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that the Hindods were marshalled in ranks, and required to renounce their relig ion or die. The bramhuns were forced to eat meat, (a horrid crime) and prohib ited going to the temples. Probably some part of these representations is cor rect; for the descendants of those pretended converts have nothing of Christianity but the name,--are continually joining with the heathen in their idolatrots rites, and then atone for their sin by going to mass.
My bramhun told me the other day, that he "thought the Christian idol god, (meaning the Catholics' image of our Savior) made an indecent appearance." I told him, that an idol, whether made by a Christian or heathen, was equally offensive to God. I then asked him what he thought of the decency of the abominable worship, which made such a conspicuous figure in the temple of his favorite god Mahadave?
19. For more than 20 days past the rain has fallen in incessant torrents, day and night, and affords the most encouraging prospect with regard to the crops.
Almost every day brings us accounts of the dreadful ravages of the earthquake in Cutch, on the 16th ult.
26. Have just finished reading a Mahratta book, Shookubalutru. "The Hindoos” says Buchanan, “have no moral books." This is very true. The volume I have been reading is a succession of tales full of cupping, adultery, treachery, falsehood, and vulgar obscenity. Through all this filth we must wade, in order to obtain a knowledge of the language.
Aug. 11. God in his holy providence, has been trying us severely in the sickness of Mrs. N. She is now hopefully recovering from a dangerous complaint. The disease proved very obstinate, requiring large quantities of mercury. Her sufferings have been great, and so have her consolations. By this affliction she has been obliged to wean our little boy at the tender age of six months, but we are greatly favored by his quietness. Never may we forget our obligations to Dr. Jakes, the skilful and sympathizing physician of this place.
In the management of the school I have greatly felt the loss of Mrs. N's assistance. Indeed when well she has the principal care of the school. The boys are ready at mischief, when I am out of sight a considerable time. We must encounter trials and repulses in this concern, as in others, but still our school increases. It is a delightful chiarge, and there is no part of our labor, which gives us such satisfaction.
Aug. 15. Have just heard that brother Hall's little girl died last night.
24. A great Hindoo holiday in honor of Gunputtee. Every Hindoo to-day bays or makes an image of this god, sets it up in his house, and makes offerings to it. We have several trees in our inclosure, which bear the favorite flower of this god. It was astonishing to see with what eagerness the natives sought to obtain them. Our school boys laid the first claim, and this led to a long conversation with them on the subject of idolatry, and the folly of this practice. They frankly acknowledged its futílity; but we could present no motive, which would induce them to remain in the school to-day. We told them they might go, but we could by no means concur in the object, and should mark them in our books as absent without sufficient reason.
Among the Jews these are days of fasting, and our boys go to the door every few minutes to spit, entertaining the strange notion, that to swallow their spittle is breaking their fast. Among all classes of natives, to disregard custom, is more dreadful than the most heinous enormity: They fear every thing but God.
Sept. 1. A letter from brother Poor, in Ceylon, contains the distressing intelligence, that he is obliged to leave his station on account of the failure of his health. His case is considered as very critical.
Sept. 3. Had a long and interesting conversation with a Hindoo woman, who came to bring her son to our school. She very frankly told us all the fears she had entertained, and all the evil things which the people said concerning our school. She had heard that we beat the boys with clubs, and made them prostrate themselves at our feet. We referred her to the boys, who have been with us several months; and she was very glad to have such assurance that the stories were false.
16. Our hearts were gladdened to-day by a visit from brother and sister Graves. This is the first visit we have received from a brother and sister since we have lived in Tannah.
18. Wrote a note to Mr. Marriott, magistrate of the northera Concan, on the ! subject of obtaining permission for myself and brother G. to make a tour on the continent. Soon after, our passports were sent.
20. Brother Graves and myself have determined on a tour of 10 or 12 days, Providence permitting, though it will be attended with much fatigue and danger, on account of the season.
30. Have just returned from our tour. Went to Cullian by water and passed x an uncomfortable night on board the boat. Visited the school and found many =: things in it to correct. Brother G. addressed many people, and encountered one ' angry bramhun. We tarried two days in that place. Went to Bhewndy seven
iniles from Cullian, where we distributed many books, and our whole stock was soon nearly exhausted. None, that we know of, had been distributed in the place
before. A detachment of the native army under European officers were cantone: ed there. We were treated with much attention by the officers. It is impossia ble for one, who has always lived in our free country, to conceive with what
strictness all white people are here noticed by the police and the army. We cannot set our foot on the continent without a formal passport.
