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choicest gift of the Almighty. Nor can they worship God, except at the will of a master. The Gospel was designed for the poor especially; yet many of these people are debarred from hearing it, though they are poor indeed. Here suspicion, distrust, and fear, poison all njoyment. On the slightest alarm, the whole community is in trepidation, lest an insurrection should be commencing. When the bells give warning of fire, the vigorous part of the free population basten, not to the fire engines, but to arms, Jest the occasion should be seized for rapine, murder, and rebellion. Every corporate town is busied, in proportion to its exposure, in devising precautions against so horrible a calamity as a servile war. In one place, it is ordained, that no slave shall be taught to read; and that any charitable individual, who teaches a slave to read, shall be liable to a disgraceful punishment: in another, that slaves shall not meet for public worship, except in certain specified cases: in a third, that no slave shall leave his master's enclosure, except with a written permit, which describes the time of absence, and the distance to which he may go: in a fourth, that no slave shall carry a cane in his hands, as he walks the street, on penalty of a public whipping: in a fifth, that no slave shall speak disrespectfully to any white man, on penalty of fifteen lashes, to be inflicted at the public jail.*
Our traveller loses all patience. He expostulates with the people, on their unequal laws, their heavy punishment of small offences; and the general severity of their slave-code. The only reply is: Our blacks must be kept under, or we cannot live with them. But, he rejoins, do you not lament your unhappy condition? Indeed we do; but our fathers entailed the curse of slavery upon us, and how can we escape from it? Some few benevolent persons, are endeavoring to find a remedy for us; but they are regarded as visionary projectors. The general opinion is, that nothing
can be done. The traveller returns to the land of freedom, with a thankful heart, that there are communities, in which equal rights, just laws, and universal industry, secure the people from the frightful calamities, which press upon every country filled with slaves. • At the close of these remarks, we cannot but express our serious apprehension, that if present measures should be persisted in, the issue of slavery on this continent will be more disastrous, than has ever yet been imagined. Before the number of slaves in North America sball amount to twenty millions, how many plots, and murders, and massa. cres, will have taken place. How much blood will have been shed to suppress embryo insurrections. How much vigilance will have been necessary to prevent them. How many barbarous enactments will have found their place in the slave codes. How much cruel suffering is to be endured by the unbappy blacks; how much agonizing fear by the more unhappy whites. And the time will probably arrive, when some future Spartacns will muster his army of fugitives, or some future Touissaint enthrone himself in the affections of his brethren, as the commencement of an intestine convulsion, unparalleled in the annals of this sinful world. The thoughtless may care nothing
· These enactments are not the work of imagination: they have actually been established in some of our southern cities. What reason have we to suppose, that they will not be reegacted hereafter at St. Louis and St. Charles?
about these predictions. The prejudiced may refuse to look at these prospects. But enlightened legislators can have no excuse for neg. lecting the wonderful increase of the blacks in our country. It is miserable policy to leave the mischief untouched, till it becomes unmanageable. Miracles are not to be expected in our behalf. If wise, judicious, public spirited measures are not speedily adopted for the improvement of the blacks, and the gradual abolition of slavery, our rulers must go upon the presumption, that the bondage of Africans is to be unliinited and perpetual. But unlimited and perpetual it will not be. Tbings will not continue as they now are, in this respect, to the end of the world, Black men will at last be free; and if they are not freed by kindness, under the direction of wisdom, they will gain their liberty by violence, at the instigation of revenge. The duration of servitude on this continent will hardly equal, in future, the time during which it las existed hitherto. In the year 1620, the first slavo ship entered the waters of Virginia. At the very time, when the tree of liberty was planted on the hills of New England, the seeds of slavery were scattered in tlic plains of the south. Slavery will not con- 5 tinue here two centuries more; perlapš not one. By human agency it is to be decided, under the control of Divine Providence, whether the emancipation shall be peaceful, or demanded by force. In the first event, it cannot be accomplished without great care, toil, anxiety, public-spirit, and many sacrifices; in the latter, the prospect is ton : awful to be described by the imagination. There'is every reason to fear, that, according to the usual methods of God's administration, the country must experience signal visitations of retributive justice. Unless the prayers of the pious, the labor's of the philanthropic, the measures of genuine patriotism, and the restraining energies of the Gospel, conspire to arrest the threatening calamity, its arrival is morally certain. That such a holy union, as we have just adverted to, may take place; and that it may comprise in its limits the north and the south, all the friends of God, of their country, and of Africa, is our sincere prayer and continual desire.
