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TABLE I. - DISTANCES AND TIME SAVED VIA THE PANAMA CANAL AS COMPARED WITH THE STRAITS OF MAGELLAN BETWEEN THE ATLANTICGULF PORTS OF THE UNITED STATES AND THE WEST COAST

OF NORTH AND SOUTH AMERICA

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On a trip between San Francisco and New York a 10-knot freight steamer will be able to save 32 days by using the Panama Canal instead of going around by the Straits of Magellan. A 16-knot passenger steamer will be able to make the voyage in 20 days less. The saving in time and distance will be greater for New Orleans than for New York; because Gulf ports are nearer to the canal than are the Atlantic ports. From New York to the great nitrate port of Iquique 9- and 10-knot freight steamers will save from 23 to 21 days by using the Panama Canal instead of going by way of the Straits of Magellan; and even for Valparaiso, the principal port of the agricultural section of Chile, the 10-knot steamer from New York will save 15 days by using the Panama Canal. The reduction in time and distance between the Atlantic-Gulf seaboard of the United States and the west coast of North and South America will be so great that the traffic between these two sections will, without question, use the Panama Canal. TABLE II.- DISTANCES AND TIME SAVED VIA THE PANAMA CANAL AS COMPARED WITH THE STRAITS OF MAGELLAN BETWEEN EUROPEAN

PORTS AND THE WEST COAST OF SOUTH AMERICA

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210

The Panama Canal

Table II illustrates the effect which the canal will bave upon the length and time of voyages between European ports and those of the west coast of South America. From Liverpool and from Antwerp, representative ports of north Europe, a 10-knot freight steamer can save between 11 and 12 days by using the Panama Canal to the nitrate ports. For trips to Valparaiso, the saving in time will be only about half as great as the saving in time for trips to the nitrate ports; and, if saving in distance and time were the only factor affecting the choice of routes, it is probable that the tolls that have been established for the use of the Panama Canal would divert the traffic between Europe and Chile to the Magellan route; but the cheaper cost of fuel by the Panama route, and the greater possibility of trading at intermediate ports by taking the Panama route instead of going through the Straits of Magellan, make it practically certain that but a small part of the traffic between Europe and the west coast of South America will continue to use the Magellan route after the opening of the Panama Canal.

Tables III and IV show how the Panama Canal will affect the length of routes and the time of voyages to Australia and New Zealand from New York and New Orleans and from a representative European port, Liverpool.

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TABLE III. —DISTANCES AND TIME SAVED VIA THE PANAMA CANAL AS CONTRASTED WITH ROUTES VIA THE SUEZ CANAL, THE CAPE OF GOOD HOPE, AND THE STRAITS OF MAGELLAN BETWEEN THE ATLANTIC-GULF SEABOARD OF THE

UNITED STATES AND AUSTRALASIA

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Miles. 3,258

7.5

6.7

5.6

4.6

4.0

14.6

13.1

10.8

9.2

8.0

11.0

9.1

7.7

6.7

4,282

19.3

17.3

14.3

12.2

Difference between routes via Panama,
Tahiti, Sydney, and Melbourne, and
via St. Vincent and Cape of Good

Hope.
Difference between routes via Panama,

Tahiti, and Sydney, and via St. Vin-
cent, Cape of Good Hope, and Ade-

laide.
Difference between routes via Panama
and Tahiti

and via St. Vincent, Cape
of Good Hope, Adelaide, and Mel-
bourne.

10.7

15.8

13.1

11.2

9.7

5,444

24.6

22.2

18.4

15.7

13.7

Miles. 1,746

Adelaide.

Melbourne.

2,770

12.3

Sydney..

3,932

17.7

Wellington

2,493

11.0

9.9

8.1

6.9

6.0

3,488

15.6

14.0

11.6

9.9

8.6

Difference between routes via Panama and Tahiti and via Straits of Magellan. 212

TABLE IV.-DISTANCES FROM LIVERPOOL TO AUSTRALIA AND NEW ZEALAND VIA THE PANAMA CANAL AND VIA THE

SUEZ CANAL, AND DISTANCES AND DAYS SAVED BY THE SHORTER ROUTE

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The Panama Canal

10.8

9.7

8.1

6.9

6.1

Via Panama, Tahiti, Sydney, and Melbourne.
Via Aden, Colombo, and King George Sound.
Via Panama, Tahiti, and Sydney.
Via Aden, Colombo, King George Sound, and Adelaide.

6.1

5.4

4.6

3.9

3.4

150

0.69

0.62

0.52

0.44

0.39

Via Panama and Tahiti.
Via Aden, Colombo, King George Sound, Adelaide, and Melbourne.
Via Aden, Colombo, King George Sound, and Melbourne.
Via Panama and Tahiti.

Miles.

Adelaide..

Miles.
13,478
11,142

Panama.
Suez.

2,336

Melbourne..

Panama.
Suez

12,966
11,654

1,312

Sydney

Panama.
Suez

12,385
12,235

Suez

Wellington... { Panama

12,989 11,425

1,564

6.7

6.0

4.9

4.2

3.5

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