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monarchical government by one high priest in it. But I know you call not this a form of government, unless as determinately managed by one, many or most. But why a national spiritual policy as distinct from congregational, may not be called a form of government, as well as one man is distinct from two, over the same people, I see not: but this is at your liberty. But your necessity of such a national regimen is a matter of greater moment. In these three senses I confess a national church. 1. As all the Christians in a nation are under one civil church governor. 2. As they are consociated for concord, and meet in synods or hold correspondences. 3. As they are all a part of the universal church, cohabiting in one nation. But all these are equivocal uses of the word ' church ;' the denomination being taken in the first from an accident; in the second the name of a policy being given to a community agreeing for concord; in the third the name of the whole is given to a small integral part. But the necessity of any other church, headed by your ecclesiastical, national governor, personal or collective, monarchical, aristocratical or democratical, I utterly deny, and find not a word of proof which I think I have any need to furnish the reader with an answer to. 5. And your judgment in this is downright against the constitution, canons and judgment of the national church of England; for that they use the word in the sense allowed by me, and not in yours is proved, (1.) From the visible constitution in which there is (besides the king) no distinct ecclesiastical head. For the archbishop of Canterbury is not the proper governor of the archbishop of York and his province. (2.) From the canons. Can. cxxxix. "A national synod is the church representative; whosoever shall affirm that the sacred synod of this nation, in the name of Christ and by the king's authority assembled, is not the true church of England by representation, let him be excommunicated," &c. So that the synod is but the representative church; and therefore not the political head of the church: whether it be the laity, or the whole clergy or both, which they represent, representation of those that are no national head, maketh them not a national head. (3.) From the ordinary judgment of episcopal divines, (maintained by Bishop Bilson and many others at large, against the Papists) that all bishops 'jure divino' are equal and independent, further than human laws, or agreements, or difference of gifts may difference them, or as they are bound to consociation for concord. 6. How shall I deny not only the lawfulness, but the necessity of such a Papacy as really was in the Roman Empire, on your grounds? I have proved against W. Johnson that the pope was then actually but the head of the Imperial churches, and not of all the world. And if there must be one national ecclesiastical head under one king, why not one also in one empire? And whether it be one monarch, or a collective person, it is still one political person which is now in question. (Either a ruling pope, or a ruling aristocracy or democracy, which is not the great matter in controversy.) 7. And why will not the same argument carry it also, for one universal visible head of all the churches in the world? at least as lawful? At least as far as human capacity and converse will allow? And who shall choose this universal head? And who can lay so fair a claim to it as the pope? And if the form be indifferent, why may not the churches by consent at least, set up one man as well as many? Whether you carry it to an imperial church, or a Papal, to a patriarchal, or provincial, or national, till you have proved it to be of Divine institution, (and particular churches to be unnecessary, alterable and of human institution) I shall never grant you that it is to be preferred before that which is unquestionably of God. For though I easily grant that all the churches of a nation, empire or the world, are to be more esteemed and carefully preserved, than one bishop's or pastor's particular church; yet I will not grant you that your human policy is more necessary to the safety of all these churches than the Divine. For the safety of these churches may be better preserved by God's three great means (1. The polity of particular churches with the conduct of their present faithful bishops or pastors. 2. The loving consociation of neighbour churches for concord. 3. The protection and countenance of magistrates) without any new churchform, (or national, or imperial, or universal pastor) than with it. Nay when that sort of usurpation hath been the very engine of dividing, corrupting and undoing the Christian churches above a thousand years, we are not easily persuaded now, that yet it is either necessary or desirable. 8. But the best and easiest way to discern how far the making new churches or church offices is lawful or unlawful, is by trying it by the quality of their office-work. For it is the work which giveth us the description of the office; and the office of the ruling part, which giveth us the definition of the church, which that office constituteth. The work which the new human officer is to do, is either, 1. The same which God hath already appointed bishops or pastors to do, or at least the unfixed ministers in the universal church. 2. Or it is such as he hath appointed magistrates to do. 3. Or it is such as belongeth to private and laymen. 4. Or it is somewhat different from all these. 