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this date have placed 9,041.35 tons in the main work and in the detached piece.

The work of putting in stone will be continued through the season. In addition to this work it is proposed to employ a vessel, with hoisting apparatus and divers, to remove bowlders from the anchorage sheltered by the breakwater.

The funds now available are thought to be sufficient to complete the smaller breakwater, designed for the business of the island.

The original survey, upon which estimates were made for this work, was made under the direction of Col. D. C. Houston, United States Engineers, in 1867.

A Board of Engineers was convened under date of February 18, 1868, to report plans and estimates for this work. Their report was published as Senate Mis. Doc., No. 81, Fortieth Congress, Second Session. Estimates were made by this Board for three breakwaters:

First. One for a harbor large enough for a shelter for the largest vessels, the estimated cost of which was about $3,000,000.

Second. A breakwater for a harbor for local purposes, to extend from the shore out 500 feet, to “Five-foot Rock," to cost $372,000.

Third. A breakwater for a harbor for local purposes to extend to a point 300 feet beyond “Five-foot Rock,” to cost $553,798.

The breakwaters for local purposes, estimated for by this Board, were to be of riprap stone, with the outer or seaward slope faced with stone of from two to five tons weight, and to be surmounted by a parapet or wall of cut stone above low water.

The work of construction was commenced in October, 1870, by throwing in riprap stone. The season's work demonstrated that to carry on this work cheaply, shelter must be had for vessels engaged in the work. 'This was done by building a timber crib in the shore angle of the breakwater, inclosing an area of about 250 by 300 feet, with an entrance 60 feet wide. This enclosure was dredged to seven feet depth at mean low water. The rise of the tide being about 3.2 feet, vessels drawing ten feet can enter this basin at high water.

Instead of surmounting the breakwater with a parapet of cut stone, as proposed by the Board of Engineers, we have built it to the required height with riprap, or quarry stone, thereby effecting a considerable saving in the cost of the work.

The present condition of the work is as follows: The main breakwater is completed to a point 500 feet beyond the “Five-foot Rock,"


and 1,325 feet from the south side of the inner harbor, or basin. This it is proposed to extend about fifty feet farther.

The detached piece was commenced at a point 200 feet beyond, and on line with the outer end of the main work.

The detached piece makes an angle of fifteen degrees to the left, at a point about fifty feet from the south end, and an additional fifteen degrees at a point 100 feet from the south end. From this point it is to be continued in a straight line as far as this contract for stone will build it. The present length of the detached pier is about ninety feet. It will probably be about 250 feet in length on completion of this contract.

The following appropriations have been made for this work:

July 1, 1870....
March 3, 1871...
June 10, 1872...
March 3, 1873..
June 23, 1874..
March 3, 1875..
August 14, 1876...

$30,000 75,000 50,000 50,000 20,000 20,000 40,000

Total. ....


In justice to the engineering of this work, it should be considered finished according to the original plan of procuring sufficient shelter for the use of the business of the island. More shelter has been secured, and at a cost much less than estimated. Like all such works, , it will, in time, need repairs, and like all such improvements, too, there will probably be a need of extending it, for it has become the resort of timbers of fishing vessels, not connected with the island, and they sometimes quite fill the harbor.

The mackerel fishermen and men haden fishermen would at times fill up a harbor of double the present capacity, and it will undoubtedly be sought by ordinary coasters, to properly accommodate which would require a harbor not less than four or five times the present capacity.

The increase of area for anchorage can probably be doubled or trebled by removing bowlders and dredging, and as far as the enlargement can be made in this way, it is probably cheaper than by extending the break water.

At the close of this season's work it is proposed to submit a final report, reviewing the subject in detail, and giving plans and estimates of cost of meeting the probable wants of the future.

Block Island is in the Newport collection district. Newport is the nearest port of entry. The amount of revenue collected during the fiscal year, ending June 30, 1876, was $258.20.