Left Bhewndy on the 24th and proceeded about 3 miles to a village on our way sto Basseen. After addressing the villagers, we retired to rest in an open veran
da. The Hindoos have neither chairs, tables nor beds. Of course, whoever
travels among them must sit on the ground, eat on the ground, and sleep on 1 the ground. Our journeying from village to village was through deep mud, long
grass, and water sometimes up to the middle. To wear shoes and stockings 's was out of the question, though our feet suffered much from the stones and & gravel. With bare feet we travelled over a region inhabited by tygers, and were
in continual danger from serpents which might be concealed in the long grass. 1 On the evening of the 25th we arrived at a village, where we spent a Sabbath of
rest. Sabbath evening, before we had retired to rest, while reclining on a mat ar in an open veranda, I was roused by a serpent crawling over my feet; and, 9 before I could speak, it was under the feet of brother G. Through mercy we i were not bitten. The serpent was killed before the door. We doubt not that it
was poisonous, though not of the most venomous kind. There is a species of serpent very common here, whose bite causes death in 5 or 10 minutes, and for which the natives know of no remedy. Just as we had crossed the river at Cullian, we came near treading on a horned viper. From the above mentioned place, we embarked in a large canoe for Basseen, finding it so exceedingly uncomfort
able to proceed further by land. Arrived at Basseen after a tedious day on the * water. We are much affected with the divine goodness, which has preserved us so well, when so much exposed.
We were both delighted with the fine order in which we found the school at Basseen. There is a greater number of expert readers and writers in this school than in any one, which I have seen in this country. The days we spent at this place being holidays, the people gave little attention to the Gospel. However, brother G. addressed two or three large companies. We gave away the remainder of our books.
The institutions of idolatry are very flourishing at this place. Satan has laughed to scorn that kind of Christianity which was set up with so much pomp by the Portuguese, and fortified his own kingdom with double strength. Returning to Tannah, in a boat with several passengers, brother G. spoke largely on the Gospel plan of salvation; but the whole of it was declared to be a hard saying, which Hindoos never could nor would hear.
On the whole, our tour has been interesting, but hazardous. Many have heard what they never heard before, but God alone can make his own word effectual. During our absence, divine goodness has been richly extended to our dear companions, and our little ones, as well as to ourselves.
Oct. 2. Set out with brother and sister Graves for Bombay, to attend the quarterly meeting. Mrs. N. was left alone in charge of the family and school. At the mission house had the pleasure to be introduced to Mr. and Mrs. M. and Mr. Fletcher, missionaries lately arrived.
Oct. 3. Preached before the mission company. In the afternoon Mr. Fletcher preached. Brother Bardwell administered the Lord's supper.
4. Met for business, and in the evening attended the Monthly Concert at Mr. Horner's.
5. Finished my business preparatory to returning to Tannah, and embarked in Mr. M''s bunder-boat.
6. Sister Newell and myself were welcomed by Mrs. N. last night about one o'clock.
10. Brother Newell arrived last night, having been a long time in the passing boat.
15. Brother and sister Newell left us, accompanying Mr. and Mrs. Babington to Bombay. We are again quite alone.
17. Sabbath. Two men and two women attended divine service with us to-day. This is the first of five great Hindoo holidays; and these will be immediately succeeded by a Mahomedan festival of ten days.
P. S. Oct. 23. I inclose a copy of my journal down to the present time. I hope to send it by the Albinia, an English ship, in which our worthy Governor, His Excellency Sir Evan Nepean, has taken passage to England. My last was dated March 3, 1819, and sent by the Malabar.
Letter from the Missionaries at Elliot to the Corresponding Secretary.
Elliot, June 12, 1820. REV. AND DEAR SIR, Our last joint letter was dated Dec. 20, 1819. We did not intend so long a time should have elapsed before another communication. But in consequence of multiplied engagements, which have called some of us from Elliot during most of the winter and spring, this delay seemed unavoidable.
Your letter of April 3d, has been received. The information it contained inspired us with new courage and zeal. We highly approve of the measures, taken by the Prudential Committee, to furnish the missions in this nation with suitable helpers. We have long been convinced, that without an experienced and persevering farmer at each establishment the cause must suffer serious embarrassment. We most ardently hope, that the Board wili be able to send them in the fall. We are daily expecting the arrival of brother and sister Wood, and the two other brethren.
