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2. But the true use of the distinction is only to serve instead of the usual distinction of public and personal obligation. It is one thing to satisfy a man's private conscience about his own personal case or matters; and another thing to oblige the whole church, or a particular person, of his duty as a member of the society to the rest. When the pastor absolveth a penitent person, 'in foro interiore,' that is, in his own conscience, he delivereth him a discharge in the name of Christ on condition he be truly penitent; else not. But 'in foro exteriore' he actually and absolutely restoreth him to his visible state of church-communion. The rest of the members perhaps may justly think this man unlike to prove a true penitent; and then 'in foro interiore' they are not bound to believe him certainly penitent or pardoned by God; but 'in foro exteriore' that he is restored to church-communion, and that for order's sake they are bound to hold communion with him, they are bound (internally) to believe. So that it comes near the sense of the distinction of the secret judgment (of God and conscience) and church judgment.
Quest, Lxi. hi what sense is it true that some say, that the magistrate only hath the external government of the church, and the pastors the internal?Answ. 1. Not as external and internal are opposed in the nature of the action. For the voice of the pastor in preaching is external, as well as the king's. 2. Not as they are opposed in the manner of reception. For the ears of the auditors are external recipients from the preacher as well as from the king. 3. Not as distinguishing the parts that are to obey, the duties commanded, and the sins forbidden, as if the king ruled the body only and the pastor the soul. For the soul is bound to obey the king, or else the body could not be bound to obpy him; unless by cords. And the body must obey the preacher as well as the soul. Murder, drunkenness, swearing, lying, and such other external vices, are under the pastor's power to forbid in Christ's name, as well as the king's. 4. Not as if all the external parts or actions of religion Vol. v. D n
were exempted from the pastor's power. For preaching, praying, reading, sacraments, church-assemblies, are external parts of religion, and under the pastor's care. But in two respects the external power is only the king's or civil magistrate's. 1. As it is denominated from the sword, or mulcts, or corporal penalties, which is the external means of execution; though in this respect the distinction were far more intelligibly expressed by 'The government by the sword, and by the Sacred Word\'
2. But the principal sense of their distinction is the same with Constantine's, who distinguished of a bishop without and within; or of our common distinction of intrinsic and extrinsic government. And though internal and external have the same signification, use maketh intrinsic and extrinsic more intelligible. And by internal is meant that power which intrinsically belongeth to the pastor's office as instituted by Christ; and so is intrinsical to the pastorship and the church (as preaching, praying, sacraments, the keys of admission, and exclusion, ordination, &c). And by external is meant, that which is extrinsical to the pastorship and the church; which princes have sometimes granted them, but Christ hath made no part of their office. In this sense the assertion is good, and clear, and necessary; that the disposal of all things ' circa sacra' all accidents and circumstances whatsoever, which by Christ's institution are not intrinsical to the pastorship and church, but extrinsical, do belong to the power of kings and magistrates.
Quest, Lxii. Is the trial, judgment, or consent of the laity necessary to the admittance of a member into the universal or particular church?Answ. 1. It is the pastor's office to bear and exercise the keys of Christ's church; therefore by office he is to receive those that come in; and consequently to be the trier and judge of their fitness. 2. It belongeth to the same office which is to baptize, to judge who is to be baptized; otherwise ministers should not be rational judges of their own actions, but the ex
• As Bishop Bilson of Obedience useth still to distinguish them; with many others: see B. Carlton of Jnrisdietion.
