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Of the Contests about Inveftitures in

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Ngland no lefs than Germany had very sharp Contests with the Pope about Inveftitures. This was first begun between King William Rufus and Anfelm Archbishop of Canterbury, who for his Zeal to the See of Rome was afterwards Sainted. This Anfelm was the Son of Gundulphus and Hermerberga, a Lombard by Birth, as Radulphus de Diceto informs us, Dec, Script.p. and born at Aofta or Augufta on the Alps. 493. Having been bred up in Learning, he paffed the Alps into France, and going into Normandy, he remained with Lanfranc Prior of the Abbey of Bec, and Governour of the Publick Schools under the Abbott Harlewin, who was the Ipid. p. 2330. Founder of the Monastery, and from a Soldier, became the first Abbot there. Lanfranc being first made Abbot of Caen, and after that Archbishop of Canterbury left Anfelm his Succeffor in the Priory of Bec: And foon after, by the Confent of the Abbot Harlewin he was made Abbot of the fame Houfe. About Four Years after the Death of Lanfranc, William II. who (according to his ufual Cuftom with Bishopricks) had fo long kept this See vacant, being taken very ill, and (as it was thought, not likely to recover, was at laft perfwaded to nominate an Archbishop to the See of Canterbury. No Perfon was thought fo fit for that high Station as Abbot Anfelm of Normandy, at that time mightily famed for his Extraordina


Badmer. Hift. ry Piety. He was very unwillingly brought

Nov. p. 17.

into England: And being by the King and
Lords very much preffed to accept the Arch-
bishoprick, he ftifly refused it, and would by
no means be brought to take the Pastoral Staff.
However the Bishops and other Lords which
were prefent, drew him by Force to the King's
Bed-fide, and because he fhut his Hand that
the Staff might not be put into it, they held
the Staff clofe to his Hand, and declared him
Invested, and fo carried him away to the next
Church to the

nies. Being out of the customed Ceremo

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King's Prefence, he turned to the Bishops and told them, That they knew not what they did, to joyn a weak Sheep Emeaning himfelf in the Yoke with a wild Bull meaning the King] by which means the Church-plow could never go well. Notwithstanding (after a great Conteft with the King, who having foon recovered his Illnefs, forgot the good Defigns and Promises of his Sicknefs, endeavouring to annex the greateft Part of the Temporalties of that See to the Crown, but Anfelm would have 'em restored entire) he was at laft Confecrated at Canterbury, Dec. 3. A. D. 1093. All the Bishops of EngLand being prefent, except Worcester and Exeter, who were detained by Sickness. After his Confecration he returned to Court, and was kindly received and entertained by the King and Nobility.

But the King at that time endeavouring to take the Dutchy of Normandy from his Brother Robert, raifed Money for that Purpose by all the Means be could contrive. Anfelm, by the Advice of fome of his Friends, made him an offer of Five Hundred Pounds towards this Expedi


Expedition: But this was rejected with Scorn, and a Thousand Pounds demanded, which Anfelm refused to give. Hereby he first fell under the King's Difpleasure, and Petitioning to go to Rome, to receive his Pall from Pope Urbane, he was denied. The King alledging. Mat. Paris. p. that no Archbishop or Bishop of this Realm 19. should be Subject to the Court of Rome, or to

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the Pope. Anfelm was hereupon Charged with High-Treafon, and all the Bishops of England except Gundulphus of Rochefter refufed to pay him Canonical Obedience. The King alfo declared that he would not acknowledge Urbane for Pope. But in a few Days after this, Walter Bishop of Albany brought Anfelm the Pall, and did alfo reconcile the King to Urbane. Anfelm having received the Pall again defired Leave to Rome: At laft the King told him he might go if he pleased, but he must never hope to return to England. Soon after the Archbishop embarked at Dover and went to Rome where he was exceedingly careffed by Urbane, who honoured him with the Title + Dec Script. of Alterius Orbis Papa.

P. 1327.

*Then in a Council held at Rome, by his Mat. Par. p. Advice it was decreed that Such Laicks as after 19. the ancient Manner fhould confer Churches by Inveftitures, and those who should receive them from Laicks, fhould be excommunicated.

Upon the Death of William and Succef + Mat. Par. p. 58. fion of Henry I. to the Crown, Anfelm was called home. An. 1102. He affembled a Council in St. Paul's Church London, about Michaelmas, at which the King himself was prefent. Here in a plain Difcourfe, he acquainted the King with the Decree of the General Council at Rome, concerning Inveftitures: How that



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no Prelate of the Church, whether Bishop or Abbot, or other Clergy-man should receive Investiture of any Ecclefiaftical Dignity, from the Hands of a Layman. Hereupon the Archbishop alfo degraded fome Abbots, who had obtained their Abbeys from Lay-men, by giving of Money. He alfo refused to confecrate Bishops, to whom the King had given Inveftitures, or to communicate with them. At which the King being angry, commanded Girard Archbishop of York to confecrate 'em: But William Giffard the Bishop Elect of Winchefter defpifed the Confecration of Girard, for which the King banished him the Realm. And Reinelmus the Bishop of Hereford, because he had received his Inveftiture from the King, refigned his Bishoprick to him again.

The next Year, Anfelm with the King's Leave, went to Rome and was received by Pope Pafchal II. the Succeffor of Urbane. And upon the Day appointed for the Hearing this Matter, William of Warenaft a Clergy-man, the King of England's Proctor, opened the Cause: And declared that The King his Mafter would as foon part with his Kingdom, as the Right of Inveftitures. And the Pope replied, that He would not fuffer him to retain 'em uncenfured [impunè] • Eadmer. Hift. tho' it were to fave his own Life. However the Pope by the Advice of his Council did forbear to fend this Answer to the King in fuch harsh Terms, allowing him to enjoy fome ancient Priviledges, but notwithstanding interdicted him the conferring Inveftitures to Churches, yet withal, declared him free for a time from the Excommunication, which he was fuppofed to have incurred by acting contrary to the Canons: Nevertheless, thofe who

Nov. p. 73.

who had received Inveftitures from him were continued under that Cenfure 'till they had made Satisfaction for their Faults, and then Anfelm was Empowered to abfolve them. Then his Holiness wrote a Letter to the King, wherein after a great many Complements, he defires him to recal his Paftour and Father Anfelm, and promises that If any thing was done contrary to his Prerogative in the Matter of Inveftitures, he would moderate that Affair according to his Majefties Pleafure as far as the Law of God would permit him to do.

Anfelm alfo wrote to the King his Master at the fame time, and lets him know, that He had acquainted the Pope with his Cause; and that his Holinefs faid he could not but follow the Steps of his Predeceffours, and commanded him not to 'communicate with those who had received Inveftitures. of Churches from his Majefty fince their Knowledge of this Prohibition, unless they repented and quitted their Preferments without any Hopes of regaining them: Neither could he Communicate with any fuch, except they referred themselves to the Fudgment of the Apoftolick See. After this he tells him, That He was told by William Warenast his Majefties Agent at Rome, that before he prefumed to enter the Kingdom, he should promise to Suffer his Majefty to enjoy quietly thofe Customs which his Father and Brother had enjoyed before him. But defires to be excufed in this Matter, for that he could not pay Homage to him, nor Communicate with those who received Inveftitures from him.

The King upon the Return of William and Receipt of thefe Letters, immediately Seized upon all the Temporalties of the Archbishoprick. Anfelm the mean while ftaid at Lyons with Hugh the Bishop of that City. From



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