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regard duellists, in the mass, as a very worthless set of men, and feel as though the world could easily consent to part with them. But this is viewing the subject top lightly. Duellists are no worse by nature than other men; and the greater and the more evident their guilt is, the more urgent are the reasons for public testimony against it, and public mourning and humiliation on account of it.

At the close of these remarks, we cannot but remind the reader how unequally public justice is administered in all countries; but, to bring the matter home, how unequally in our own. A murderer in the lower classes of society is hung; a privileged murderer is unmolested:-a common murderer cannot elude the vigilance of the police, though the deed be done in secret, and he escape with all possible haste; against a privileged murderer the crime can bardly be proved, though it be proclaimed beforehand, known hundreds of miles from the scene of action before it takes place, witnessed by numbers, minutely described in the public papers, and all the circumstances as well known as the most public transactions can be known by persons not actually present. The unhappy pirate, who, in the capacity of a common sailor, prowls the ocean, and appropriates to himself a small portion of booty, is executed; but the pirate, who keeps his den in the midst of a great city, purchases or builds a vessel, procures arms and ammunition, enlists a crew, and sends them forth to indiscriminate robbery, not only remains untouched, but, if his wealth does not forsake him, is flattered and caressed. Not quite two years ago, three slaves, a man and two women, were executed in Virginia, for the murder of their master. True it was, they killed him; but it was strictly in self-defence; and he was, according to the acknowledgment of the whole neighborhood, one of the most abhorred tyrants that ever disgraced human nature. About a year since two white Virginians agreed to kill each other, if possible, in a most savage duel. One was killed, and the other barely escaped. No attempts were made, however, to punish the murderer. A short time sinco one slave was hung, and another burnt, for killing their master. What had been his treatment of them, is not said; as they did not live to write the history of the affair. But the crime had been contemplated but a short time; and the criminals were poor and ignorant, if not insulted and abused. Great men, however, can meditate a crime for years, commit it when they please, and never have their conduct called in question.

This seems a little hard, and not exactly fair and equal. If a deliberate murder ought to be punished with death, as we fully believe it ought, why should a poor, ignorant, unfriended man have the most rigorous sentence passed upon him, and the rich, enlightened, polished gentleman be suffered to transgress with impunity? Let it be remembered, that there is a tribunal, where is no respect of persons, where no sophistry can deceive, and no combination protect from the arm of vengeance.

Though we view duellists as very high-handed offenders, we think the same pity is due to them, as to other criminals; and our desire is, that every practicable method should be taken, to bring them to reflecLion, to repentance, and to thorough reformation.

MASSACHUSETTS MISSIONARY SOCIETY. Just as we were about taking our pen to write an article on the claims of this Society, the follow

ing appeal of the Secretary appeared in the last Recorder. We gladly lay it before our read. ers, and solicit from them a prompt attention to its representations.

TO THE FRIENDS OF OUR COUNTRY AND OF Zion. The design of this communication is to bring before you a Society, which, in a measure, seems to be forgotten by the Christian public; but whose claims for support are neither few nor small. The Massachusetts Missionary Society is one of the oldest of the kind in this country, having been in operation now more than twenty years. Its income, though never large, for several years has been gradually diminishing. Some congregations indeed, from the first, have contributed to its funds with a liberality worthy of special commendation. But in the lapse of time, some of its clerical members, who annually brought to its treasury the charities of their people, have been removed, and their successors in the ministry have turned these charities into other channels. The numerous and pressing calls for charity by more recent and splendid institutions, have led other congregations to divide their pious offerings and to give only a part to aid the cause of missions in our own country. These and other causes have conspired to lessen the receipts of this Missionary Society so considerably, that its treasury can nolonger meet its customary expenses. The annual subscriptions, donations and contributions for the year ending, June 20th, 1819, did not amount to twelve hundred dollars. Whereas the expenses of the Society for the year ending May 25th, 1819, were more than eighteen hundred dollars. The Trustees the last year were compelled to employ several of their stated Missionaries for a shorter term than usual, and wholly to drop others from their list of appointments; and yet they anticipated much of the receipts of the present year. They also declined to send any Missionary to several places from which very pressing applications were made for assistance. Without an increase of funds, the operations of the Society at no very distant day, will be reduced within very narrow limits. The Board must recal their Missionaries, abandon those fields they have long occupied, and where the Gospel has been faithfully dispensėd, and suffer them to be overspread with error, ignorance and vice. The feeble churches, which have been planted and waterod in the wilderness, under the patronage of this Society, must be left to experience a famine of the word; and hundreds of her spiritual children must be cast off, and no more receive from her hand the bread of life.