We should do wrong to take leave of our readers without saying, that there are some topics of consolation, even if the tide of slavery shoull roll westward without limits. A great effort has been made to prevent such a disastrous event; a powerful and united testimony has 1 been borne, throughout a large part of our nation, against the extension of slavery; reasons have been urged, founded in the eternal principles of justice, and commending themselves to the dispassionate judgment, not less than to the feeling heart; the country is awake to the dangers of slavery, and, it may be hoped, will not fall into another deathlike slumber; all beneficent enterprises, at the present day, are prospered beyond the expectations of their friends; and a great and general sympathy is felt for the blacks, and a deep interest in all plans for the improvement of their condition. But most of all should we remember, that God sometimes effectuates the deliverance of the oppressed and unfriended, in a manner previously never imagined by men; that He often averts evil consequences, when they seem, to human minds, unavoidable; and that even the wrath of man shall praise Him, and the remainder of wrath He is able to restrain.
© Continued from p. 40.) Jan, 11, 1819. Yesterday received a letter from the Rev. R. Carver, a Wesleyan missionary at Trincomale in answer to one addressed to him, requesting him to make inquiries of the officers and passengers of the Liverpool frigate, which has just arrived from the Cape, to learn if he could obtain any informa-. tion respecting our brethren, Warren and Richards. Mr. C. has very kindly made diligent inquiries respecting them. He learned from an officer, who came passenger in the Liverpool from the Cape, that he was at che Cape "when the Regalia arrived from Ceylon, with two American missionaries, whose names he there read in the newspaper.” This is very grateful intelligence to us all, in the distressing state of uncertainty in which we have been kept a long time. Ale: though we learned a few days ago, that the Regalia had arrived at the Cape, ve did not know till now, that our brethren did not die on the passage. It is very strange that we have received no letters from them, as there have been several arrivals from the Cape, since they landed.
15. Visited my school at Manepy, about four miles distant; found 62 boys present belonging to the school. Twenty head-men of the village had also assembled to hear me preach. I had previously given notice to the people, that I was coming. I preached and prayed with them in their own language, and hare good reason to think they understood both the sermon and prayers. This is a fine parish, and an excellent station for a missionary. The people appear more civilized, and have fewer prejudices, than those of any other parish that I have visited. Christian David tells me, that when he goes there, many women attend to hear him preach.
Mon. 18. Yesterday attended the sacrament of the Lord's supper at Tillipally.
Sab. 24. Few people attended meeting to-day, on account of the barvest. They are all busy in their fields securing their crop of rice. I have labored much, both by precept and exainple, to persuade them to observe the Sabbath;. but as yet have seen little or no fruit of my labors. It is truly painful to the Christian, to behold a people with one consent ignorant and regardless of the laws of God.
25. Both the harvest and the sickness, have diminished the numbers of my schools. The boys are called away to work, and the parents fear to send them, on account of the sickness. Another cause of detaining the boys is, tiat the people are performing many ceremonies at their temples, to avert this dreadful disease. There have, as yet, been very few cases of it in Batticotta, but many in other villages.