1. If it be of the first sort, it is a contradiction. For men that are by office appointed to do the same work which ministers are already appointed to do, are not a new office, but ministers indeed, such as Christ hath instituted: for the office is nothing but an obligation and authority to do the work. 2. If it be the same work which belongeth to the magistrate, then it is no new office, for they are magistrates. 3. If it be that which belongeth to private men, by God's appointment, they cannot disoblige themselves by transferring it to a new officer. 4. If it be none of all these, what is it? I doubt it may prove some needless or rather sinful work, which God committed to none of these three sorts, and therefore unfit to make a church-office of. Unless it be such as I before described and granted. (1.) I confess that the magistrate may make new inferior officers, to do his own part (as church-justices, churchwardens, &c.). (2.) I grant that the people may make an office for the better doing of some parts of their own work: they may make collectors, doorkeepers, artists by office, to keep the clock, and bells, and churchbuildings, &c., if the magistrates leave it to them. (3.) I grant that the bishops or pastors may do some circumstances of their work by human officers ; as to facilitate their concord in synods, by choosing one to preside, to choose time and place, to send messengers to take votes, to moderate disputes, to record agreements, &c, as aforesaid: and these circumstantials are the things that officers may be made for. But the very modes and circumstances which are part of the work to which every bishop or pastor is obliged, he cannot commit to another; as to choose his text, subject, method, words, &c. These are parts of his own work; though concord in these is the work of many. Now what is the work besides all these that we must have new churches or offices made for? Is it to govern all these bishops and churches? How? By the Word or by the sword? If by the sword, the magistrate is to do it; if by the Word (or spiritual authority) either God hath made such an office as archbishops or general bishops over many, or he hath not; if he have, we need no new human office for it, God having provided for it already; if not, but God hath left all bishops independent, and to learn of one another, as equals in office, and unequal only in gifts, then either such an office is fit and necessary, or not. If it be, you accuse God of omission in not appointing a bishop over bishops as well as a bishop of the lowest order. If not, then by what reason or power will you make new, needless officers in the church? When Cyprian and his Carthage council so vehemently disclaimed against being'Episcopi Episcoporum?' 19. I would fain know whether those new made churches of human and not of Divine fabrication, (whether universal (or Papal), patriarchal, provincial, &c.) were made by former churches, or by no churches. If by no churches, then either by other societies or by single persons: if by other societies, by what power do they make new churches to Christ, who are themselves no churches 1 If by single persons, either they are before church-members, or not: if not, how can those make new churches that be not so much as members of churches, without a commission from Christ? But if either former churches or their members made these new churches, then, (1.) It followeth that there were another sort of churches before these new or human churches. And if so, either those other that made these were themselves made of God or not. And so the question will run up till you bring it either to some church of God's making which made these other, or some person commissioned to do it. If you say the first, then he that will confess that there is a species of churches of Christ's institution, and a species not of his institution, must prefer the former, and must well prove the power of making the latter. And so they must do, if they say that it was done by particular persons that were no particular church-members. For if Christ commissioned them to settle any one species of churches, those are to be esteemed settled by Christ. (2.) But if you say that Christ left them to vary the species of churches as they saw cause, and so on to the end of the world, 1. You must well prove it. 2. It is before disproved; (unless you take the word church equivocally). 20. Lastly, all Christians are satisfied of Christ's authority; and therefore in that they can agree; but so they are not of any human church-maker's authority; and therefore in that there will never be an agreement; therefore such new churches, and ecclesiastical governments will be but (as they ever have been) the engines of division and ruin in the churches; and the species of God's making, with the mutability of mutable adjuncts and circumstances, will best preserve the church's peace. But if the true nature of pastoral or ecclesiastical government were well understood, it would put an end to all these controversies. Which may be mostly gathered from what is said before. To which I will add this little following. Quest. Wherein consisteth the true nature of pastoral church government?Answ. 1. Not in any use of the sword, or corporal force. 2. Not in a power to contradict God's Word. 3. Not in a power co-ordinate with Christ's, to do his proper work, or that which hath the same grounds, reasons, and nature. 4. Not in an unquestionable empire, to command things which none must presume to examine, or judge of

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