided at Shanghai.

Fiscal Affairs.

No general statement of revenue and expenditure is made public, but the following estimate, made by Consul Jamieson, of Shanghai, taken from the "Statesman's Year Book,"is shown below. Tbe amounts are stated in thousands of taels : Land tas, silver.........

25,088 Metropolitan administration, Manchu ** grain ...........................

6,562 garrisons, and Imperial Household.... 19,478 Salt duty and Likin...

13,659 Board of Admiralty (Peiyang Squadron). 5,000 Likin on merchandise..... 12,952 Southern naval squadrons.................

5,000 Foreign maritime customs 21,989 Forts, guns, and coast defense...

8,000 Native custom-houses.... 1,000 Defense of Manchuria ......

1,848 Duty and Likin on native opium.. 2,229 Kansuh and Central Asia....

4.800 Miscellaneous duties.... 5,550 Aids to Yunnan and Kweichow..

1,655 Interest and repayment of foreign loans.. 2,500 Railway construction........

500 Public works, river embankments, sea wall, etc.......

1,500 Customs administration, including main

tenance of light-houses, beacons, and
revenue cruisers....

2,478
Administration of 18 provinces, including
cost of troops.......

36,220 Total ........................ 88,979

Total.....

88,979 The receipts from the foreign customs alone are made public. They amounted to 7,872,257 haikwan taels, or £2,381,677 (ex. 6s.), in 1864, and, gradually increasing, have risen to 23,518,021 haikwan tacls (including 6,197,906 taels, opium Likin), or £5,781,513 (ex. 4s. 11d.), in 1891; to 22,689,054 baik wan taels (including 5,667,007 taels, opium Likin), or £4,939,596 (ex. 48. 494d.), in 1892; and to 21,989,300 haikwan taels (including 5,362,733 taels, opium Likin), or £4,329,143 (ex. 3s. 11y4d.), in 1893; and to 22.523.65 haikwan taels (including 5,050,303 taeis, opium Likin), or £3,601,430 (ex. 3s. 299d.), in 1894; 21.385,000 haikwan taels in 1895 (including 4,104,145 taels, opium Likin), or £3,497,402 (ex. 3s. 644d.); in 1896, to 2.579,306 baikwan taels (including 3,919,759 taels, opium Likin), or £3,763,227 (ex. 38. 4d.).

The expenditure of the Government is mainly for the army. The existing debt of China has arisen almost entirely out of the recent war with Japan. In December, 1894, a foreign silver loan of $1.631,000 was raised at 7 per cent., and in February, 1895, a gold loan of £3,000,000, both on the security of the customs revenue, while other advances, on the same security, amounting to over £2,000,000 were obtained from local banks and foreign syndicates. Internal loans were also obtained amounting to Dearly £5,000,000. Thus the total debt was increased to about £13,000,000, The war indemnity to be paid to Japan amounts to 200,000,000 kuping, or Imperial Treasury, taels ( kuping tael = 1.096 Sbangbai tael), and che compensation for the retrocession of the Leao-tong peninsula to 30,000,000 tmely, together equivalent to about £40,000,000, so that the total debt of China now reaches the sum of £53,000,000.

Industries.

China is essentially an agricultural country, but no data as to areas or crops exist. Wheat. barley, maize, and millet, and other cereals, are chiefly cultivated in the north, and rice in the south. Sugar is cultivated in the south provinces. Opium has become a crop of increasing importance. Tea is cultivated exclusively in the west and south, in Fu-Chien, Hû-pei, Hû. Nan, Chiang.si, ChehChiang, An-hui, Kuang tung, and Sze-ch'wan, The culture of silk is equally important with that of tea. The best and the most silk comes from Kuangtuny, Sze-cb'wan, and Cheh-Chiang.

China may be regarded as one of the first coal countries of the worid. The coal mines at Kaip'ing. Northern Chihli, under foreign supervision, have been very productive: at Hankow coal mines have also been worked. There are also considerable stores of iron and copper remaining to be worked.

Commerce.
The imports (less re-exports) and exports, in haikwan taels, are shown as follows:
Year.
Imports. Exports. 1

Year.

Imports. Exports. 1880....... 79,293,500 77,883,600 1894..

161, 102,900 128,104,500 1890... 127.193,500 87,144,180 1895...

171,696.700 143,293,200 1892.. 135,101,200 102,583,500 1896..

202,590.000 131,081,400 1893... 151,362,800 116,632,300 1897...

202,829,000 163,561.000 The cession of Formosa in a degree affects the figures for 1895, 1896, and 1897, in comparisons with former years. The trade with the principal countries is shown as follows, in thousands of haikwan taels :

---Imports from

Exports to -
1894. 1895.

1896.
1894. 1895.

1896.3 Hong Kong......................

82,424 88,191 91,357 50,794 54,774 54,050 Great Britain....