Jan. 26. To-day have been called to mourn and rejoice, by the receipt of two letters from brother Richards, dated Madras, Jan. 20th. We greatly rejoice to hear from brother R., after so long an absence. It was nine months yesterday, since they sailed from Columbo for the Cape. We rejoice that the Lord in mercy has brougbt back brother R. so near us. But we are called to mourn the death of our dear brother Warren, who died in the Lord on the 11th of August last. By brother R.'s letter we learn, that he left Cape Town, Nov. 19th, and, after a very favorable passage of two months, arrived in Madras roads on the morning of the 19th inst. He came in the Ajax, Capt. Clark, and in company with two missionaries, Mr. Traveller, and Mr. Sperschneider. Mr. Traveller helongs to the London Missionary Society, and is married. Mr. Sperschneider was sent out by the Society for promoting Christian knowledge. The missionaries were kind to brother R., and he had very good accommodations on board. the ship. He says, my health is better in some respects, than when I left the VOL. XVI.
Cape; in others it remains the same. I am better in some respects, than when I left Columbo; but in others, not so well. I have not the fever in the day time, nor the night sweats, which I had then; but my cough is worse, and I have lost the power of speaking loud. My appetite is good, and I have refreshing sleep. I am neither very weak, nor very strong.” He had inade inquiries for a passage to Jaffna, but could find none.
We had fondly hoped, that a voyage to the Cape and back again would be the means, which the Lord would bless for his restoration to health; and that he would return with renewed vigor to his work among the heathen. His assistance is greatly needed her not only as a missionary, but also as a phy cian. But “the Lord seeth not as man seeth." Thus he sees fit to try us, and to disappoint our fondest expectations. Judging from brother R.'s account of Irimself, he has not long to continue in this world.
It appears by brother.R.'s letter, that he sent two long letters from the Cape, directed to sister Richards; the first dated Sept. 3d, and the second dated Oct. 6th, in which he gave us a particular account of brother Warren's sickness and death. Neither of these have yet been received.
Feb. 1. By a letter from brother R., dated Madras, Jan. 26th, we learn that he was unable to procure a passage to Jaffna by water, and his friends dissuaded him from attempting to come by land. He thinks his health is a little better than when he landed at Madras. He says, "that you may know something about my health and strength, I will inform you, that last Sabbath morning I sode down to the Pettah, a distance of about two miles, to hear Mr. Loveless preach, and in the evening I walked a short distance to hear Mr. Pritchett, and after all was not much fatigued.” He will be obliged to continue at Madras a short time longer, at least. We are very anxious to have him return soon. He experiences much attention from kind friends at Madras.
This day the long expected packets of letters have arrived from the Cape. We have read them with deep interest, and with many tears both of joy and sorrow. They contain brother R.'s journal, from the time he left Columbo for the Cape, until the 6th of Oct. the date of the last packet. As we shall probably soon send a joint letter, giving some account of brother Warren, and particularly of his last sickness and death, also extracts from brother R.'s journal, it is not thought necessary in this place, to give any further account of the contents of these communications.
9. As late as the 1st inst. brother R. could find no passage by water direct to Jaffna. He writes, however, that a pious physician, named Fraser, took a deep interest in his welfare. One of the Hon. E. India Company's ships, the Gen. Hewitt, was about to sail for England, but was to touch on her passage at Columbo. Dr. F. was going to England in her, and through his kind intercession, he obtained a passage for brother R. free of expense. This was an unexpected act of kindness. We are very sorry that brother R. could not obtain a passage direct to Jaffna; but, as this was impossible, we rejoice that he has a prospect of going so soon to Columbo. This is the right season for him to come in a country vessel from Columbo to Jaffya.
12. Vesterday and to-day spent almost my whole time in visiting the sick, and administering medicine to them. The epidemic, called the “Spasmodic Cholera," has begun its ravages in. Batticotta. The nature of this disease, and the remedies to be applied, are so plainly pointed out by many medical gentlemen in India, who have been much acquainted with it, during the last year, that it requires little medical knowledge, when the means are at hand, to afford relief in most cases, when the people apply for assistance in season. But in almost every case of violent attack, unless the most powerful medicines are seasonably applied, the patient dies in the course of from ten to twenty hours. When any person is attacked, none of the natives except the nearest relatives, will come near him. Their nearest neighbors commonly leave their houses and fee; although the disease is not accounted contagious by physicians generally. Many of the natives think it wrong to use any remedy, for fear of offending the goddess, who inflicts the disease. When a person is attacked, he is usually taken by his friends, carried to the nearest temple, and there prostrated before the idol; thus vainly hoping to obtain relief. Surely these deluded people are objects of compassion, and much to be piticd and prayed for by Christians, who enjoy so much greater
light and knowledge. Great ceremonies have been lately performed by the people at their temples, and many sacrifices offered in hope of appeasing their gods. The ringing of bells, beating of drums, and other instruments of noise, are kept up all night; and this has been continued ever since the disease commenced in Jaffna. So many fowls have been offered in sacrifice, that scarce any are now to be bought in the bazars, and the few remaining are sold at four or five times the common price.
