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LEMBERG, le m'beth, a city of dustria- Marine and Fisheries. Lemieus was successíul Hungary, and capital of the crownland of on several diñcuit diplomatie missions, notably Galicia, is situated on the River Peltew, 365 one to Japan in 1907, when he succeeded in miles northeast of Vienna. It is forth in inducing the Japanese government to restrict population among the cities of Austria, being emigration to Canada. He also maintained exceeded only by Vienna, Prague and Trieste. his standing at the bar, was proiessor of the The place is deiended by a citadel. around history of law at Laral University, and is the which the modern town has grown up; most author of sereral volumes on legal subjects. of the prominent buildings are found in the LEMMING, lem'ing, a small animal related suburban districts. There are maar imposing to the field mouse, of a clumsy form, large head Greek and Roman Catholic cathedrals, and and short, thick legs. Its length is about six the city also possesses the third largest uni- inches, of which nearly an inch is included in versity in Austria. In the Ossolinski National the little, stubby tail. Lemmings live in shalInstitute are valuable collections of Polish his low burtoms dug torical and literary relies, besides a library of in the dry parts over 180.000 volumes. There are manufactures oi swamps of farm machinery, boilers, musical instru- ground, under ments, cardles, flour and other commodities, stones or in the and in time of peace the city enjors a consid- peaty soil. The erable trade in agricultural products.

European lemLemberg was founded in the thirteenth cen- ming is the besttury, and has had a varied history, having known species; suffered many times from siege and bombard- other varieties are

THE LENING ment. Early in the War of the Nations found in the northern parts of both hemi(which see) the Russians began an ožensive spheres. The lemming sits very quietly near its morement in Galicia, resulting in the capture burrow most of the day, and is active during of Lemberg, which they held until June. 1915. the night. If molested it sets up a loud squeakIts recapture by the Austro-German forces, ing and grunting, much like a guinea pig. If during the spectacular drive against Warsaw, cornered, it bites viciously, springing at the meant the loss of an important base of supplies intrader with short leaps. for the leit wing of the Russian army. Popu- The lemming lives on buds of the dwarf lation, 1914, 212.000.

bireh, roots, grass and reindeer-moss. In the LEMIEUX, le mye', RODOLPHE (1866– ), winter it lives on what it can find under the & Canadian statesman, one of the leading snow. Like other fur-bearing animals which members of the Liberal party, and author of live in cold countries, it turns white in winter. the Lemieux Act of 1907, which was aimed to In Europe it migrates occasionally in immense help in the elimination of strikes and lock- troops, often numbering hundreds of thousands, outs by providing gorernment conciliation. devouring every green thing in its course and Lernieur was born at Montreal, Que., attended doing as much damage as the migratory locust. Laval University, and was called to the bar It advances stubbornly in one direction, crossin 1891. He was elected to the House of Com- ing mountains, swimming rivers and permitmons as a Liberal in 1896, and has served ting nothing but an impenetrable barrier to since without interruption. He entered the alter its course. Thousands die from hunger, Laurier Ministry in 1904 as Solicitor-General, disease, fatigue and accidents, and many are was Postmaster-General from 1906 to 1911 and killed by beasts and birds of prey that follow during four moaths in 1911 was Minister of item. They move steadily on until they reach 212


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life of the lemon tree averages about forty years.

The fruit of the lemon tree is classed by botanists as a berry. It is shaped like an egg, and its light-yellow outer rind has a rough appearance, which is due to the numerous oil glands imbedded in its surface. On the inside of the peel is a white, spongy, almost taste

their destination; if, however, a large body of water appears before them they plunge in and meet death by drowning.

LE MOINE, le moyn', or le mwhaN', SIR JAMES MACPHERSON (1825-1916), a Canadian historian and naturalist, who wrote with equal facility in French and English. He was born at Quebec, was educated there at Le Petit Séminaire, and was called to the bar in 1850. For a number of years he was collector, and then inspector, of inland revenue at Quebec, but later he devoted himself to literary work. He gave much of his time to the study of natural history, especially birds, and his Birds of Quebec and L’Ornithologie du Canada are among his most popular writings. In addition to ornithology Sir James became a specialist in archaeology and history, subjects in which he was noted for carefulness in investigation and impartiality in his conclusions. Among his many books are Legendary Lore of the Saint Lawrence; The Fisheries of Canada; Quebec, Past and Present; Canadian Heroines, and Annals of the Port of Quebec.

LEMON, lem'un, the fruit of a tree of the citrus

group, whose thick outer rind is the source of a valuable oil, and in whose pulp is found the acid juice used everywhere in making the popular beverage known as lemonade and as a flavor in cookery. The lemon tree, which belongs to the same group as the orange and the lime, grows wild in India, and is supposed to have been introduced into Europe during the Crusades, about the year 1200. It is now cultivated in Italy and the neighboring islands, in Spain and Portugal, in Mexico and in the warm states of California and Florida. It grows from ten to twenty feet in height, bearing long, willowy branches which are meagerly clothed with pale-green leaves. The flowers, which are small and marked on the outside with purplish lines, are fragrant, but less so than their cousins, the orange blos

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The lemon tree begins to bear the third or fourth year and comes into full bearing the sixth or seventh year. The average yield for one tree is between 200 and 300 pounds a year, this figure varying with the care given and the weather conditions. Trees are usually planted one hundred to the acre, so a grower expects an annual yield of from 2,000 to 3,000 pounds per acre. In Northern California lemon groves in full bearing have a value of from $750 to $1,500 per acre, and in Southern California the price ranges from $1,000 to $2,500. The

less inner rind, while the whole interior of the fruit is filled with a juicy, sour, light-colored pulp. This is divided into ten or twelve sections, each of which contains two or three seeds.