29,943 33,960 44,571 11,500 10,571 11.280 Japan..............:

9,130 17,195 17,390 9,257 14.822 11,378 Europe (Continent), without Russia... 5,771

19,119 21,172 18,071 United States.... 9,263 5,093 11,930 16,443 15,383

11,12 India...

19,929 16.944 23,027 2,513 2,764 Russia (in Europe and Asia)..

1,059 1,902 2,035 11,023 17,505 12,58€

2.17)

Tea....

The total imports and exports for 1897 were distributed as follows in taels: Hong Kong, 150,528,109; Great Britain, 52,960,816; Europe, continental, without Russia, 34,443,925; United States, 30,268,708; British India, 21,114,114; Japan, 39,191,022; Macao, 9,409,192 ; other countries, 28,414,097. Total, 366,329,983. The chief imports and exports are shown as follows, in thousands of haikwan taels: -Imports --

-Exports 1895. 1896.

1895.

1896. Opium.....

29,165
28,652

32,450 30,157 Cotton goods. ...

53,074 79,243 | Silk, and manufactures of.. 50,687 42,089 Raw cotton.....

569
1.308 Sugar.....

2,130

1.478 Woolen goods..

3,723
5,363 | Straw braid...

2,494

3,907 Metal..

77,189
9,759 Hides, cow and buffalo...... 981

1,826 Coal................

3,394
3,540 Paper.....................

1.986

1,858 Oil, kerosene.

6,615
9,083 Clothing.................

2,190

2.088 Seaweed, fishery prod., etc..

5,136

4,988 ) Chinaware and pottery...... 1,541 1,628 The imports for 1897 were, in taels: Opium, 27,901.056 ; cottons, 78,663,280; woolens, 4,838,105; textiles not classed, 498,849; metals, 8,146,608; others, 82,875,727. Total, 202,826,625.

Exports were: Raw cotton, 7,393,456; clothing, 2,177,690 ; silks, 55,250,660; teas, 29,216,546; sugar, 1,777,460; others, 67,685,546. Total, 163,501,358.

do

304,888

3,370

55,723

The status of American cottons and the kerosene industry is illustrated by the following table,

ne imports of all merchandise which expressly names the country of its origin for the twelve months ended December 31, 1897, and for the same period of 1896 : Description.

1896

1897. Decrease. Increase. Drills: English..... ..... Pieces. 132,373 76,202

56.171 Indian...

do 39,775

11,243

28,532 Dutch....

84,334
25,862

58,472 Japanese.....

9,136
1,250

7.886 American....,

1,226,759 1,531,647 Jeans: English.....

127,728 183,451 Dutch.

54.260

50,890 American ...

52,480 68,076 Sheetings: English...

1,019.991 389.569 630,4:22 Indian...

156.709 23,700 127,009 Dutch....

1,040

1.040 Japanese...

25,037 24.714

793 American......

2,251,600 2,418,971

167,371 Oil, kerosene: Sumatran..... ..Gallons. 5,151,873 14,212,278

9,212,278 Russian...... ......................... do 28,285,000 36,924, 125

8,639, 125 American..... ................. do 33,520,649 48,212,505

14,691,856 The imports of cotton goods from the United States for the year 1898 amounted to 115,492,797 vards, against 140.121,035 yards in 1897. From the United Kingdom they were, in 1898, 445,182,100 yards, against 542.814,000 yards in 1897 (including Hong Kong).

15,596

do

The following table shows the net value of the import trade of the Yangtze-Kiang :

-1896

-- 1895

1897 Foreign.

Foreign. Native. Foreign, Native. Ports.

H. Taels. H. Taels. H. Taels. H. Taels. H. Taels. H. Taels, Shanghai....

23,864,285 9,493,575 42,466,210 10,737,873 31,725,393 10,941,193 Chinkiang.

12,622,423 5,334,099 12,637,832 5,781.383 13,285,419 5,781,199 Wuhu........

3,733,303 1,865,752 4,257,747 1.860,479 3,700,373 1,955,867 Kiukiang.....

4.733,820 465,535 5,835,876 809,104 6,563,311 1,221,676 Hankow....

13,154,362 6,024,248 14,193,537 6,663,411 17,172,351 8,007,897 Shasi.........

3,338

2,753 48,428 86,864 Ichang.....

*** 623. 175 392,122 899,558 844.773 647.902 722,528 Chungking....

5,618,213 1,238,816 6,928,954 979,386 8,443,947 2,776,171 H. taels 64,351,581 24,814,147 87,221,052 27,679,162 81,587,124 31,493,395 Total....

£ 10,524, 180 3,946, 122 14,536,842 4,613,194 12,323,055 4,756,805 The value of the exports in the same three years from the Yangtze ports was as follows:

1895.
1896.