ecutioners of other men's judgment. It is more the judging who is to be baptized, which the minister's office consisteth in, than in the bare doing of the outward act of baptizing. 3. He that must be the ordinary judge in church-admissions, is supposed to have both ability and leisure to make him fit; and authority and obligation to do the work. 4. The ordinary body of the laity have none of all these four qualifications, much less all. 1. They are not ordinarily able; so to examine a man's faith and resolution with judgment and skill, as may neither tend to the wrong of himself nor of the church: for it is great skill that is required thereunto. 2. They have not ordinarily leisure from their proper callings and labours, to wait on such a work as it must be waited on, especially in populous places. 3. They are not therefore obliged to do that which they cannot be supposed to have ability or leisure for. 4. And where they have not the other three, they can have no authority to do it. 5. It is therefore as great a crime for the laity to usurp the pastor's office in this matter, as in preaching, baptizing, or other parts of it. 6. And though pride often blind men (both people and pastors) so as to make them overlook the burden and look only at the authority and honour; yet is it indeed an intolerable injury to the laity, if any would lay such a burden on them which they cannot bear, and consequently would make them responsible for the omissions or misdoing of it, to Christ their judge. 7. There is not so much as any fair pretence for the laity having power to judge who shall be received into the universal church: for who of the laity should have this power? Not all, nor the major vote of the church: for who ever sought the votes of all the Christians in the world, before he baptized a man? Not any one particular church or persons above the rest: for they have no right to shew for it, more than the rest. 8. It is not in the power of the laity to keep a man out of their own particular church-communion, whom the pastor receiveth: because, as is said, it is his office to judge and bear the keys. 9. Therefore, if it be ill done, and an unworthy person be admitted, the consciences of the people need not accuse themselves of it, or be disturbed, because it is none of their employment. 10. Yet the liberty of the church or people, must be distinguished from their governing power, and their executing duty from the power of judging. And so, 1. The people are to be guided by the pastors as volunteers, and not by violence: and therefore it is the pastor's duty, in all doubtful cases, to give the people all necessary satisfaction, by giving them the reasons of his doings, that they may understanding^ and quietly obey and submit. 2. And in case the people discern any notable appearance of danger, by introducing heretics and grossly impious men to corrupt the church, and by subverting the order of Christ, they may go to their pastors to desire satisfaction in the case. 3. And if by open proof or notoriety it be certain, that by ignorance, fraud, or negligence the pastors thus corrupt the church, the people may seek their due remedy from other pastors and magistrates. 4. And they may protest their own dissent from such proceedings. 5. And in case of extremity may cast off heretical, and impious, and intolerable pastors, and commit their souls to the conduct of fitter men; as the churches did against the Arian bishops, and as Cyprian declareth it his people's duty to do; as is aforesaid \
Quest, Lxiii. What power have the people in church censures and excommunication?
jLnsw. This is here adjoined, because it requireth but little more than the foregoing answer. 1. As it is the pastor's office to judge who is to be received, so also to judge who is to be excluded. 2. But the execution of his sentence belongeth to the people as well as to himself. It is they that either hold communion with the person, or avoid himb.
» John xx. 21—23, xxi. 15—17. Matt. xxviii. 19, 20. 1 Cor. h. 1, 2. 1 Tim. v. 17. Heb. xiii. 7.17. 1 Cor. v. 3—6.11. 2 Thess. iii. 6. 10.14. Tit. iii. 10. 2 John. Mark xiii. 9. 23. 33. iv. 24. Matt. vii. 15, 16. ivi. 6.11,12. Mark xii. 38. viii. 15. Phil. ii. 2,3. Col. ii. 8. 1 Pet. iii. 17. Matt. xxiv. 4.
i" 1 Cor.V.3. 6.11. 2 John. Tit. Hi. 10.
3. Therefore though ordinarily they must acquiesce in the pastor's judgment, yet if he grossly offend against the law of God, and would bring them, e. g. to communion with heretics and openly impious, and excommunicate the orthodox and godly, they may seek their remedy as before.
Quest, Lxiv. What is the people's remedy in case of the pastor's mal-administrationl
Answ. This also is here annexed for dispatch, as being almost sufficiently answered already. 1. It must be supposed that all church disorders and mal-administrations cannot be expected to be remedied; but many while we are sinners and imperfect must be borne. 2. The first remedy is to speak submissively to the pastor of his faults, and to say to Archippus, "Take heed to the ministry which thou hast received0." And if he hear not more privately, for the people more openly to warn and entreat him; not as his governors, but as Christians that have reason to regard Christ's interest and their own, and have charity to desire his reformation. (2.) The next remedy is, to consult with the neighbour pastors of other churches, that they may admonish him; not as his governors, but as neighbour pastors d.
3. The next remedy is, to seek redress from those governors that have power to correct or cast out the intolerable. 4. The last remedy is that of Cyprian, to desert such intolerable pastors. But in all this, the people must be sure that they proceed not proudly, ignorantly, erroneously, passionately, factiously, disorderly or rashly.
Quest, Lxv. May one be a pastor or a member of a particular church who liveth so far from it, as to be incapable of personal communion with them 1Answ. The name is taken from the relation; and the relation is founded in capacity, right, and obligation to actual communion, duties, and privileges; 1. He that is so statedly
» Col. iv. 17. * Acts xv.