It is however believed that no cause exists why this Society should not be supported, and when it is remembered, that the Missionary Societies in the other states, which were instituted to carry the Gospel to the destitute in our own country, are supported with a liberality worthy their benevolent design. Will not the friends of Zion ask, shall Massachusetts, which has so distinguished herself by her laudable deeds in this day of Christian enterprise, suffer the eldest of the daughters of her charity to famish and die!" Every feeling of their hearts must prompt them to answer no. The Trustees cannot allow themselves to doubt the disposition of the public to afford them reasonable aid in the prosecution of their benevolent designs; and that when their wants are generally known, they shall receive their full proportion of the charities of the day. Surely those who mourn over the state of the poor heathen, and are doing so much to send the Gospel to them, will not shut up their bowels of compassion towards their own Countrymen, who are perishing in ignorance and sin. Nor will they withhold assistance, who think too much is done for the conversion of the heathen, and not enough for those whose case is equally deplorable in our own land. If any think we ought to act upon the principle that charity begins at home, and first to supply the wants of our own countrymen, before we send assistance to distant nations or isies of the ocean, an object is here presented, which cannot fail to grarify their wishes. They are here invited to act in accordance with their priociples, to aid in carrying the Gospel to the destitute in our own borders, who are beseeching us to send them assistance.

Does any ask, "why ought I to aid the object here recommended.” For the information of such, the following facts are stated. Let them be seriously consid

ered, and it is believed that every pious heart will cheerfully obey this call for public charity,

In the State of Maine, where the Missionaries employed by the Society chiefly labor, there are about 120 Towns and Plantations, containing a population of more than 120,000 souls, destitute of regular, settled ministers. These pet ple are scattered over an extensive region, and generally poor. They cannot be embodied into congregations sufficiently numerous to support a religious teacher. In many of these Towns, churches have been organized, cherished and increased by the instrumentality of Missionaries. They have hitherto and must for a time to come be wholly dependent, or nearly so, on the charity of others for the privileges of the Gospel ministry. In a communication signed by a committee of seven in behalf of the church and congregation, from one of these Towns, dated March 17th, 1820, they say, "We had been destitute of preaching for two years, when one of your Missionaries came amung us three weeks ago; fur whose faithful labor: we render you our sincere thanks.They plead in a very touching manner for assistance in future. “We are indeed a destitute people. Our children are growing up in ignorance of the public ordinances of the Gospel. The people are becoming indifferent about the Sabbath, and some are waxing bold in sin. We pray that you

would consider our case, and send us a pious, prudent, and able Missionary. We feel as though we cannot be denied. You will excuse our importunity, since we plead for the salvation of immortal souls, and the advancement of Christ's kingdom. This is but a specimen of what is annually received from many towns. In the whole county of Washington there are but two congregational ministers, and these are fifty miles apart. Along the sea-coast east of the Penobscot, froni Bluehill to Machias, a distance of more than pinety miles, there is but one congregational minister, and his labors have been much interrupted by ill health. Most of the towns and settlements are des. titute of any regular preaching whatever. The moral state of society consequent on such a dearth of the word of life can easily be conceived. In the counties of Somerset, Kennebec, Oxford, Hancock, and Lincoln, there are many missionary fields, which are already while to the harvest.

These facts, it is hoped, will not fail to excite your sympathy, and loudly call on your piety and benevolence to do something for the relief of those destitute regions. Will you not lend your support and co-operation in the charitable design of communicati g to them the ordinances of our holy religion. Will you not give something that the bread of life may be given to those, who are famishing for it, and that it may be again said, "The poor have the Gospel preached to them.

