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excavation, the Gatun Dam cost more, due to use of rock in part and due to addition of items. In the Central Division the width of channel in the Culebra Cut was increased from 200 to 300 feet, a concrete revetment was added and there were other increases in excavation. In the Pacific Division there was the same increase in the size of the locks as in the Atlantic Division and, in addition to this, there was a very large increase in the dredging, due to moving the locks and dams farther inland for military reasons, thus increasing the length of the dredged channel and reducing the size of Miraflores Lake. The Panama Railroad developed into a most important adjunct of the canal and absorbed greater amounts of funds. The estimate of 1908 also included many items of general expense not directly chargeable to construction and not included in the consulting engineers' estimates, because not required for purpose of comparing the lock canal with the sea-level canal.

The actual costs have in general been less than the commission's estimated costs of 1908. While this may, in part, be due to the estimated amounts being very liberal, it is principally due to the remarkable efficiency attained in execution. Otherwise it would not have been possible to complete the removal of the slides and do other additional work at the terminals and elsewhere within the allotted appropriation.

The following is a record of the actual cost of various items to the close of the fiscal year 1913:

TOTAL EXPENDITURES TO JUNE 30, 1913

(Including plant and distributed overhead charges)
I. Direct charges to Construction
Atlantic Division

Dry Excavation, Canal Prism.. $1,480,000
Dredging Canal Prism..

8,515,000 Gatun Dam and Spillway. 11,573,000 Gatun Locks.....

28,343,000 Toro Point Breakwater...

2,643,000 Miscellaneous......

950,000 Total Atlantic Division.

$53,504,000 Central Division (Gatun to Pedro Miguel)

Dry Excavation, Culebra Cut.. $83,749,000
Dredging, Gatun Lake, channel,
etc...

194,000 Total Central Division (Culebra Cut)

$83,943,000 Pacific Division

Dry Excavation, Canal Prism.. $ 3,388,000
Dredging Canal Prism..... 11,249,000
Pedro Miguel Locks and Dams. 11,665,000
Miraflores Locks and Dams. 18,236,000
Naos Island Breakwater....

405,000
Terminal Facilities, Balboa. 2,125,000
Miscellaneous..

287,000 Total Pacific Division...

$47,355,000 General Construction Items

Lighting, buoying, oil and
transmission lines, etc.......

$ 514,000 Total direct charges to Construction

$185,316,000 II. Expenditures not chargeable directly to Construction Department of Sanitation..

$16,250,000 Civil Administration and Law.

6,438,000 Payment to French Company.

40,000,000 Payment to Republic of Panama..

10,000,000 Panama Railroad, Improvements, Relocation, etc. 14,200,000 Steamers purchased and repaired...

2,680,000 Canal Zone Buildings...

10,288,000 Canal Zone Water Works, Roads and Improvements..

9,647,000 Miscellaneous Items..

1,052,000 Total of Items not directly chargeable to Construction...

$110,555,000 Total Expenditures on Fortifications (incomplete)

3,114,000 Grand Total of all Expenditures..

$298,985,000 Fig. 20. — Mindi Excavation, view looking north from west bank, showing intersection of French and American canals. Atlantic entrance of canal in distance. March, 1913.

[graphic]

Photo by R. E. B.
Fig. 19. — Toro Point Breakwater, two miles long, showing two-track

construction trestle and rock fill.

[graphic]

THE ELEMENTS OF SUCCESS

A consideration of the elements to which the undertaking owes its accomplishment is most important and interesting, in order to comprehend correctly how success was achieved. It must first be admitted that fortune favored us. We did not apply our determination to build the canal to actual construction work until after the world had fully developed the mosquito theory, and Cuba had given us an opportunity to apply it to practical sanitation.

Two generations of railroad building, river and harbor improvement, water works, and other large construction, together with the coincident growth of the great technical schools, had developed a body of engineers and constructors with the technique and capacity for conceiving and executing large works, and with a strongly formed spirit of loyalty and devotion that allowed them to be welded into the nucleus of a great organization. Everywhere on the work are evidences of the standard practice developed by engineers on other undertakings and adapted to local conditions. Without these years of preliminary engineering training, the Panama Canal as built would have been impossible.

The management of the enterprise was first placed in the hands of engineers and others who had been eminently successful in great works conducted by private capital. They were undoubtedly able men and contributed enormously to the primary work, and are deserving of great credit. They had not had experi

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