22. Yesterday received a letter from brother R. at Madras, in which he says, "I discovered last evening, that my ancles had begun to swell. My other symptoms do not appear to be getting worse. My cough is better just now;-I sleep well,-have a good appetite, and can walk fifteen minutes in the morning, and the same time in the evening." We are alarmed at his loss of voice, and swollen feet. On account of the uncertainty of his life, we have advised sister R. to go immediately to Columbo by water, to meet him there. Her case would be peculiariy distressing, if, after ten months absence, he should die so near home, and she not see him. He appears to have relinquished all hope of recov. ery. It is our earnest prayer, that he may be permitted, at least, to return to Jaffna, and die surrounded by his friends, who will consider it a great mercy from God. if even this melancholy satisfaction can be granted them.
22. Our boxes of books have arrived in Jaffna from Columbo.
23. Received a letter from the Rev. W. C. Loveless of Madras, in which he inforns me, that brother R. left Madras in the Gen. Hewitt, for Columbo, on the 17th inst.
24. Yesterday and to-day attended to nine cases of the Cholera. All my time is occupied. I am sometimes obliged to ride a mile and a half out and back again, in the heat of the day, on horseback; for I cannot persuade the palankeen bearers to carry me, through fear of the disease. This is considered injurious to health, particularly at this season, when the sun is beginning to be so powerful. But I go out of compassion to these poor creatures; and particularly, as I wish to shew them, that I care for their bodies, as well as for their souls. I wish also to give them an opportunity of comparing the practical tendency of the Christian religion with that of the heathens. In many instances they do see and confess it. I always tell them, that it is my religion which teaches me to be thus kind to them. In most of the cases in which I have given medicine, it has been blessed to their restoration to health. Some of them exhibit considerable gratitude; others none. Though I am so much employed from daylight till dark, as to leave no time for study, yet I consider my time not unprofitably spent. It gives me many opportunities, in the course of the day, for conversing with a few at a time, under favorable circumstances, about the concerns of their souls. They generally hear me with attention while I explain to them, in my imperfect Tamul, some of the leading truths of the Gospel
. In almost every instance, when they have been carried to the temple and prostrated before the idol, they have died. This affords me an excellent opportunity of showing them the vanity of trusting in gods that have no power to save them.
A few days ago, I was called to visit a young man in his last moments, who, when in health, had frequently attended mỹ preaching, but always treated the subject of religion with much lightness and apparent unconcern. He was about twenty-five years of age-possessed of much corporeal vigor, and of a fine appearance. He had been carried to the temple in the morning, and prostrated before the idot. About 5 o'clock P. M. I visited him, but it was too late. The most powerful doses of medicine had little effect. He was in dreadful agony; would frequently cry to me to save him, and yet through deafness and pain, he appeared to comprehend very little that was said to him. It was fruly an alarming and affecting spectacle. I endeavored solemnly to warn the by-standers to prepare for death. Whrt rendered it peculiarly painful was, to hear him, even in the agonies of death, utter the language of obscenity-words which cannot be named by a Christian.
26. On account of the sickness, and the great ceremonies at the temples for some time, my schools have been greatly diminished. Two months ago, in my six schools there were about 300 boys. Now there are not more than 100. Í bave had serious thoughts of discontinuing two or three of the schools for a short time, till the sickness shall abate.