Since lemons do not keep well if allowed to ripen on the tree, they are gathered while still green and placed upon trays in cool, dark

As the fruit slowly ripens, its rind becomes tougher, thinner and more pliable, conditions which promise good keeping qualities during the process of shipping. On their removal from the curing rooms the lemons are sorted, graded, wrapped in tissue paper and packed in boxes.

Lemon extract, or oil, which is widely used for flavoring and as a basis for perfumes, is obtained by pressing the oil from the peel. The juice of the pulp, whose tart, agreeable flavor is due chiefly to the citric acid contained in it, has several uses. Cold lemonade is one of the most refreshing of summer beverages,


sed by an egg,


rough Tous oil e inside



and hot lemonade is highly valued for break- and its habit of feeding at night. Its howl
ing up a cold. Lemon juice will restore the resembles that of a dog, and for this reason
color to cloth discolored by alkali stains; its the natives of Madagascar give it a
efficacy in removing such spots from the hands which means dog of the forest.
is well known. Medicinally, it has mildly LE'NA, a river of Eastern Siberia, the main
laxative qualities. Calico printers use it to trade artery of a large district. It rises on
produce greater clearness in the white part of the slopes of the Baikal Mountains, 186 miles
patterns dyed with colors containing iron, and northeast of Irkutsk. Its entire length is 2,700
it is also an important source of commercial miles, the whole of which lies in the Russian
citric acid (which see).

dominions. At Irkutsk it attains a width of
The Industry in America. From two great six miles, then flows north to the Arctic Ocean,
fruit-bearing states, California and Florida, is where it forms a delta 250 miles wide. The
obtained practically the entire lemon crop of chief tributaries the Vilim, Kirenga,
the United States, which amounts annually to Olekma, Aldan and Vilyui. There is little
about 2,770,000 boxes, valued at nearly $3,000,- agricultural land along its upper course, and
000. Of this output, California produces 9942 it becomes navigable at its junction with the
per cent, the yearly crop averaging 2,756,000 Kuta River, about 430 miles from its source.
boxes, or 5,000 carloads, valued at about Along its middle course the country is sparsely
$2,976,500. Each year there are imported into inhabited by Yakuts, a people who live by
the United States and Canada over 150,000,000 fishing.
pounds of the fruit, having a value of over It is claimed that the difference between
$6,000,000. Nearly all importations are from the summer and winter temperature along the
Italy, of which the United States is becoming Lena is the greatest known. At Kirensk the
a keen competitor.


river is frozen from October to April; at LEMUR, lee'mur, an animal allied to the Yakutsk, from October until the last of May. monkey, native to Madagascar, though also Olekminsk, Vitimsk, Verkholensk, Bulun and found in Africa, India and the Comoro Islands. Yakutsk are its principal ports. The commerce The lemur is lower in the zoological scale than consists chiefly of minerals, grain and fish, the ape and the monkey, its brain being simpler which are carried in wooden barges built in

the shipyards at its various ports. At the mouth of the Lena there is considerable ivory trade from tusks of prehistoric animals found in the new Siberian Islands. The victims of the Jeannette, a north-polar expedition vessel, are buried on an island in the delta. The river drains an area of about one million square miles, nearly equal to one-third the area of Canada.

LENNI-LENAPE, len'i len'a pe. See DELA

WARE (Indians).

LENOX, len' uks, JAMES (1800-1880), the
in structure. It is a pretty little animal, about founder of Lenox Library and a benefactor of
the size of a cat, with soft fur and long, bushy many charities, was born in New York City.
tail. The head is round and the nose so long He was graduated from Columbia College and
and pointed that it has been called the fox- for forty years devoted himself to the collec-
nosed monkey. It lives in trees, eats fruits, tion of rare books and works of art. His gifts
insects, small birds, eggs, reptiles, etc. Of the to the Presbyterian Hospital, the Philipps
fifty species the best known are the ring- Memorial Church, the Presbyterian Home for
tailed, which is gray in color with black and Aged Women and to the Lenox Library
white rings around its tail; the ruffled, one of amounted to over $2,000,000.
the largest of the species; the mouse lemur, LENS, lenz, a transparent substance, having
which is about the size of a rat; the indris, at least one curved surface. Lenses thickest
which is black with white legs. The lemur is in the middle are convex; those thickest at
easily tamed and is very playful in captivity. the edges are concave. The six kinds of lenses

Lemur means ghost, a name given the little are shown in the figure on page 3380, and there animal on account of its spectral appearance is explanation of their forms.

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