In reviewing the scenes through which the Lord has led us, we see much to excite our humility, our gratitude and our unshaken confidence in Him, whose cause we are laboring to build up. From our journal, though very imperfect, you will have learnt most of the important particulars.
The hand of the Lord was laid heavily upon us in the winter. Thirty-six of our family were sick at one time. Two or ihree cases were considered dangerous. But in the midst of judgment the Lord remembered mercy. By the close of March, general health was restored, which, considering the number of the family, has been enjoyed to an unusual degree ever since. There have been, however, among the laborers and children many distressing cases of sore eyes.
In February a second establishment was commenced near the Tombigbee river, about 100 miles south-easterly from Elliot. Some particulars of this have already been communicated. Three and four laborers have been employed at that place, but we have not yet been able to spare one of the brethren from Elliot to reside there.
A convenient house has been completed, a garden and yards for cattle prepared; and it is expected that 20, or 25, acres of corn and potatoes will be cultivat. ed. It is highly important, that a number of additional buildings should be erected in the course of the next fall and winter, and large preparations made for raising provisions. This will enable us to open a school in the autumn of 1821, without great embarrassment, and we think with less expense than has been incurred at the other establishments. If these preparations should be made with suitable activity, we think the natives will wait with patience.
The Prudential Committee have also been informed, that the Six Towns have made an earnest request, that the American Board would establish a school and a blacksmith's shop in their district. This request was accompanied by an ap
propriation of $1,000 per. ann. for 17 years, for the school, and the same amount for the shop. Individuals in that district have given encouragement, that if the establishment should be put in operation, further appropriations may be expected. It was contemplated by the natives, that the shop should be a public one. It is doubtful, whether it would be expedient, or whether the Agent would think it advisable, that the Board should have any thing to do with it in that shape. The hope is indulged, that the appropriation will be so modified, that the whole will be given to the school, and the shop be established on the principles of the one now at Elliot. Should the Prudential Committee take this establishment under their patronage, it is our opinion, that it ought to be commenced in the fall, and that a missionary and a good blacksmith should be sent out with reference to it.
At Elliot there have been erected, since we last wrote, one log house 20 by 22 feet; a meat house 18 by 20 feet; and a commodious joiner's shop. About ten acres of excellent bottom land have been cleared by hired help, and four or five acres by the boys under the direction of brother Williams. Considerable progress has also been made in several branches of mechanical labor, and in various other business. The school has increased in numbers and in favor with the people. At present it consists of 70 promising children. All these live in our family, eat at our table, and are receiving, in every respect, a civilized and Christian education.
We are receiving from the Choctaws the most pleasing evidences of their friendly disposition; of the confidence they repose in us; and of their increasing interest in the objects of the mission. On the third instant, we were visited by two of the kings, or principal chiefs, of the nation, attended by seven or eight of their captains. They expressed the highest satisfaction with the school, and as a proof of their sincerity, king Puck-sha-nub-bee gave, out of the annuity due to this district 2,000 per ann. for 16 years, to commence with 1821.
At our request they tarried over the Sabbath, which was principally devoted to their instruction, in some of the interesting portions of Scripture History, and a few of the leading doctrines of the Gospel. They gave strict attention, and after the close of two exercises, they addressed the children for near an hour, in which they exhorted them to listen to the Good Book, which taught them to love all mankind. One of the Chiefs told the children they must not attend to it as to a common book: Said he was very ignorant of it himself, but from what he had heard, he thought it the Great Boek. “We should be very glad" continued he, "to hear that any of the children were disposed to walk in the good path, which the Good Book pointed out.”
Puck-sha-nub-bee left a nephew, a full-blooded wild Choctaw, to attend school. He wished him to be taught to work. “The Indians," said he, “are so lazy, that they will hardly rise up to eal. We have no way at home to employ our children but to let them play. I have brought my nephew here, that he may be kept at work. I give him up to you to put him to a trade, or on the farm, as you please, and to do with bim, in every respect, as you think best.”
These facts proclaim, more loudly than volumes of arguments, the friendly dis. positions of the Choctaws; and, at ihe same time, show that “the fields are white already to the harvest."