It is believed that the friends of the destitute, will not treat with neglect this call nude in behalf of those who are beseeching us to send them the Gospel. They have strong claims upon us, who possess the Gospel, and the means of sending it to them. It is as necessary that the Gospel should be preached to them as to ourselves; and Christian instruction is likely to be as useful to them and their children, as in any part of the land. Nor let it be supposed that what is given in aid of benevolent objects, is a real loss of property to the individuals who give it. The earth is the Lord's, and the fulness thereof, and all that we possess, we have received from his hand; and to give a portion of what God has given us to help the poor and needy, is the right way to increase what we possess; for it is one of the principles of the divine government. He that watereih, shall himself be watered. He that hath pity on the poor, lendeth to the Lord, and that which he hath given will he repay him. Give and it shall be given untu you. It is certain also the more cheerfully and liberally we give to send the Gospel 10 the destitute, the greater blessing will that Gospel be to us and to our children.

The clerical members of the Massachusetts Missionary Society, are particularly and respectfully requested to bring its concerns distinctly before their perple; to acquaint them with the embarrassing state of the Society's funds, the pressing calls upon the Board from many destitute towns for Mi-sionary labors, and, on a day previously appointed, to take up the collections of their people to aid the objects of the Institution. All the members and friends of the Society are desired to circulate the informacion in this paper, and to endeavor to awaken public attention to the cause of Domestic Missions.

By order of the Trustees. S. WALKER, Secretary to the Board. Danvers, April 15, 1820.


No. 4.

APRIL, 1820.

Vol. XVI.


Letter from Messrs. Pinney and Washburn to the Rev. Dr. Worcester..

Elliot, Choctaw Nation, Jan. 12, 1820. Rev. AND DEAR SIR,

It is with the greatest pleasure, that we are enabled to address you from the consecrated ground of your second establishment among the aborigines of our country To be able to rest in the society of the dear missionaries at Elliot, and thus repose in the bosom of Christian friendship in this wilderness, is like cold water to the chirsty soul, after our long and toilsome journey from the East and North.

On the 30th of August, after some unexpected delays, brother and sister Finney, and sister Minerva Washburn, left Randolph, Ver. and on the 13th of September arrived at Rockaway, N. Jer. the residence of Mr. Abijah Corger, and others destined to the mission at Brainerd. No incidents worthy of communication occurred in the journey thus far, except the continual goodness of our Heavenly Father making our way pleasant and prosperous, and giving us a safe arrival at the end of our first stage.

On arriving at Rockaway, brother Finney found three of the children of brother Vail dangerously sick, which retarded the preparation of the company, and caused a delay of nearly three weeks. Two of the sick children were removed by death; and on the 18th buried in the same grave. The event was met with calm resignation by the afflicted parents, and the graces of the huinble Christian shone in this severe trial of their faith.

After waiting more than a week longer, for the recoyery of brother Vail's remaining sick child, it was judged advisable to leave him in the care of friends, and journey without him. This must have been a great addition to the trial of brother and sister Vail; but it was borne with apparent cheerfulness for the cause of Christ. We feel it a duty, as well as a pleasure, to record the lively interest taken in the missions of the Board, and the kind and benevolent attention paid to brother Finney and family, by Col. Joseph Jackson, of Rockaway, while they were detained in that place.

On the 30th of September, brother Finney and family left Rockaway, in company with Mr. Abijah Conger, Mr. John Vail, Mr. John Talmadge, and their families. The first Sabbath after leaving New Jersey was spent in Philadelphia, The Christian people of that city, and particularly those of the Northern Liberties in the Rev. Mr. Patterson's society, took a deep interest in the missions, and showed many kindnesses, which greatly endeared them to our hearts. We would also mention the same things of the people in Wil. mington, Del.

[At the seat of government, where they arrived Oct. 9th, Messrs. F. and W. with their brethren, experienced the friendship of T. L. M'Kenney, Esq. the superintendent of Indian trade, who is deeply interested in all the benevolent plans for the improvement of the Indians. He gave them letters to the governor of the Arkansaw territory, and to various agents of the U.S.)