1897. Ports.

H. Taels.
H. Taels.

H. Taels. Shanghai ...

61,632,482
41,831,213

59,166,376 Chinkiang..

11.894,126
4,530,994

5,078,723 Wubu......

2,360.427
5,508,602

3,232,121 Kiukiang...

9,032.999
7,605,123

7,080,576 Hankow..

25,328,892
23,449,545

24,549,382 Shasi

36,023

181,220 Ichang......

465,970

423,950 Chungking....

8,396,748
5,223,229

6,751,268 ..SH. taels 117,124,403

88,650,699

106,454,606 Total....

19,152,720
14,675, 117

16,024,081

**** 478,734

Open Ports in China.

................................

1861

The following is a list of the treaty ports and ports of call in China, showing the date of opening the custom-houses, the estimated population, and the total foreign trade in 1897 in cach of said localities.

(Prepared by Charles Denby, Minister to China.)
LIST OF TREATY PORTS AND PORTS OF CALL.

-Total Foreign Trade Port.

Year. Population. Hk. Taels. Treaty of Nankin with Great Britain, August, 29, 1842. 1. Canton...........

1859 2,500,000 83,660,328 $24,874,982 2. Amoy......

1862
96,000 13,047,810

9,622,332 3. Fuchau.....

1801
650,000 8,646,921

6,390.075 4. Ningpo.....

1860
255,000
770.875

569.319 5. Shanghai....

1854 475,000 210,614,052 155,643,784 Treaty of Tentsin with Great Britain, July 26, 1858. 6. Miuchwang.................

60,000 7,189,241 5,312,849 7. Chefoo.........

1861
35,000 5.074,020

3,749.701 8. Swatow....

1860

35,000 12,763,583 9,432,288 9. Kiungchau.........

1876

40,000 3,243,437 2,395,898 Not Especially Named in the Treaty, but Afterwards

Designated. 10. Hankau......

1862 800,000 3,596,204 2,657,595 Il. Chinkiang ......

1801

140,000 2,343,039 1,731,506 12. Kiukiang......

1862 55,000

5,800

4,286 Pekin Contention with Great Britain, October 24, 1860. 13. Tientsin..............................................

1861
950,000 19.361 3oz

12,091,442 Treaty between France and China, October 25, 1860. 14. Nankin.............

Unknown. Treaty with Russia, November 2, 1860. 15. Kashgar. ......

.......

Unknown. Chefoo Convention with Great Britain, September 18,

1876.+ 16. Icbang.....

1877

34,000 No report. 17. Wuhu......

1877
79,700
11,040

8,159 18. Wenchow..

1877
80.000
14,450

10 679 19. Pakhoi..

1877

20,000 4,158,560 3,073,170 Treaty with France, June 26, 1887. 29. Lungchow........

1888
22,000
108,947

80,512 1888

12,000 8,451,766 2,550,854 22. Manhao.....

(*) Unknown.

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1890)

No report.

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Port.
Additional Articles to the Chefoo Convention with

Great Britain, March 31, 1890.
23. Chungking ...........
Regulations Appended to Sikkem-Thibet Convention

of 1890 with Great Britain, December 5, 1893. 24. Yatung...............................................

Convention with Great Britain, March 1, 189%. 25. Manwyne............................................

Treaty with Japan, Shimoneseki, April 17, 1895. 26. Shasbih.....

Chungking (see under No. 23). 27. Suchow............ 28. Hangchow.......... Gerard Supplementary Convention with France, June

20, 1895. 29. Szemao.... ....... Under Special Article of Treaty with Great Britain,

February 4, 1897 (both on West River). 30. Samshui.... 31. Wuchow....................

Opened by an Imperial Decree of March 31, 1898. 33. Yochow. 33. Santuao. 34. Chinwangtao.........................

Opened by Imperial Decree, April 7, 1898. 35. Woosung.........

73,000 500,000 700,000

1896
1896

1896

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COMMERCE WITH THE UNITED STATES.
The imports into the United States and exports from the United States were as follows:
1892. 1893.

1894.
1895.
1896.
1897.

1898. Imports into U. S...... $20,488,291 $20,636,535 $17,135,028 $20,545,829 $22,0:23,004 $20,403,862 $20,326,388 Exports from U. S..... 5,663,497 3,900,457 5,862,428 3,603,840 6,921,933 11,921, 433 9,992,894 The principal exports to the United States for the year ending June 30, 1896, were: Chemicals,

8814.555. of which opium. for smoking. was $729.126: hats, bonnets, hoods, materiale for, $917,843; hides and skins, other than furs, $580,030; furs, and manufactures of, $514,146; matting, $668,813; rice, rice meal, etc., $367, 705; silk, unmanufactured, $6,678,726 ; silk, manufactures of, 8269,355 : sugars (above 16 D. S.), $902,913: tea, $6,966,766: wool, unmanufactured, $1.600.842.