In the view of these facts, and what will be expected of us and of the American Board, we feel a trembling anxiety. In order to meet with corresponding exertions these liberal and expansive views, much labor and much money will be required.-We are deeply sensible to the wants of the widely extended missions, which are dependent on the funds of the Board.–We sympathize with our Christian brethren generally, on account of the embarrassinents of our common country. We view with grief the decrease of those streams of Christian benevolence, which have so long flowed into the Treasury of the American Board Our grief is increased by the consideration, that this happens at a time when, more than at any former period, great exertions are evidently required by the openings of Providence. We feel constrained by the most powerful motives to go forward; and not in the least relax our exertions. We cannot for a moment admit the idea, that the Christian Public is insolvent. We believe the Lord Jesus Christ has put into the hands of his disciples the means of carrying on his own work. Some may feel a temporary embarrassment; and others, who de not know the urgent calls of the heathen, or the manner in which their money VOL. XVI.
is expended, may not be disposed to give as much as they are able. But feel a confidence, that when the subject is fully understood, and the appeal directly made, means will be furnished to carry on the work. The kingdoms of this world have been given to the Lord Jesus Christ, and he will take possession of them.
By exhibiting the state of this mission it is not intended to hold it up, as a more important object of Christian patronage than any other. We only wish to cootribute our mite towards strengthening the confidence and encouraging the hearts of the friends of missions, in order that they may be excited to greater exertions.
It is a fact we have no wish to disguise, that Indian missions are more expensive, than was originally anticipated. It is equally true, that more, much more, has been done in the short period of time since beginning, than was ever anticipated by their most sanguine advocates. From all past experience it appeared manifest, that no permanent impression could be produced by temporary efforts. Agreeably, therefore, to the instructions of the Prudential Committee, it has ever been the objeet of the missionaries “to lay the foundation broad and lasting." This has unavoidably been attended with much expense.
It is estimated, that the establishment at Elliot has already cost upwards of $12,000, exclusive of all the labor done gratuitously by the Missionaries. But it ought to be distinctly kept in ini d, that the greater part of this money has not been consumed. It has been vested in various property, some of which is of the most productive kind, and which may be considered as a permanent fund for the support of the mission. There are now belonging to the establishinent at Elliot more than 200 neat cattle including calves. There are also teams of oxen and horses, waggons, carts, ploughs, and other implements of husbandry, suitable for a large plantation. More than 50 acres of land are cleared and under cultivation. Upwards of twenty buildings, including a blacksmith's shop, mill, and joiner's shop, have been erected. Mechanical tools for various branches;--lessons, books, and stationary for the school, have been provided; and all the varied apparatus prepared for ihe accommodation of a family consisting of one hundred.
All the above property, including the use of the plantation, which may be considered as secured to the school during its existence, may, at a moderate estimate, be valued at $8,000. There has been, therefore, a consumption of only $4,000 for all the purposes of this mission. Or, in other words, of the $12,000 expended at Elliot, $8,000 are vested in property, which is productive, and suited to the various wants of the establishment.
: We will now present to the view of the Committee the effects, which, by the blessing of God, have been produced by the expenditure and investment of this money at Elliot.
Io the first place, there is a very strong and general impression throughout the nation, in favor of Christian education. The Choctaw3 not only wish to have their children educated, but they wish to have them educated by good men; and lastructed in the way of the Good Book, which teaches to love all mankind. . Secondly, there are 70 children in the school, who have made very considerable progress in various branches of education; in habits of industry; and in a knowledge of the first principles of the Gospel.
In the third place, it has excited among the Choctaws a spirit of liberality in aid of schools, and other objects of instruction, which is perhaps without a parallel among uuenlightened and uncivilized people. Besides the subscription last August for the school at Elliot, the Choctaws have appropriated $3,000 annually for 17 years, and $2,000 annually for 16 years for the support of schools; and $1,000 annually for 17 years for the support of a blacksmith's shop; making an aggregate of $6,000 annually, or the interest of $100,000, appropriated within ten months, for the purposes of instruction and civilization.
Fourthly, though we have much reason to be humbled, that the preaching of the word has had so little effect, yet we believe there are some individuals, in whom it bas been instrumental of exciting a serious concern for their immortal interesis. The hope is also indulged, that God is preparing the way for many to be brought to a saving knowledge of Jesus Christ. One of the Chiefs said, the Choctaws were very ignorant; but he thought many of them were prepared to