At Alexandria sister Vail was attacked with a bilious complaint, which for a time prevented her journeying. It was thought advisable, that the whole Company should not be detained on expense, Brother and sister Vail were left in that place with the small waggon for their convenience, while the rest of the company proceeded on the way. In a short time, however, she was mercifully restored, and they resumed their journey. They rejoined the company soon after passing Charlottesville, about a hundred and forty miles from Alexandria, Vol. XVI.


While passing through Virginia, the company had the misfortune to lose two of their best horses; one belonging to brother Finney, the death of which could be referred to no assignable cause: The other, belonging to brother Conger, died, as was supposed, by eating too much wheat, given him without the knowledge of the brethren at the time. After this, nothing occurred requiring particular remark, till we were about entering the territory formerly belonging to the Cherokees. Between Washington, (Ten.) and the old Cherokee line, brother Finney and company heard, that brother Washburn and Milo Hoyt were on the way to meet them, but that they had taken a different route, and of course had gone by. On the day following, however, at Mr. Brown's, a halfbreed Cherokee, we had the satisfaction of meeting and embracing each other, after a year's separation at the two extremes of the United States. Having taken some rest and refreshment, and recounted some of our wanderings and toils, we proceeded on our way, hoping to arrive the same day at Brainerdthat interesting spot, consecrated by the prayers and charities of thousands to Zion's King: but on account of the roughness of the way after crossing the old line, and the time spent in getting all the waggons over the Tennessee, night came upon us while on the banks of the river, where we rested comfortably on the floor of an open log cabin till the next morning. Through the loving kindness of our covenant God, after journeying a part of the company two weeks from Vermont to N. Jersey, and the most of us six weeks from N. Jersey, we all arrived at Brainerd, in health and safety, on Thursday, Nov. 11th, much Jess fatigued than was reasonably expected. Through the whole journey the Lord smiled upon us, and made the way prosperous. There was no excessive hoat or cold. No distressing accident befel any of the company. No sickness, except the short illness of sister Vail, and very slight complaints in others, was experienced. The roads a great part of the way were good: not an hour's hindrance was occasioned by rain or bad weather. In all the country we passed, south of New York, a drought, which in some places was severe, had been experienced during the summer. This, while it raised the price of provisions, and especially food for horses, made the roads dry and hard, and rendered the travelling more expeditious.

Brother and sister Washburn left Georgia on the 18th of October, and l'eached Brainerd on the 22d. An account of their journey thus far has been previously communicated. We all met a very cordial welcome and an affectionate reception from the dear missionaries at Brainerd; but the time was short in which we enjoyed their society. On account of their want of help, brother Washburn had acted as a member of their mission family, endeavoring to assist them in the various departments of their work, till the arrival of brother Finney and the company. Consequently, no arrangements could be made for our particular enterprise. After brother Finney arrived, and brother Washburn was relieved by other help, we began without delay to make preparations for pursuing our journey. We visited Mr. Charles R. Hicks at Fortville, father and mother Gambold at Springplace, and Col. R. J. Meigs, Agent for the Cherokee Nation. These interviews were for acquaintance, and obtaining letters for the benefit of our mission. We were highly pleased with this Christian chief, and those devoted missionaries of our Lord. The latter, after laboring a long time, as they had inclined to imagine, almost in vain and alone, have been made to rejoice, during the last summer, by some mercy drops from above, and by the encouragement of more missionaries from the United Brethren. Col. Meigs received us kindly,-expressed his joy in the prospect of good to the emigrant Cherokees, and gave us, as did Mr. Hicks also, letters to the Agent, to the chiefs, and others in the Arkansaw territory. We received letters also to chiefs, principal men, and others, on the Arkansaw, from David Brown, an interesting young man in the school at Brainerd. He is brother to Catharine Brown, and to one of the chiefs of the emigrant Cherokees, and has spent about two years in the Arkansaw country. He appears thoroughly convinced of his lost estate, his need of à Savior, and of the excellence of ile Christian religion. He is anxious for the iniprovement of his nation; and, in his letters to his brother and others west of the Mississippi, expresses himself feelingly and decidedly in favor of the school and mission at Brainerd,-of our extended mission, and of the Gospel of Christ. May the Lord renew his heart, and make hiin a herald of mercy to his people.

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