July 1, 1876. Amount available

$22,447 70 Amount appropriated by act approved, August 14, 1876... 40,000 00 July 1, 1877. Amount expended during fiscal year.....

. $13,136 07 July 1, 1877. Outstanding liabilities

2,332 67--$15,468 74

July 1, 1877.

Amount available.....

$46,978 96


Pawcatuck River, Rhode Island and Connecticut.

The projected improvement of this river, viz; a channel seventyfive feet wide and five and one-half feet deep, was completed and reported on in my last annual report, since which time nothing has been done. The small balance from the last appropriation I have reserved to meet any contingency that might arise, from the sinking of a vessel or other obstruction of the channel. A history of the improvement of this river is given in the Annual Report of the Chief of Engineers, 1876, part I, pp. 210-211.

. The Pawcatuck river is the dividing line between Stonington and Providence collection districts. Stonington is the nearest port of entry. The amount of revenue collected during the fiscal year

ending June 30, 1876, was $1,284 at Stonington, and *182,352.57 at Providence:


July 1, 1876. Amount available..
July 1, 1877. Amount expended during fiscal year.....


74 40

July 1, 1877. Amount available...

$101 97 B-11.

Little Narragansett Bay, Rhode Island and Connecticut. Congress by act, approved March 3, 1875, authorized a survey of this bay to be made. This survey was made by me in accordance with instructions dated March 22, 1875, in the summer of 1875, and reported on under date of Nov. 30, 1875. (See Report of Chief of Engineers for 1876, part I, pp. 217–221.) The improvement recommended by me in this report, was a channel 200 feet wide and 7} feet deep at mean low water, to be located along the north shore of the bay, to avoid the danger of being filled by shifting sands, and to give good sailing ranges. This channel was to be made by dredging. In addition to the dredging the removal of some rock was also recommended. Congress by act, approved August 14, 1876, made an appropriation of $5,000 for this improvement. The expenditure of this money was not authorized until April 30, 1877.

It is proposed expending this appropriation in prosecuting the plan of improvement recommended: $3,500 to be spent in dredging by contract, and $1,500 used for removing rock to be done by hired labor.

Advertisement for proposals was made, dated May 8, 1877, for dredging. The contract was awarded to W. H. Molthrop, of New London, Conn., the lowest bidder at the letting, June 8, 1877.

The following abstract shows the number of bids received, prices, &c:

Abstract of Proposals received at the Engineer Office United States Army, Newport,

Rhode Island, June 8, 1877, at 10 A. M., for dredging in Little Narragansett Bay, Rhode Island and Connecticut.


Price per cubic

Price per cubic

yard rock.

Average on basis 2 per cent.


$3,500 will pay






1 William H. Molthrop, New London, Conn. $0.30 $5.00 39.40 Soon as re- Nov. 30, 1877 8,8831

quired... 3 Morris F. Brainard,

Albany, N. Y..... 0.23 11.00 44.54 July 1...... Nov. 30, 1877,7,85816 3 John H. Fenner, Albany, N. Y...

0.25 12.50' 49.50 June 20..... Nov. 30, 1877 7,070,

The estimate submitted by me for the entire improvement, $51,000 less $5,000 appropriated by act approved August 14, 1876, leaves $46,000, requisite to complete the work. One-half of this amount could be advantageously expended during the next fiscal year, as this amount, with that already appropriated, would open a channel probably 100 feet wide, that could be used by vessels navigating the Pawcatuck river, and would enable them to more fully realize the benefits of the improvement of that river completed by the general government

last year.

Little Narragansett Bay is the dividing line between the Stonington and Providence districts. Stonington is the nearest port of entry. The amount of revenue collected during the fiscal year ending June 30, 1876, was $1,284 at Stonington, and $182,352.57 at Providence.


Amount appropriated by act approved August 14, 1876.. $ 5,000 00 July 1, 1877, amount available....

5,000 00 Amount (estimated) required for completion of existing project.....

46,000 00 Amount that can be profitably expended in fiscal year ending June 30, 1879...

23,000 00

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