The principal imports from the United States were: Cotton cloths, $3,854, 146; oils, mineral, refined, $2,166,978; tobacco, manufactures of, $192,138. In 1897, cotton cloths, $7,438,203; oils, mineral, refined, $3,371,937.

Shipping, Railroads. (See Index.)

Money.

The sole official coinage and the monetary unit of China is the copper cash, of which about 1,600-1,700 =1 haikwan tael, and about 22 = 1 penny. The silver sycee is the usual medium of exchange. Large payments are made by weight of silver bullion, the standard being the liang, or tuel. which varies at different places. The haikwan (or customs) tael, being one tael weight of pure silver. was equal in 1896 to 3s. 4.3d., or 5.95 haikwan taels to a pound sterling.

By an Imperial decree, issued during 1890, the silver dollar coined at the new Canton mint is made current all over the Empire. It is of the same value as the Mexican and United States silver dollars, and as the Japanese silver yen. Foreign coins are looked upon but as bullion, and usually taken by weight, except at the treaty ports.

NOTE.-For further information on money and banking see “ Year Rook," Volume I pages 67 and 68; also the “ History of Banking in All Nations," Volume Iy, page 547, issued by “The Journal of Commerce and Commercial Bulletin."

* Not opened.

$ Under the same article, the following ports on the West River were also made ports of call: Kungmoon, Kumchuck, Shiuhing. Tahking.

JAPAN.

Area and Population.

Pop.

The area and population of the six divisions, as returned January 1, 1895, were as follows:

Pop.
Square Popu- per

Square Popu- per
Miles. lation. Sq. M.

Miles. lation. sq. M. Central Nippon.... 36,600 16,206,470 443 Shikoku......

7,031 2,913,279 416 Northern 30,204 6,380,267 211 Kiushiu..

16,840 6,445,449 Western 20,681 9,442,437 456 Hokkaidô....

36,299 422,300 11 Total Nippon.... 87,485 32,029,174 366

Grand total.... 147,655 41,810,202 283 The number of foreigners in 1895 was 8,246, of whom 3,642 were Chinese, 1,878 English, 1,022 Americans, 493 Germans, 391 French, 127 Portuguese, 80 Dutch, 222 Russians, and 391 others. In 1888, the population numbered 39,607,234.

Fiscal Affairs.

The following are the Imperial revenues and expenditures, the amounts for the years 1892-93 to 1894-85 being present accounts, 1895–96 and 1896-97 revised estimates, and 1897-98 budget estimates:

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The national debt at the end of 1896 stood as follows: Consolidated bonds, 172,061,700 yen; war bonds, 121,421,835 yen: 5 per cent. pension bonds, 30,036,120 yen; currency redemption bonds, 22,000,000 yen; naval bonds, 16,950,000 yen; railway bonds, 6,000,000 yen; old public schools (no interest), 5,486,362 yen; insurrection expenses bonds, 4,000,000 yen: foreign debt, 233,753 yen; total, 377,189,870 yen. Loans to be raised in 1897: Public undertakings loan, 59,280, 600 yen; consolidated bonds, 2,502,250 yen; railway bonds, 5,327.350 yen. There is also Government paper to be taken into account, amounting to 9,450.000 yen, making the total of Japan's national debt in round numbers 454,000,000 yen.

Agriculture.

The land is cultivated chiefly by peasant proprietors. The land was officially in 1894 thus: Pubbic land, used for Government purposes, 9,675 acres; forests, 2,885,776; open field, 1,412,179 acres ; miscellaneous (1893-94), 17,420 acres; total, 4,325,050 acres. Private land: Under cultivation, 1,235,917 : bomesteads, 93,365 ; forests, 1,789, 438; open fields, 262,774; miscellaneous, 6,718; total, 3,388,212 acres. The public lands include only those surveyed, and the private only those taxed. The following are some agricultural statistics:

1895.

Rice, acres.......
Rice, bushels.....
Wbeat, acres.....
Wheat, bushels....
Barley, acres.
Barley, bushels...
Rye, acres....
Rye, bushels......
Tea (in kwan*).....
Sosar ün kwan *)......
Milk, cocoons (in kokut)..
Silk, raw (in kwan *)......

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7,015,712 198,127,873

1,093,008 19,719,457

1,600,808 42,367,136

1.646.256 34,818,262

8,698,781 14,402.588

2,258, 173 1,887,584

1896. 6,830,075 179,655,843

1.082, 425 17,632 137

1,594,189 38,955,217

1,648,113 29,396,483

8,500,745 11,822,307 1,836,672 2,299,688

1,800,596

*1 kwan=8.28 lbs. avoirdupois.

+1 koku = 5.13 bushels.

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